254 Works

Developing Cognitively Simple Wayfinding Systems: A Mixed Method Approach

Nina Vanhaeren, Kristien Ooms & Philippe De Maeyer

Word-form related disfluency versus lemma related disfluency: an exploratory analysis of disfluency patterns in connected-speech production

Aurélie Pistono & Robert J. Hartsuiker
Several language production levels may be involved in the production of disfluencies. In the current study, we conducted network task experiments to tackle disfluencies related to conceptualization, which we operationalized by impeding visual object recognition (i.e. blurring). Contrary to what was expected, blurriness did not lead to more disfluency. However, disfluency type and disfluency location were closely related. This suggests a distinction in the underlying function of disfluencies, some reflecting word-form related difficulties, others reflecting...

Decane and brine injected into Estaillades carbonate - steady-state experiments

Catherine Spurin, Samuel Krevor, Martin Blunt & Tom Bultreys
This data is micro-CT images of the simultaneous injection of decane and brine into a porous carbonate rock (Estaillades). The images were acquired during steady-state, which was deduced from a plateau in the differential pressure across the sample. The experiments were conducted in the capillary dominated regime (the total flow rate was kept constant, with the fractional flow (fw) changed in sequence 0.85fw, 0.7fw, 0.5fw, 0.25fw, 0fw). The total flow rate was kept constant at...

Data from: The way wear goes – phytolith-based wear on the dentine-enamel system in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

Louise F. Martin, Daniela Winkler, Thomas Tütken, Codron Daryl, Annelies De Cuyper, Jean-Michel Hatt & Marcus Clauss
The effect of phytoliths on tooth wear and function has been contested in studies of animal plant interactions. For herbivores whose occlusal chewing surface consists of enamel ridges in dentine tissue, the phytoliths might first erode the softer dentine, exposing the enamel ridges to different occlusal forces and thus leading to enamel wear. To test this hypothesis, we fed guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n=36 in 6 groups) for three weeks exclusively on dry or fresh...

Liana communities exhibit different species composition, diversity and community structure across forest types in the Congo Basin

Francis Mumbanza M., Marijn Bauters, Elizabeth Kearsley, Pascal Boeckx, Constantin Lubini A. & Hans Verbeeck
Lianas are poorly characterized for central African forests. We quantify variation in liana composition, diversity and community structure in different forest types in the Yangambi Man and Biosphere Reserve, Democratic Republic of Congo. These attributes of liana assemblages were examined in 12 1-ha plots, randomly demarcated within regrowth forest, old-growth monodominant forest, old-growth mixed forest and old-growth edge forest. Using a combination of multivariate and univariate community analyses, we visualize the patterns of these liana...

Urbanization alters plastic responses in the common dandelion

Matti Pisman, Dries Bonte & Eduardo De La Pena
Urban environments expose species to contrasting selection pressures relative to rural areas due to altered microclimatic conditions, habitat fragmentation and changes in species interactions. To improve our understanding on how urbanisation impacts selection through biotic interactions, we assessed differences in plant defence and tolerance, dispersal and flowering phenology of a common plant species (Taraxacum officinale) along an urbanization gradient and their reaction norms in response to a biotic stressor (i.e. herbivory). We raised plants from...

Signal evolution and morphological complexity in hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae)

Chad Eliason, Rafael Maia, Juan Parra & Matthew Shawkey
Understanding how animal signals are produced is critical for understanding their evolution because complexity and modularity in the underlying morphology can affect evolutionary patterns. Hummingbird feathers show some of the brightest and most iridescent colors in nature. These are produced by optically complex stacks of hollow, platelet-shaped organelles called melanosomes. Neither how these morphologies produce colors nor their evolution has been systematically studied. We first used nanoscale morphological measurements and optical modeling to identify the...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

The role of preadaptation, propagule pressure and competition in the colonization of new habitats

Adriana Alzate Vallejo, Renske Onstein, Rampal S. Etienne & Dries Bonte
To successfully colonize new habitats, organisms not only need to gain access to it, they also need to cope with the selective pressures imposed by the local biotic and abiotic conditions. The number of immigrants, the preadaptation to the local habitat and the presence of competitors are important factors determining the success of colonization. Here, using two experimental set-ups, we studied the effect of interspecific competition in combination with propagule pressure and preadaptation on the...

The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution

Jian Zhang, Xin-Xing Fu, Rui-Qi Li, Xiang Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-He Li, Arthur Zwaenepoel, Hong Ma, Bernard Goffinet, Yan-Long Guan, Jia-Yu Xue, Yi-Ying Liao, Qing-Feng Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Jie-Yu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yu Jia, Mei-Zhi Wang, Shan-Shan Dong, Jian-Fen Yang, Yuan-Nian Jiao, Ya-Long Guo, Hong-Zhi Kong, An-Ming Lu … & Zhi-Duan Chen
Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, together composing the bryophytes. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage....

Data from: Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritise the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in Europe

Olaf Booy, Peter A. Robertson, Niall Moore, Jess Ward, Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Richard Shaw, Johan Van Valkenburg, Gabe Wyn, Sandro Bertolino, Olivier Blight, Etienne Branquart, Giuseppe Brundu, Joe Caffrey, Dario Capizzi, Jim Casaer, Olivier De Clerck, Neil Coughlan, Eithne Davis, Jaimie Dick, Franz Essl, Guillaume Fried, Piero Genovesi, Pablo González-Moreno, Frank Hysentruyt … & Aileen C. Mill
Prioritising the management of invasive alien species (IAS) is of global importance and within Europe integral to the EU IAS regulation. To prioritise management effectively the risks posed by IAS need to be assessed, but so too does the feasibility of their management. While risk of IAS to the EU has been assessed, the feasibility of management has not. We assessed the feasibility of eradicating 60 new (not yet established) and 35 emerging (established with...

Data from: Thermal differences between juveniles and adults increased over time in European forest trees

Maria Mercedes Caron, Florian Zellweger, Kris Verheyen, Lander Baeten, Radim Hédl, Bernhardt-Römermann Markus, Imre Berki, Jörg Brunet, Guillaume Decocq, Sandra Díaz, Thomas Dirnböck, Tomasz Durak, Thilo Heinken, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Martin Kopecký, Jonathan Lenoir, Martin Macek, Malicki Marek, František Máliš, Thomas Nagel, Michael Perring, Petr Petřík, Kamila Reczyńska, Remigiusz Pielech, Wolfgang Schmidt … & Pieter De Frenne
Woody species’ requirements and environmental sensitivity change from seedlings to adults, a process referred to as ontogenetic shift. Such shifts can be increased by climate change. To assess the changes in the difference of temperature experienced by seedlings and adults in the context of climate change, it is essential to have reliable climatic data over long periods that capture the thermal conditions experienced by the individuals throughout their life cycle. Here we used a unique...

Behavioral strategies and the spatial pattern formation of nesting

Femke Batsleer, Dirk Maes & Dries Bonte
This dataset contains data from a combined field and simulation study regarding spatial pattern formation of nesting, described in the paper: “Batsleer, F., Maes, D., Bonte, D. (2021) Behavioral strategies and the spatial pattern formation of nesting. The American Naturalist”. The study investigates the relative importance of environmental and behavioral mechanisms in nest aggregations of the ground-nesting digger wasp Bembix rostrata. A field study was combined with an individual-based model that simulated the possible behaviors...

Data from: Whole-genome phylogenetic reconstruction as a powerful tool to reveal homoplasy and ancient rapid radiation in waterflea evolution

Kay Van Damme, Luca Cornetti, Peter D. Fields & Dieter Ebert
The Supplementary Material (and text) to Van Damme et al., contains 10 Supplementary Figures (Figs S1-S10), 5 Supplementary Tables (Tables S1-S5), Supplementary Materials and Methods (ST1), Supplementary Discussion (ST2) and a complete reference list to the manuscript and supplement (Supplementary References SR1). All Supplementary material and text have been peer-reviewed as part of the manuscript. The supplementary discussion provides an additional framework including the importance of the findings of the phylogenomic study for the interpretation...

Data from: Resource predictability drives inter-annual variation in migratory behaviour in a long-lived bird

Jan Baert, Eric Stienen, Frederick Verbruggen, Nico Van De Weghe, Luc Lens & Wendt Müller
There is a growing awareness that experience may play a major role in migratory decisions, especially in long-lived species. However, empirical support remains to date scarce. Here, we use multi-year GPS-tracking data on 28 adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus), a long-lived species for which migratory strategies typically consist of a series of long stopovers, to assess how experience affects interannual variation in stopover selection. We expect that food source reliability should play a pivotal...

Interacting host modifier systems control Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in a haplodiploid mite

Nicky Wybouw
Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia spread within host populations by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI occurs when parasite-modified sperm fertilizes uninfected eggs and is typified by great variation in strength across biological systems. In haplodiploid hosts, CI has different phenotypic outcomes depending on whether the fertilized eggs die or develop into males. Genetic conflict theories predict the evolution of host modulation of CI, which in turn influences the stability of reproductive parasitism. Yet, despite the...

Data from: Freshwater ecological quality assessment of the gold mining Mashcon watershed, Cajamarca - Peru

Daniel Mercado-Garcia, Marco Sanchez Peña, Marie Anne Eurie Forio, Eveline Beeckman, Jana Van Butsel, Nilton Deza Arroyo, Karel De Schamphelaere, Guido Wyseure & Peter Goethals
These data were generated to investigate the aquatic community gradients across different types of anthropogenic impacts (reference, mining, rural and urban) and Andean environmental gradients (headwaters, midstream and downstream) in the Mashcon watershed. The macroinvertebrates' taxa abundance and abundance of traits modalities serve as biological values. The latter in combination with abiotic measurements of the freshwater habitats (i.e. physicochemical water quality and hydromorphology) constitute the ecological data. The values were obtained from river sediments (macroinvertebrates...

Data from: Novel insights into relationships between egg corticosterone and timing of breeding revealed by LC-MS/MS

Tom Rosendahl Larsen, Graham D. Fairhurst, Siegrid De Baere, Siska Croubels, Wendt Müller, Liesbeth De Neve & Luc Lens
Inter- and intra-clutch variation in egg corticosterone (CORT), the major glucocorticoid in birds, may provide insights into how maternal stress levels vary with the timing of breeding and with laying order. Common analytical methods (e.g. immunoassays), however, suffer from cross-reaction with other steroids, leading to potential overestimation of CORT concentrations which can obscure true hormone–environment relationships and complicate among-study comparisons. We here apply a new LC-MS/MS technique, which has recently been shown to avoid the...

Data from: Cooperative breeding shapes post-fledging survival in an Afrotropical forest bird

Dries Van De Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen & Luc Lens
While avian group living typically accrues multiple benefits, it is yet unknown how these benefits manifest post- fledging. Here, by using an indirect radio- telemetry approach, we found that cooperation increases fledgling survival in an Afrotropical forest bird. This result indicates the importance of considering the full breeding cycle in cooperative breeding research, which may ultimately lead to a better understanding of evolutionary drivers of cooperation.

Data from: Interspecific competition counteracts negative effects of dispersal on adaptation of an arthropod herbivore to a new host

Adriana Alzate Vallejo, Karen Bisschop, Rampal S. Etienne, Dries Bonte & A. Alzate
Dispersal and competition have both been suggested to drive variation in adaptability to a new environment, either positively or negatively. A simultaneous experimental test of both mechanisms is however lacking. Here, we experimentally investigate how population dynamics and local adaptation to a new host plant in a model species, the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), are affected by dispersal from a stock population (no-adapted) and competition with an already adapted spider mite species (Tetranychus evansi)....

Data from: Warming affects different components of plant-herbivore interaction in a simplified community but not net interaction strength

Helena Van De Velde, Ivan Nijs & Dries Bonte
Global warming impacts natural communities through effects on performance of individual species and through changes in the strength of interactions between them. While there is a body of evidence of the former, we lack experimental evidence on potential changes in interaction strengths. Knowledge about multispecies interactions is fundamental to understand the regulation of biodiversity and the impact of climate change on communities. This study investigated the effect of warming on a simplified community consisting of...

Data from: Integrative taxonomy of root-knot nematodes reveals multiple independent origins of mitotic parthenogenesis

Toon Janssen, Gerrit Karssen, Olivera Topalović, Danny Coyne & Wim Bert
During sampling of several Coffea arabica plantations in Tanzania severe root galling, caused by a root-knot nematode was observed. From pure cultures, morphology and morphometrics of juveniles and females matched perfectly with Meloidogyne africana, whereas morphology of the males matched identically with those of Meloidogyne decalineata. Based on their Cox1 sequence, however, the recovered juveniles, females and males were confirmed to belong to the same species, creating a taxonomic conundrum. Adding further to this puzzle,...

Data from: The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

Nicola S. Lewis, Colin A. Russell, Tavis K. Anderson, Kathryn Berger, David F. Burke, Judith M. Fonville, Ronald A.M. Fouchier, Paul Kellam, Bjorn F. Koel, Tung Nguyen, Bundit Nuansrichy, J. S. Malik Peiris, Takehiko Saito, Gaelle Simon, Eugene Skepner, Nobuhiro Takemae, ESNIP3 Consortium, Richard J. Webby, Kristien Van Reeth, Sharon M. Brookes, Lars Larsen, Ian H. Brown, Amy L. Vincent, Pinky Langat, Filip Bielejec … & JS Malik Peiris
Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the...

Data from: Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

Carlos Jaramillo, Ingrid Romero, Carlos D'Apolito, German Bayona, Edward Duarte, Stephen Louwye, Jaime Escobar, Javier Luque, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño, Vladimir Zapata, Andrés Mora, Stefan Schouten, Michael Zavada, Guy Harrington, John Ortiz & Frank P. Wesselingh
There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted...

Data from: Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease

Molly C. Bletz, Moira Kelly, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Emma Bales, Sarah Van Praet, Wim Bert, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz, Frank Pasmans, A. Martel & Filip Boyen
Escalating occurrences of emerging infectious diseases underscore the importance of understanding microbiome-pathogen interactions. The amphibian cutaneous microbiome is widely studied for its potential to mitigate disease-mediated amphibian declines. Other microbial interactions in this system, however, have been largely neglected in the context of disease outbreaks. European fire salamanders have suffered dramatic population crashes as a result of the newly emerged Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans(Bsal). We investigate microbial interactions on multiple fronts within this system. We show that...

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  • Ghent University
  • KU Leuven
  • Universiteit Gent
  • University of Antwerp
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Zurich
  • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences