254 Works

Research data supporting the publication \"Characterization of Open-Cell Sponges via Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Tomography\"

Gabriele Cimmarusti, Abhishek Shastry, Matthieu N. Boone, Veerle Cnudde, Karl Braeckman, Anju Brooker, Eric Robles & Melanie Britton

4D oil and water flood in water- and mixed-wet complex sandstone

Arjen Mascini, Marijn Boone, Shan Wang, Stefanie Van Offenwert, Veerle Cnudde & Tom Bultreys

Spatial connectedness imposes local- and metapopulation-level selection on life history through feedbacks on demography

Stefano Masier & Dries Bonte
Dispersal evolution impacts the fluxes of individuals and hence, connectivity in metapopulations. Connectivity is therefore decoupled from the structural connectedness of the patches within the spatial network. Because of demographic feedbacks, local selection also drives the evolution of other life history traits. We investigated how different levels of connectedness affect trait evolution in experimental metapopulations of the two-spotted spider mite. We separated local- and metapopulation-level selection and linked trait divergence to population dynamics.

Flexible habitat choice by aphids exposed to multiple cues reflecting present and future benefits

Yin Wandong, Xue Qi, Tian Baoliang, Yang Shujian, Li Zhengying, Chen Zhaozhao, Ryan Michael & Hoffmann Ary
Mothers choose suitable habitats for laying offspring to maximize fitness. Since habitat quality varies in space and time, mothers gather information to choose among available habitats through multiple cues reflecting different aspects of habitat quality at present and in the future. However, it is unclear how females assess and integrate different cues associated with current rewards and future safety to optimize oviposition/larviposition decisions, especially across small spatial scales. Here we tested the individual and interactive...

Diatoms define a novel freshwater biogeography of the Antarctic

Bjorn Tytgat & Elie Verleyen
Terrestrial biota in the Antarctic are more globally distinct and highly structured biogeographically than previously believed, but information on biogeographic patterns and endemism in freshwater communities is largely lacking. We studied biogeographic patterns of Antarctic freshwater diatoms based on the analysis of species occurrences in a dataset of 439 lakes spread across the Antarctic realm. Highly distinct diatom floras, both in terms of composition and richness, characterize Continental Antarctica, Maritime Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands,...

How melanism affects the sensitivity of lizards to climate change

Jonathan Goldenberg, Sebastian Mader, Federico Massetti, Karen Bisschop, Liliana D'Alba, Rampal S. Etienne, Susana Clusella Trullas & Matthew Shawkey
The impact of climate change on global biodiversity is firmly established, but the differential effect of climate change on populations within the same species is rarely considered. In ectotherms, melanism (i.e. darker integument due to heavier deposition of melanin) can significantly influence thermoregulation, as dark individuals generally heat more and faster than bright ones. Therefore, darker ectotherms might be more susceptible to climate change. Using the color-polyphenic lizard Karusasaurus polyzonus (Squamata: Cordylidae), we hypothesized that,...

Phenotypic and genotypic divergence of plant-herbivore interactions along an urbanization gradient

Jiao Qu, Dries Bonte & Martijn L. Vandegehuchte
Urban environments provide challenging conditions for species survival, including increased temperatures, drought, and pollution. Species can deal with these conditions through evolution across generations or the immediate expression of phenotypic plasticity. The resulting phenotypic changes are key to the performance of species and their interactions with other species in the community. We here document patterns of herbivory in Arabidopsis thaliana along a rural-urban gradient, and tested the genetic background and ecological consequences of traits related...

Amplicon_sorter: a tool for reference-free amplicon sorting based on sequence similarity and for building consensus sequences

Andy Vierstraete & Bart Braeckman
Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) is a third-generation sequencing technology that is gaining popularity in ecological research for its portable and low-cost sequencing possibilities. Although the technology excels at long-read sequencing, it can also be applied to sequence amplicons. The downside of ONT is the low quality of the raw reads. Hence, generating a high-quality consensus sequence is still a challenge. We present Amplicon_sorter, a tool for reference-free sorting of ONT sequenced amplicons based on their...

Evaluating the effectiveness of implementation intentions to strengthen approach-avoidance training: Pilot study on alcohol use disorder

Nicolas Kaczmarek, Astrid Mignon, Amelie Rousseau & Charlotte Baey
This pre-registered study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of implementation intention to strengthen approach-avoidance training. It's a pilot study on alcohol use disorder.

Data from: Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

Stefano Canessa, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Sam S. Cruickshank, Matthew C. Fisher, Jacob C. Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Benjamin C. Scheele, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Benedikt R. Schmidt & Ben C. Scheele
1.Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2.Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines...

Data from: Influence of device accuracy and choice of algorithm for species distribution modelling of seabirds: a case study using black-browed albatrosses

Petra Quillfeldt, Jan O. Engler, Janet R. D. Silk, Richard A. Phillips & Janet R.D. Silk
Species distribution models (SDM) based on tracking data from different devices are used increasingly to explain and predict seabird distributions. However, different tracking methods provide different data resolutions, ranging from < 10m to >100km. To better understand the implications of this variation, we modeled the potential distribution of black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophris from South Georgia that were simultaneously equipped with a Platform Terminal Transmitter (PTT) (high resolution) and a Global Location Sensor (GLS) logger (coarse...

Data from: Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

Angus Davison, Gary S. McDowell, Jennifer M. Holden, Harriet F. Johnson, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, M. Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, Frans Van Roy, Christopher M. Wade, Ruby Banerjee, Fengtang Yang, Satoshi Chiba, John W. Davey, Daniel J. Jackson, Michael Levin & Mark L. Blaxter
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria. Here, we report that a disabling mutation...

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in the melanin-based color system of birds

Chad M. Eliason, Matthew D. Shawkey, Julia A. Clark & Julia A. Clarke
Melanin pigments contained in organelles (melanosomes) impart earthy colors to feathers. Such melanin-based colors are distributed across birds and thought to be the ancestral color-producing mechanism in birds. However, we have had limited data on melanin-based color and melanosome diversity in Palaeognathae, which includes the flighted tinamous and large-bodied, flightless ratites and is the sister taxon to all other extant birds. Here, we use scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry to assess melanosome morphology and quantify...

Data from: Rapid evolution of larval life history, adult immune function and flight muscles in a poleward moving damselfly

Lieven Therry, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Dries Bonte & Robby Stoks
Although a growing number of studies have documented the evolution of adult dispersal-related traits at the range edge of poleward-expanding species, we know little about evolutionary changes in immune function or traits expressed by nondispersing larvae. We investigated differentiation in larval (growth and development) and adult traits (immune function and flight-related traits) between replicated core and edge populations of the poleward-moving damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. These traits were measured on individuals reared in a common garden...

Data from: Fragile coexistence of a global chytrid pathogen with amphibian populations is mediated by environment and demography

Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Stefano Canessa, A. Martel & Frank Pasmans
Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host pathogen co-existence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent co-existence of the global amphibian pathogen *Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis* (Bd) with *Bombina variegata* populations in the Netherlands over a seven-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture data set and assessed potential drivers of co-existence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation)...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity in genetic relatedness among house sparrows along an urban-rural gradient as revealed by individual-based analysis

Carl Vangestel, Joachim Mergeay, Deborah A. Dawson, Viki Vandomme & Luc Lens
Understanding factors that shape patterns of kinship in sedentary species is important for evolutionary ecologists as well as conservation biologists. Yet, how patterns of relatedness are hierarchically structured in space remains poorly known, even in common species. Here we use information from 16 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers to study how small-scale kinship structure varies among house sparrows (Passer domesticus) along an urban-rural gradient. Average levels of relatedness were higher among urban individuals than among individuals...

Data from: Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient.

Carl Vangestel, Joachim Mergeay, Deborah A. Dawson, Tom Callens, Viki Vandomme & Luc Lens
House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way...

Data from: Quantifying population divergence on short timescales

Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Luc Lens, Frederik Van Den Broeck, Stefan Van Dongen & Filip A. M. Volckaert
Quantifying the contribution of the various processes that influence population genetic structure is important, but difficult. One of the reasons is that no single measure appropriately quantifies all aspects of genetic structure. An increasing number of studies is analyzing population structure using the statistic D, which measures genetic differentiation, next to GST, which is the standardized variance in allele frequencies among populations. Few studies have evaluated which statistic is most appropriate in particular situations. In...

Data from: Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availability and intraspecific aggression on the functional ecology of an island lizard

Colin M. Donihue, Kinsey M. Brock, Johannes Foufopoulos & Anthony Herrel
Body size often varies among insular populations relative to continental conspecifics – the ‘island rule’ – and functional, context-dependent morphological differences tend to track this body size variation on islands. Two hypotheses are often proposed as potential drivers of insular population differences in morphology: one relating to diet and the other involving intraspecific competition and aggression. We directly tested whether differences in morphology and maximum bite capacity were explained by interisland changes in hardness of...

Data from: A fish that uses its hydrodynamic tongue to feed on land

Krijn B. Michel, Egon Heiss, Peter Aerts & Sam Van Wassenbergh
To capture and swallow food on land, a sticky tongue supported by the hyoid and gill arch skeleton has evolved in land vertebrates from aquatic ancestors that used mouth-cavity-expanding actions of the hyoid to suck food into the mouth. However, the evolutionary pathway bridging this drastic shift in feeding mechanism and associated hyoid motions remains unknown. Modern fish that feed on land may help to unravel the physical constraints and biomechanical solutions that led to...

Data from: Selection, constraint and the evolution of coloration in African starlings

Rafael Maia, Dustin R. Rubenstein & Matthew D. Shawkey
Colorful plumage plays a prominent role in evolution of birds, influencing communication (sexual/social selection) and crypsis (natural selection). Comparative studies have focused primarily upon these selective pressures, but the mechanisms underlying color production can also be important by constraining the color gamut upon which selection acts. Iridescence is particularly interesting to study the interaction between selection and color-producing mechanisms because a broad range of colors can be produced with a shared template, and innovations to...

Data from: Socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical environmental variables associated with context-specific sitting time in Belgian adolescents: a one-year follow-up study

Cedric Busschaert, Nicola D. Ridgers, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Jelle Van Cauwenberg & Katrien De Cocker
Introduction: More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. Methods: For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables. At baseline,...

Data from: Predator size and prey size-gut capacity ratios determine kill frequency and carcass production in terrestrial carnivorous mammals

Annelies De Cuyper, Marcus Clauss, Chris Carbone, Daryl Codron, An Cools, Myriam Hesta & Geert P. J. Janssens
Carnivore kill frequency is a fundamental part of predator-prey interactions, which are important shapers of ecosystems. Current field kill frequency data are rare and existing models are insufficiently adapted to carnivore functional groups. We developed a kill frequency model accounting for carnivore mass, prey mass, pack size, partial consumption of prey and carnivore gut capacity. Two main carnivore functional groups, small prey-feeders vs large prey-feeders, were established based on the relationship between stomach capacity (C)...

Data from: Prudent behavior rather than chemical deception enables a parasite to exploit its ant host

Thomas Parmentier, Frederik De Laender, Tom Wenseleers & Dries Bonte
Many parasites display complex strategies to evade host detection. The principal view is that parasites of social insects deceive their host by means of advanced chemical adaptations such as mimicking the cuticular host recognition cues, being chemically odorless, or emitting manipulative volatiles. Apart from these chemical adaptations, parasites of social insects may also use simpler behavioral strategies to evade host detection. As yet, such behavior has rarely been studied. Here we tested which chemical and...

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