1,027 Works

Data from: A public database of memory and naive B-cell receptor sequences

William S. DeWitt, Paul Lindau, Thomas M. Snyder, Anna M. Sherwood, Marissa Vignali, Christopher S. Carlson, Philip D. Greenberg, Natalie Duerkopp, Ryan O. Emerson & Harlan S. Robins
The vast diversity of B-cell receptors (BCR) and secreted antibodies enables the recognition of, and response to, a wide range of epitopes, but this diversity has also limited our understanding of humoral immunity. We present a public database of more than 37 million unique BCR sequences from three healthy adult donors that is many fold deeper than any existing resource, together with a set of online tools designed to facilitate the visualization and analysis of...

Data from: Hidden histories of gene flow in highland birds revealed with genomic markers

Eugenia Zarza, Brant C. Faircloth, Whitney L. E. Tsai, , John Klicka, John E. McCormack, Whitney L.E. Tsai & Robert W. Bryson
Genomic studies are revealing that divergence and speciation are marked by gene flow, but it is not clear whether gene flow has played a prominent role during the generation of biodiversity in species-rich regions of the world where vicariance is assumed to be the principal mode by which new species form. We revisit a well-studied organismal system in the Mexican Highlands, Aphelocoma jays, to test for gene flow among Mexican sierras. Prior results from mitochondrial...

Data from: Invasive seaweeds transform habitat structure and increase biodiversity of associated species

Jennifer A. Dijkstra, Larry G. Harris, Kristen Mello, Amber Littere, Christopher Wells, Colin Ware & Amber Litterer
The visual landscape of marine and terrestrial systems is changing as a result of anthropogenic factors. Often these shifts involve introduced species that are morphologically dissimilar to native species, creating a unique biogenic structure and habitat for associated species within the landscape. While community level changes as a result of introduced species have been documented in both terrestrial and marine systems, it is still unclear how long-term shifts in species composition will affect habitat complexity...

Data from: Taxonomic and functional assessment of mesopredator diversity across an estuarine habitat mosaic

Collin Gross, Cinde Donoghue, Casey Pruitt, Alan C. Trimble & Jennifer L. Ruesink
A long-standing rule in ecology is that structural complexity increases abundance and diversity of organisms, but this paradigm glosses over potential trait-specific benefits of habitat structure across different regional species pools. We tested this idea using multiple response variables emphasizing taxonomic and functional diversity in seagrass-vegetated, edge, and unvegetated habitats across three estuaries in Washington State (USA). We also used these variables in tandem to evaluate functional redundancy as a proxy for ecosystem resistance and...

Data from: Identification of genomic regions associated with sex in Pacific halibut

Daniel P. Drinan, Timothy Loher & Lorenz Hauser
Understanding and identifying the genetic mechanisms responsible for sex-determination are important for species management, particularly in exploited fishes where sex biased harvest could have implications on population dynamics and long-term persistence. The Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) supports important fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. The proportion of each sex in the annual harvest is currently estimated using growth curves, but genetic techniques may provide a more accurate method. We used restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing...

Data from: Temperature-dependent body size effects determine population responses to climate warming

Max Lindmark, Magnus Huss, Jan Ohlberger & Anna Gårdmark
Current understanding of animal population responses to rising temperatures is based on the assumption that biological rates such as metabolism, which governs fundamental ecological processes, scale independently with body size and temperature, despite empirical evidence for interactive effects. Here we investigate the consequences of interactive temperature- and size-scaling of vital rates for the dynamics of populations experiencing warming using a stage-structured consumer-resource model. We show that interactive scaling alters population and stage-specific responses to rising...

Data from: Epigenetic memory via concordant DNA methylation is inversely correlated to developmental potential of mammalian cells

Minseung Choi, Diane P. Genereux, Jamie Goodson, Haneen Al-Azzawi, Shannon Q. Allain, Noah Simon, Stan Palasek, Carol B. Ware, Chris Cavanaugh, Daniel G. Miller, Winslow C. Johnson, Kevin D. Sinclair, Reinhard Stöger & Charles D. Laird
In storing and transmitting epigenetic information, organisms must balance the need to maintain information about past conditions with the capacity to respond to information in their current and future environments. Some of this information is encoded by DNA methylation, which can be transmitted with variable fidelity from parent to daughter strand. High fidelity confers strong pattern matching between the strands of individual DNA molecules and thus pattern stability over rounds of DNA replication; lower fidelity...

Data from: Body temperature distributions of active diurnal lizards in three deserts: skewed up or skewed down?

Raymond B. Huey & Eric R. Pianka
1. The performance of ectotherms integrated over time depends in part on the position and shape of the distribution of body temperatures (Tb) experienced during activity. For several complementary reasons, physiological ecologists have long expected that Tb distributions during activity should have a long left tail (left-skewed); but only infrequently have they quantified the magnitude and direction of Tb skewness in nature. 2. To evaluate whether left-skewed Tb distributions are general for diurnal desert lizards,...

Data from: Relative importance of abiotic, biotic, and disturbance drivers of plant community structure in the sagebrush steppe

Rachel M. Mitchell, Jonathan D. Bakker, John B. Vincent & G. Matt Davies
Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in Washington state, USA, to ask three questions: 1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? 2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Experimental shifts in exotic flowering phenology produce strong indirect effects on native plant reproductive success

Susan Waters, Janneke Hille Ris Lambers & Wei-Ling Cherry Chen
By causing phenological shifts that vary among species, climate change is altering time envelopes for species interactions, often with unexpected demographic consequences. Indirect interactions, like apparent competition and apparent facilitation, are especially likely to change in duration because they involve multiple interactors, increasing the likelihood of asynchronous phenological shifts by at least one interactor. Thus, we might observe ecological surprises if intermediaries of indirectly interacting species change their mediating behavior. We explored this possibility in...

Module 23: Math Stereotypes [online module]

A laser-microfabricated electrohydrodynamic thruster forcentimeter-scale aerial robots

Hari Krishna Hari Prasad, Ravi Sankar Vaddi, Yogesh Chukewad, Elma Dedic, Igor Novosselov & Sawyer Fuller
To date, insect scale robots capable of controlled flight have used flapping wings for generating lift, but this requires a complex and failure-prone mechanism. A simpler alternative is electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrust, which requires no moving mechanical parts. In EHD, corona discharge generates a flow of ions in an electric field between two electrodes; the high-velocity ions transfer their kinetic energy to neutral air molecules through collisions, accelerating the gas and creating thrust. We introduce a...

Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, neurology outcomes, and death in older adults, supplement methods & tables, STROND checklist

Stephen Juraschek, , Oscar L. Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Lewis A Lipsitz, Lewis H. Kuller & Kenneth J Mukamal
Objective To test the hypothesis that orthostatic hypotension (OH) might cause cerebral hypoperfusion and injury, we examined the longitudinal relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH) or orthostatic symptoms and incident neurologic outcomes in a community population of older adults. Methods Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants (≥65yrs) without dementia or stroke had blood pressure (BP) measured after lying 20-minutes and after standing 3-minutes. Participants reported dizziness immediately upon standing and any dizziness in the past 2wks. OH...

Upper Columbia River Steelhead Capture-Recapture-Recovery data (2008-2018)

Quinn Payton & Nathaniel Hostetter
In the Columbia River basin, USA, predation by Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) on U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed juvenile salmonids (smolts; Oncorhynchus spp.) has led to predator management actions to reduce predation; however, the assumption that reduced predation translates into greater salmonid survival, either within the life stage where predation occurs or across their lifetime, has remained untested. To address this critical uncertainty, we analyzed a long-term (2008-2018) mark-recapture-recovery dataset of ESA-listed steelhead trout (O....

Module 22: How Play Helps Math Learning [online module]

Seasonal and directional dispersal behavior in an ongoing dove invasion

David Slager
Range expansions require the dispersal of individual organisms, but dispersal behavior is notoriously difficult to study. Eurasian Collared-Doves have colonized both Europe and North America this century, with both initial invasions proceeding northwestward via "jump" dispersal. The European population has reached carrying capacity, but in the Americas, where exponential population growth continues, little is known about dispersal behavior. I queried citizen science field notes to investigate Eurasian Collared-Dove dispersal behavior in North America along the...

Enemies with benefits: Integrating positive and negative interactions among terrestrial carnivores

Laura Prugh & Kelly Sivy
Interactions among terrestrial carnivores involve a complex interplay of competition, predation, and facilitation via carrion provisioning, and these negative and positive pathways may be closely linked. Here, we developed an integrative framework and synthesized data from 256 studies of intraguild predation, scavenging, kleptoparisitism, and resource availability to examine global patterns of suppression and facilitation. Large carnivores were responsible for one third of mesocarnivore mortality (n = 1,581 individuals), and intraguild mortality rates were superadditive, increasing...

Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array: Wind Direction Accuracy Revisited

Howard Paul Freitag, Michael J. McPhaden & Kenneth J. Connell
NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR-PMEL ; 150

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Data from: Exploring rainforest diversification using demographic model testing in the African foam-nest treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens)

Adam Leache, Daniel Portik, Danielle Rivera, Mark-Oliver Rodel, Johannes Penner, Václav Gvoždík, Eli Greenbaum, Gregory Jongsma, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Marius Burger, Edem Eniang, Rayna Bell & Matthew Fujita
Aim: Species with wide distributions spanning the African Guinean and Congolian rainforests are often composed of genetically distinct populations or cryptic species with geographic distributions that mirror the locations of the remaining forest habitats. We used phylogeographic inference and demographic model testing to evaluate diversification models in a widespread rainforest species, the African Foam-nest Treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens). Location: Guinean and Congolian rainforests, West and Central Africa. Taxon: Chiromantis rufescens. Methods: We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

Data from: Heat tolerance is more variable than cold tolerance across species of Iberian lizards after controlling for intraspecific variation

Salvador Herrando-Pérez, Camila Monasterio, Wouter Beukema, Verónica Gomes, Francisco Gomes Ferri-Yáñez, Josabel Belliure, Steven L. Chown, Lauren B Buckley, David R. Vieites & Miguel B. Araújo
The widespread observation that heat tolerance is less variable than cold tolerance (‘cold-tolerance asymmetry’) leads to the prediction that species exposed to temperatures near their thermal maxima should have reduced evolutionary potential for adapting to climate warming. However, the prediction is largely supported by species-level global studies based on single estimates of both physiological metrics per taxon. We ask if cold-tolerance asymmetry holds for Iberian lizards after accounting for intraspecific variation in critical thermal maxima...

Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence -- simulation data

Hossein Parishani, Michael Pritchard, Christopher Bretherton, Matthew Wyant & Marat Khairoutdinov
This data set contains the simulation outputs used in the study summarized below: Systematic biases in the representation of boundary layer (BL) clouds are a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. A variation on superparameterization (SP) called ‘‘ultraparameterization’’ (UP) is developed, in which the grid spacing of the cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is fine enough (250x20 m) to explicitly capture the BL turbulence, associated clouds, and entrainment in a global climate model capable of multiyear...

Data from: Indirect legacy effects of an extreme climactic event on a marine megafaunal community

Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thomson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich & Aaron Wirsing
While extreme climactic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent, reliably predicting their impacts on consumers remains challenging– particularly for large consumers in marine environments. Many studies that do evaluate ECE effects focus primarily on direct effects, though indirect effects can be equally or more important. Here, we investigate the indirect impacts of the 2011 “Ningaloo Niño” marine heatwave ECE on a diverse megafauna community in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We use an 18...

Data from: S-cone photoreceptors in the primate retina are functionally distinct from L and M cones

Jacob Baudin, Juan M. Angueyra, Raunak Sinha & Fred Rieke
Daylight vision starts with signals in three classes of cone photoreceptors sensitive to short (S), middle (M), and long (L) wavelengths. Psychophysical studies show that perceptual sensitivity to rapidly varying inputs differs for signals originating in S cones versus L and M cones; notably, S-cone signals appear perceptually delayed relative to L- and M-cone signals. These differences could originate in the cones themselves or in the post-cone circuitry. To determine if the cones could contribute...

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