32 Works

Data from: Genetic and morphometric divergence in threespine stickleback in the Chignik catchment, Alaska

Annette Taugbøl, Claudia Junge, Thomas P. Quinn, Anders Herland & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Divergent selection pressures induced by different environmental conditions typically lead to variation in life history, behaviour and morphology. When populations are locally adapted to their current environment, selection may limit movement into novel sites, leading to neutral and adaptive genetic divergence in allopatric populations. Subsequently, divergence can be reinforced by development of pre- or post-zygotic barriers to gene flow. The threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, is a primarily marine fish that has invaded freshwater repeatedly in...

Data from: Genetic evidence for landscape effects on dispersal in the army ant Eciton burchellii

Thomas W. Soare, Anjali Kumar, Kerry A. Naish & Sean O'Donnell
Inhibited dispersal, leading to reduced gene flow, threatens populations with inbreeding depression and local extinction. Fragmentation may be especially detrimental to social insects because inhibited gene flow has important consequences for cooperation and competition within and among colonies. Army ants have winged males and permanently wingless queens; these traits imply male-biased dispersal. However, army ant colonies are obligately nomadic and have the potential to traverse landscapes. Eciton burchellii, the most regularly nomadic army ant, is...

Data from: Bacterial endosymbiont infections in ‘living fossils’: a case study of North American vaejovid scorpions

& Robert W. Bryson
Bacterial endosymbionts are common among arthropods, and maternally inherited forms can affect the reproductive and behavioural traits of their arthropod hosts. The prevalence of bacterial endosymbionts and their role in scorpion evolution have rarely been investigated. In this study, 61 samples from 40 species of scorpion in the family Vaejovidae were screened for the presence of the bacterial endosymbionts Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. No samples were infected by these bacteria. However, one primer pair...

Data from: The influence sampling design on species tree inference: a new relationship for the New World chickadees (Aves: Poecile)

Rebecca Brown Harris, Matthew D. Carling & Irby J. Lovette
In this study, we explore the long-standing issue of how many loci are needed to infer accurate phylogenetic relationships, and whether loci with particular attributes (i.e., parsimony informativeness, variability, gene tree resolution) outperform others. To do so, we use an empirical dataset consisting of the seven species of chickadees (Aves: Paridae), an analytically tractable, recently diverged group, and well studied ecologically but lacking a nuclear phylogeny. We estimate relationships using 40 nuclear loci and mitochondrial...

Data from: Diversification and gene flow in nascent lineages of island and mainland North American tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus)

Andreas S. Chavez, George James Kenagy, Sean P. Maher & Brian S. Arbogast
Pleistocene climate cycles and glaciations had profound impacts on taxon diversification in the Boreal Forest Biome. Using population genetic analyses with multilocus data we examined diversification, isolation, and hybridization in two sibling species of tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus) with special attention to the geographically and genetically enigmatic population of T. hudsonicus on Vancouver Island, Canada. The two species differentiated only about 500,000 years ago, in the late Pleistocene. The island population is...

Data from: Mammals across the K/Pg boundary in northeastern Montana, U.S.A.: dental morphology and body-size patterns reveal extinction selectivity and immigrant-fueled ecospace filling

Gregory P. Wilson
The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/Pg) mass extinction has long been viewed as a pivotal event in mammalian evolutionary history, in which the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs allowed mammals to rapidly expand from small-bodied, generalized insectivores to a wide array of body sizes and ecological specializations. Many studies have used global- or continental-scale taxonomic databases to analyze this event on coarse temporal scales, but few studies have documented morphological diversity of mammalian paleocommunities on fine spatiotemporal scales in...

Data from: Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution

Robert Lanfear, Simon Y. W. Ho, T. Jonathan Davies, Angela T. Moles, Lonnie Aarssen, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman, Amy E. Zanne & Andrew P. Allen
Rates of molecular evolution have a central role in our understanding of many aspects of species’ biology. However, the causes of variation in rates of molecular evolution remain poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we show that height accounts for about one-fifth of the among-lineage rate variation in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of plants. This relationship holds across 138 families of flowering plants, and when accounting for variation in species richness, temperature, ultraviolet radiation,...

Data from: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O'Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman … & Alejandro Ordonez
Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats1, 2, 3. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms4. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf...

Data from: Canopy closure exerts weak controls on understory dynamics: a 30-year study of overstory-understory interactions

Charles B. Halpern & James A. Lutz
Stem exclusion and understory re-initiation are commonly described, but poorly understood stages of forest development. It is assumed that overstory trees exert strong controls on understory herbs and shrubs during the transition from open to closed-canopy forests, but long-term observations of this process are rare. We use long-term data from 188 plots to explore patterns and correlates of variation in understory richness and abundance 15-45 yr after clear-cut logging and burning of two experimental watersheds...

Data from: The influence of gene flow on species tree estimation: a simulation study

Adam D. Leaché, Rebecca B. Harris, Bruce Rannala & Ziheng Yang
Gene flow among populations or species and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) are two evolutionary processes responsible for generating gene tree discordance and therefore hindering species tree estimation. Numerous studies have evaluated the impacts of ILS on species tree inference, yet the ramifications of gene flow on species trees remain less studied. Here, we simulate and analyze multilocus sequence data generated with ILS and gene flow to quantify their impacts on species tree inference. We characterize...

Data from: Postglacial climate and fire-mediated vegetation change on the western Olympic Peninsula, Washington

Daniel G. Gavin, Linda B. Brubaker & D. Noah Greenwald
The mode and tempo of forest compositional change during periods of rapid climate change, including the potential for the fire regime to produce non-linear relationships between climate and vegetation, is a long-standing theme of forest ecological research. In the old conifer forests of the coastal Pacific Northwest, fire disturbances are sufficiently rare that their relation to climate and their ecological effects are poorly understood. We used a 14,700-year high-resolution sediment record from Yahoo Lake on...

Data from: Riding the crimson tide: mobile terrestrial consumers track phenological variation in spawning of an anadromous fish

Daniel E. Schindler, Jonathan B. Armstrong, Kale T. Bentley, KathiJo Jankowski, Peter J. Lisi & Laura X. Payne
When resources are spatially and temporally variable, consumers can increase their foraging success by moving to track ephemeral feeding opportunities as these shift across the landscape; the best examples derive from herbivore-plant systems where grazers migrate to capitalize on the seasonal waves of vegetation growth. We evaluated whether analogous processes occur in watersheds supporting spawning Pacific salmon, asking whether seasonal activity of predators and scavengers shift spatial distributions to capitalize on asynchronous spawning among populations...

Data from: When condition trumps location: seed consumption by fruit-eating birds removes pathogens and predator attractants

Evan C. Fricke, Melissa J. Simon, Karen M. Reagan, Douglas J. Levey, Jeffrey A. Riffell, Tomás A. Carlo & Joshua J. Tewksbury
Seed ingestion by frugivorous vertebrates commonly benefits plants by moving seeds to locations with fewer predators and pathogens than under the parent. For plants with high local population densities, however, movement from the parent plant is unlikely to result in ‘escape’ from predators and pathogens. Changes to seed condition caused by gut passage may also provide benefits, yet are rarely evaluated as an alternative. Here, we use a common bird-dispersed chilli pepper (Capsicum chacoense) to...

Data from: Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Wesley A. Larson, Lisa W. Seeb, Meredith V. Everett, Ryan K. Waples, William D. Templin & James E. Seeb
Recent advances in population genomics have made it possible to detect previously unidentified structure, obtain more accurate estimates of demographic parameters, and explore adaptive divergence, potentially revolutionizing the way genetic data are used to manage wild populations. Here, we identified 10 944 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to explore population structure, demography, and adaptive divergence in five populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from western Alaska. Patterns of population structure were similar to...

Data from: Fine-scale sampling reveals distinct isolation by distance patterns in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations occupying a glacially dynamic environment

Eleni L. Petrou, James E. Seeb, Lorenz Hauser, Mark J. Witteveen, William D. Templin & Lisa W. Seeb
Populations with spatially restricted gene flow are characterized by genetic differentiation that may be positively correlated with the geographic distance separating populations, a pattern known as isolation by distance (IBD). Here we examined the fine-scale genetic structure of 66 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations spawning in Alaska waterways and explored patterns of IBD using 90 nuclear and 3 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms. Estimating population structure of chum salmon in Alaska is of increasing concern because...

Data from: Phylogeographic diversification of antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus) across North American deserts

Stacy J. Mantooth, David J. Hafner, , Brett R. Riddle & Robert W. Bryson
We investigated the biogeographic history of antelope squirrels, genus Ammospermophilus, which are widely distributed across the deserts and other arid lands of western North America. We combined range-wide sampling of all currently recognized species of Ammospermophilus with a multilocus data set to infer phylogenetic relationships. We then estimated divergence times within identified clades of Ammospermophilus using fossil-calibrated and rate-calibrated molecular clocks. Lastly, we explored generalized distributional changes of Ammospermophilus since the last glacial maximum using...

Data from: How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from Sockeye salmon

Jennifer R. Griffiths, Daniel E. Schindler & Lisa W. Seeb
Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the...

Data from: A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

R. Alexander Pyron, Frank T. Burbrink & John J. Wiens
Background: The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to clarify their taxonomy. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results: The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species representing all currently recognized families...

Data from: Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)

Jared A. Grummer, , Tod W. Reeder & Robert W. Bryson
Current molecular methods of species delimitation are limited by the types of species delimitation models and scenarios that can be tested. Bayes factors allow for more flexibility in testing non-nested species delimitation models and hypotheses of individual assignment to alternative lineages. Here, we examined the efficacy of Bayes factors in delimiting species through simulations and empirical data from the Sceloporus scalaris species group. Marginal likelihood scores of competing species delimitation models, from which Bayes factor...

Data from: Biogeography of scorpions in the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex (Vaejovidae) from south-western North America: implications of ecological specialization for pre-Quaternary diversification

Robert W. Bryson, Warren E. Savary & Lorenzo Prendini
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre-Quaternary tectonics and orogeny relative to that of Pleistocene climate change on diversification within the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex, a group of vaejovid scorpions with stenotopic habitat requirements. Location: South-western North America (United States and Mexico). Methods: Multilocus sequence data (1899 base pairs from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) were generated from 65 samples of scorpions in the minimus complex. Phylogeographical structure within...

Data from: Diversification across the New World within the ‘blue’ cardinalids (Aves: Cardinalidae)

, Jaime Chaves, Brian Tilston Smith, Matthew J. Miller, Kevin Winker, Jorge L. Pérez-Emán, John Klicka & Robert W. Bryson
Aim: To examine the history of diversification of ‘blue’ cardinalids (Cardinalidae) across North and South America. Location: North America (including Middle America) and South America. Methods: We collected 163 individuals of the 14 species of blue cardinalids and generated multilocus sequence data (3193 base pairs from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes) to infer phylogeographical structure and reconstruct time-calibrated species trees. We then estimated the ancestral range at each divergence event and tested for temporal...

Data from: Projected climate-driven faunal movement routes

Joshua J. Lawler, Aaron S. Ruesch, Julian D. Olden & Brad H. McRae
Historically, many species moved great distances as climates changed. However, modern movements will be limited by the patterns of human-dominated landscapes. Here, we use a combination of projected climate-driven shifts in the distributions of 2903 vertebrate species, estimated current human impacts on the landscape, and movement models, to determine through which areas in the western hemisphere species will likely need to move to track suitable climates. Our results reveal areas with projected high densities of...

Data from: Secondary contact and changes in coastal hydrology influence the nonequilibrium population structure of a salmonid (Oncorhynchus keta)

Eleni L. Petrou, Lorenz Hauser, Robin S. Waples, Jim E. Seeb, William D. Templin, Daniel Gomez-Uchida & Lisa W. Seeb
Numerous empirical studies have reported lack of migration–drift equilibrium in wild populations. Determining the causes of nonequilibrium population structure is challenging because different evolutionary processes acting at a variety of spatiotemporal scales can produce similar patterns. Studies of contemporary populations in northern latitudes suggest that nonequilibrium population structure is probably caused by recent colonization of the region after the last Pleistocene ice age ended ~13 000 years ago. The chum salmon's (Oncorhynchus keta) range was...

Data from: The cross-bridge spring: can cool muscles store elastic energy?

Nicole T. George, Thomas C. Irving, Charles D. Williams & Thomas L. Daniel
Muscles not only generate force. They may act as springs, providing energy storage to drive locomotion. Although extensible myofilaments are implicated as sites of energy storage, we show that intramuscular temperature gradients may enable molecular motors (cross-bridges) to store elastic strain energy. Using time-resolved small-angle X-ray diffraction paired with in situ measurements of mechanical energy exchange in flight muscle of Manduca sexta we produced high-speed movies of X-ray equatorial reflections indicating cross-bridge association with myofilaments....

Data from: Critically endangered island endemic or peripheral population of a widespread species? Conservation genetics of Kikuchi’s gecko and the global challenge of protecting peripheral oceanic island endemic vertebrates

Cameron D. Siler, Jamie R. Oaks, Kerry Cobb, Hidetoshi Ota & Rafe M. Brown
Aim: To highlight the significant conservation challenge of evaluating peripheral endemic vertebrates in island archipelago systems and to assess empirically the complexities of approaches to conservation genetic studies across political and biogeographic boundaries. To demonstrate the poignant need for international collaboration and coordination when species delimitation problems with high conservation concern involve island endemics with biogeographically peripheral ranges. Location: Southeast Asia, Lanyu Island, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Methods: Genetic samples were collected and sequenced for...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    32

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    32

Affiliations

  • University of Washington
    32
  • Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture
    4
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game
    3
  • Department of Plant Biology
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • Queen's University
    2
  • University of Arizona
    2
  • Louisiana State University of Alexandria
    2
  • Environmental Earth Sciences
    2