40 Works

Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array: Wind Direction Accuracy Revisited

Howard Paul Freitag, Michael J. McPhaden & Kenneth J. Connell
NOAA Technical Memorandum OAR-PMEL ; 150

Model code, inputs, and output from N isotope global inverse model

Taylor Martin, Karen Casciotti & Francois Primeau
Model code, ancillary input files, and model output related to Martin et al., Global Biogeochemical Cycles in review

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence -- simulation data

Hossein Parishani, Michael Pritchard, Christopher Bretherton, Matthew Wyant & Marat Khairoutdinov
This data set contains the simulation outputs used in the study summarized below: Systematic biases in the representation of boundary layer (BL) clouds are a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. A variation on superparameterization (SP) called ‘‘ultraparameterization’’ (UP) is developed, in which the grid spacing of the cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is fine enough (250x20 m) to explicitly capture the BL turbulence, associated clouds, and entrainment in a global climate model capable of multiyear...

Data from: Exploring rainforest diversification using demographic model testing in the African foam-nest treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens)

Adam Leache, Daniel Portik, Danielle Rivera, Mark-Oliver Rodel, Johannes Penner, Václav Gvoždík, Eli Greenbaum, Gregory Jongsma, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Marius Burger, Edem Eniang, Rayna Bell & Matthew Fujita
Aim: Species with wide distributions spanning the African Guinean and Congolian rainforests are often composed of genetically distinct populations or cryptic species with geographic distributions that mirror the locations of the remaining forest habitats. We used phylogeographic inference and demographic model testing to evaluate diversification models in a widespread rainforest species, the African Foam-nest Treefrog (Chiromantis rufescens). Location: Guinean and Congolian rainforests, West and Central Africa. Taxon: Chiromantis rufescens. Methods: We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

Seasonal and directional dispersal behavior in an ongoing dove invasion

David Slager
Range expansions require the dispersal of individual organisms, but dispersal behavior is notoriously difficult to study. Eurasian Collared-Doves have colonized both Europe and North America this century, with both initial invasions proceeding northwestward via "jump" dispersal. The European population has reached carrying capacity, but in the Americas, where exponential population growth continues, little is known about dispersal behavior. I queried citizen science field notes to investigate Eurasian Collared-Dove dispersal behavior in North America along the...

Data from: S-cone photoreceptors in the primate retina are functionally distinct from L and M cones

Jacob Baudin, Juan M. Angueyra, Raunak Sinha & Fred Rieke
Daylight vision starts with signals in three classes of cone photoreceptors sensitive to short (S), middle (M), and long (L) wavelengths. Psychophysical studies show that perceptual sensitivity to rapidly varying inputs differs for signals originating in S cones versus L and M cones; notably, S-cone signals appear perceptually delayed relative to L- and M-cone signals. These differences could originate in the cones themselves or in the post-cone circuitry. To determine if the cones could contribute...

Data from: Indirect legacy effects of an extreme climactic event on a marine megafaunal community

Robert Nowicki, Michael Heithaus, Jordan Thomson, Derek Burkholder, Kirk Gastrich & Aaron Wirsing
While extreme climactic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent, reliably predicting their impacts on consumers remains challenging– particularly for large consumers in marine environments. Many studies that do evaluate ECE effects focus primarily on direct effects, though indirect effects can be equally or more important. Here, we investigate the indirect impacts of the 2011 “Ningaloo Niño” marine heatwave ECE on a diverse megafauna community in Shark Bay, Western Australia. We use an 18...

Data from: Quantifying habitat use of migratory fish across riverscapes using space-time isotope models

Sean R. Brennan, Timothy J. Cline & Daniel E. Schindler
1.Migratory animals pose difficult challenges to conservation and management because identifying critical habitats used throughout their lives is rarely possible. Endogenous tracers (e.g., isotope ratios) recorded in sequentially growing biogenic tissues, however, represent a potential source of unique insights at the more elusive temporal and spatial scales central to understanding the ecology of mobile species. To this end, a general probabilistic framework has emerged that quantitatively compares predictive models of isotopic variation across landscapes (called...

Data from: Climate-niche factor analysis: a spatial approach to quantifying species vulnerability to climate change

D. Scott Rinnan & Josh Lawler
Climate change vulnerability assessments are an important tool for understanding the threat that climate change poses to species and populations, but do not generally yield insight into the spatial variation in vulnerability throughout a species' habitat. We demonstrate how to adapt the method of ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA) to objectively quantify aspects of species sensitivity to climate change. We then expand ENFA to quantify aspects of exposure and vulnerability to climate change as well, using...

Data from: Functional coupling in the evolution of suction feeding and gill ventilation of sculpins (Perciformes: Cottoidei)

Stacy C. Farina, Matthew L. Knope, Katherine A. Corn, Adam P. Summers & William E. Bemis
Suction feeding and gill ventilation in teleosts are functionally coupled, meaning that there is an overlap in the structures involved with both functions. Functional coupling is one type of morphological integration, a term that broadly refers to any covariation, correlation, or coordination among structures. Suction feeding and gill ventilation exhibit other types of morphological integration, including functional coordination (a tendency of structures to work together to perform a function) and evolutionary integration (a tendency of...

Manipulating Elastic Waves in Topological Mechanical Metamaterials

Rajesh Chanusali
Due to the recent discovery of topological insulators in condensed matter physics, a new notion of topology has emerged in association with the intrinsic dispersion behavior of a structure. In this work, we have taken this notion of topology and have shown some novel wave manipulation capabilities in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) elastic systems. In particular, we have taken four different type of elastic systems. First, a 1D elastic system made of a...

Data from: One and two year visual outcomes from the Moorfields age-related macular degeneration database: a retrospective cohort study and an open science resource

Katrin Fasler, Gabriella Moraes, Siegfried K. Wagner, Karsten U. Kortuem, Reena Chopra, Livia Faes, Gabriella Preston, Nikolas Pontikos, Dun Jack Fu, Praveen J. Patel, Adnan Tufail, Aaron Y. Lee, Konstantinos Balaskas & Pearse A. Keane
Objectives: To analyse treatment outcomes and share clinical data from a large, single-center, well-curated database (8174 eyes / 6664 patients with 120,756 single entries) of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). By making our depersonalised raw data openly available, we aim to stimulate further research in AMD, as well as setting a precedent for future work in this area. Setting: Retrospective, comparative, non-randomised electronic medical record...

Data from: Mesopredators change temporal activity in response to a recolonizing apex predator

Carolyn R. Shores, Justin A. Dellinger, Eric S. Newkirk, Shannon M. Kachel & Aaron J. Wirsing
Apex predators can influence ecosystems through density and behaviorally mediated effects on herbivores and mesopredators. In many parts of the world, apex predators live in, or are returning to, landscapes that have been modified by people, so it is important to understand their ecological role in anthropogenic landscapes. We used motion-activated game cameras to compare the activity patterns of humans and two mesopredators, coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus), in areas with and without...

Data from: Anatomical diversification of a skeletal novelty in bat feet

Kathryn Elizabeth Stanchak, Jessica Arbour & Sharlene E. Santana
Neomorphic, membrane-associated skeletal rods are found in disparate vertebrate lineages, but their evolution is poorly understood. Here we show that one of these elements—the calcar of bats (Chiroptera)—is a skeletal novelty that has anatomically diversified. Comparisons of evolutionary models of calcar length and corresponding disparity-through-time analyses indicate that the calcar diversified early in the evolutionary history of Chiroptera, as bats phylogenetically diversified after evolving the capacity for flight. This interspecific variation in calcar length and...

Data from: Knowing when to stick: touch receptors found in the remora adhesive disc

Karly E. Cohen, Brooke E. Flammang, Callie H. Crawford & L. Patricia Hernandez
Remoras are fishes that piggyback onto larger marine fauna via an adhesive disc to increase locomotor efficiency, likelihood of finding mates, and access to prey. Attaching rapidly to a large, fast moving host is no easy task, and while research to date has focused on how the disc supports adhesion, no attention has been paid to how or if remoras are able to sense attachment. We identified push-rod-like mechanoreceptor complexes embedded in the soft lip...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Data from: An effective method for ecosystem-scale manipulation of bird abundance and species richness

Chelsea Wood, Margaret Summerside & Pieter Johnson
Manipulation experiments are a cornerstone of ecological research, but can be logistically challenging to execute – particularly when they are intended to isolate the ecological role of large, vagile species, like birds. Despite indirect evidence that birds are influential in many ecosystems, large-scale, multi-year bird manipulation experiments are rare. When these studies are conducted, they are typically realized with caged or netted exclosures, an approach that can be expensive, risky for wildlife, and difficult to...

Data from: Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient

Cynthia C. Chang, Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Meghan L. Avolio, Abir Biswas, James E. Cook, Roger Del Moral, Dylan G. Fischer, Andrés Holz, Robert J. Pabst, Mark E. Swanson & Donald B. Zobel
1.Studies of succession have a long history in ecology, but rigorous tests of general, unifying principles are rare. One barrier to these tests of theory is the paucity of longitudinal studies that span the broad gradients of disturbance severity that characterize large, infrequent disturbances. The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 produced a heterogeneous landscape of disturbance conditions, including primary to secondary successional habitats, affording a unique opportunity to explore how...

Data from: The Moorfields AMD database report 2 - fellow eye involvement with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Katrin Fasler, Dun Jack Fu, Gabriella Moraes, Siegfried K Wagner, Eesha Gokhale, Karsten U Kortuem, Reena Chopra, Livia Faes, Gabriella Preston, Nikolas Pontikos, Praveen J Patel, Adnan Tufail, Aaron Y Lee, Konstantinos Balaskas & Pearse A Keane
Background/Aims: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is frequently bilateral, and previous reports on ‘fellow eyes’’ have assumed sequential treatment after a period of treatment of the first eye only. The aim of our study was to analyse baseline characteristics and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of fellow eye involvement with nAMD, specifically differentiating between sequential and non-sequential (due to macular scarring in the first eye) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment and timelines for fellow eye involvement....

Data from: Chloroplast primers for clade-wide phylogenetic studies of Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae)

Diego Fernando Morales-Briones, Tatiana Arias, Verónica Di Stilio & David C. Tank
Premise Chloroplast primers were developed for phylogenetic and comparative studies in Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae). Methods and Results We assembled and annotated the complete plastome sequence of T. thalictroides by combining multiple whole genome sequencing libraries. Using transcriptome‐sequencing libraries, we also assembled a partial plastome of the related species T. hernandezii. From the newly assembled plastomes and one previously sequenced plastome, we designed and validated 28 primer pairs to target variable portions of the chloroplast genome in...

Computational and experimental insights into the chemosensory navigation of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae

Eleanor Lutz, Tjinder Grewal & Jeffrey Riffell
Mosquitoes are prolific disease vectors that affect public health around the world. Although many studies have investigated search strategies used by host-seeking adult mosquitoes, little is known about larval search behavior. Larval behavior affects adult body size and fecundity, and thus the capacity of individual mosquitoes to find hosts and transmit disease. Understanding vector survival at all life stages is crucial for improving disease control. In this study we use experimental and computational methods to...

Data from: A comparative analysis of common methods to identify waterbird hotspots

Allison L. Sussman, Beth Gardner, Evan M. Adams, Leo Salas, Kevin P. Kenow, David R. Luukkonen, Michael J. Monfils, William P. Mueller, Kathryn A. Williams, Michele Leduc-Lapierre & Elise F. Zipkin
1. Hotspot analysis is a commonly used method in ecology and conservation to identify areas of high biodiversity or conservation concern. However, delineating and mapping hotspots is subjective and various approaches can lead to different conclusions with regard to the classification of particular areas as hotspots, complicating long-term conservation planning. 2. We present a comparative analysis of recent approaches for identifying waterbird hotspots, with the goal of developing insights about the appropriate use of these...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Do different rates of gene flow underlie variation in phenotypic and phenological clines in a montane grasshopper community?

Sean Schoville, Rachel Slatyer, César Nufio & Lauren Buckley
Species responses to environmental change are likely to depend on existing genetic and phenotypic variation, as well as evolutionary potential. A key challenge is to determine whether gene flow might facilitate or impede genomic divergence among populations responding to environmental change, and if emergent phenotypic variation is limited by gene flow rates. A general expectation is that patterns of genetic differentiation in a set of co-distributed species reflect differences in dispersal ability. In less-dispersive species,...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    35
  • Text
    4
  • Software
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Washington
    40
  • University of Colorado Boulder
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Oregon State University
    2
  • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
    2
  • University of Adelaide
    1
  • University of Eastern Finland
    1
  • Biodiversity Research Institute
    1
  • Utah State University
    1