50 Works

Data from: Edge influence on vegetation at natural and anthropogenic edges of boreal forests in Canada and Fennoscandia

Karen A. Harper, S. Ellen Macdonald, Michael S. Mayerhofer, Shekhar R. Biswas, Per-Anders Esseen, Kristoffer Hylander, Katherine J. Stewart, Azim U. Mallik, Pierre Drapeau, Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson, Daniel Lesieur, Jari Kouki & Yves Bergeron
1. Although anthropogenic edges are an important consequence of timber harvesting, edges due to natural disturbances or landscape heterogeneity are also common. Forest edges have been well-studied in temperate and tropical forests, but less so in less productive, disturbance-adapted boreal forests. 2. We synthesized data on forest vegetation at edges of boreal forests and compared edge influence among edge types (fire, cut, lake/wetland; old vs. young), forest types (broadleaf vs. coniferous) and geographic regions. Our...

Data from: Parasite infection in a central sensory organ of fish does not affect host personality

Ines Klemme, Raine Kortet & Anssi Karvonen
Among the ecological factors acting on the evolution and expression of animal personalities and behavioral syndromes, parasitism has received comparatively little attention. However, infection and host behavior are often strongly intertwined, because host behavior can predict the risk of infection and can also be changed by an infection. We conducted a controlled experimental infection study to explore the effects of infection on host boldness, exploration and activity using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and its trematode...

Data from: Long-term species loss and homogenization of moth communities in Central Europe

Anu Valtonen, Aniko Hirka, Levente Szőcs, Matt Ayres, Heikki Roininen & György Csóka
As global biodiversity continues to decline steeply, it is becoming increasingly important to understand diversity patterns at local and regional scales. Changes in land use and climate, nitrogen deposition and invasive species are the most important threats to global biodiversity. Because land use changes tend to benefit a few species but impede many, the expected outcome is generally decreasing population sizes, decreasing species richness at local and regional scales, and increasing similarity of species compositions...

Data from: Independent and interactive effects of immune activation and larval diet on adult immune function, growth and development in the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)

Katariina Kangassalo, Terhi M. Valtonen, Jouni Sorvari, Sanita Kecko, Mari Pölkki, Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama & Markus J. Rantala
Organisms in the wild are likely to face multiple immune challenges as well as additional ecological stressors, yet their interactive effects on immune function are poorly understood. Insects are found to respond to cues of increased infection risk by enhancing their immune capacity. However, such adaptive plasticity in immune function may be limited by physiological and environmental constraints. Here, we investigated the effects of two environmental stressors – poor larval diet and an artificial parasite-like...

Data from: Night reveals individuality in a shoaling fish

Laura Härkönen, Nico Alioravainen, Anssi Vainikka & Pekka Hyvärinen
Many animals rely heavily on visual cues from their environment, and therefore show circadian rhythmicity in their behavioral activities. In group-living animals, individuals’ activity rhythms must be synchronized not only with diel light-dark cycle but also with other group members. Increasing evidence has recently shown that circadian behaviors of animals are consistent within individuals and different between individuals, but the sources and consistency of diel activity variation in social context are less known. Using radio...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Effects of undergrowth removal and edge proximity on ground beetles and vascular plants in urban boreal forests

Matti Koivula, Tiina Virta, Markku Kuitunen & Elisa Vallius
Urban forests are regularly managed for human safety and aesthetic reasons, but they are crucial habitat for many species. Removals of undergrowth occur commonly in these forests, yet the ecological consequences of these operations are poorly understood. We sampled ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and vascular plants along 20-m edge gradients in Finnish urban forests, in five stands treated 0.5−2.5 years earlier with undergrowth removal and in five untreated stands. We hypothesized that undergrowth removal and...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Data from: Host plants of the non-swarming edible bush cricket Ruspolia differens

Robert Opoke, Philip Nyeko, Geoffrey M. Malinga, Karlmax Rutaro, Heikki Roininen & Anu Valtonen
The edible Ruspolia differens (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) is a widely-consumed insect in East Africa but surprisingly little is known of its host plant use in the field. We studied host plants used by non-swarming R. differens for 15 months, in central Uganda. In particular, we assessed the use of host plant species with respect to host cover in the field and host parts used by R. differens, also recording their sex, developmental stages, and colour morph....

Offspring phenotype is shaped by the non-sperm fraction of semen

Jukka Kekäläinen, Annalaura Jokiniemi, Matti Janhunen & Hannu Huuskonen
In a large majority of animal species, the only contribution of males to the next generation has been assumed to be their genes (sperm). However, along with sperm, seminal plasma contains a wide array of extracellular factors that have many important functions in reproduction. Yet, the potential intergenerational effects of these factors are virtually unknown. We investigated these effects in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) by experimentally manipulating the presence and identity of seminal plasma and...

Dynamic effects of insect herbivory and climate on tundra shrub growth: roles of browsing and ramet age

Adam Clark, Risto Virtanen, Michael Den Herder & Heikki Roininen
1. To predict shrub responses under climate change in tundra, we need to understand how thermal conditions and herbivory contribute to growth. We hypothesise that shrub growth increases with thermal conditions and precipitation, but that this increase is counteracted by insect herbivory, and that these climate-insect herbivory relationships are modified by both browsing and plant age. 2. We use empirical dynamic modelling (EDM) to analyse a 20-year time series on willow (Salix phylicifolia) shoot growth,...

Data from: Intra- and trans-generational effects of larval diet on susceptibility to an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella

Katariina Kangassalo, Terhi M. Valtonen, Derek Roff, Mari Pölkki, Ivan M. Dubovskiy, Jouni Sorvari & Markus J. Rantala
In addition to nutritional conditions experienced by individuals themselves, those experienced by their parents can affect their immune function. Here, we studied the intra- and trans-generational effects of larval diet on susceptibility to an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. In the first part of the study, a split-brood design was used to compare the susceptibility of full sibs raised either on low- or on high-nutrition larval diet. In the...

Data from: Maternal effects in vulnerability to eye-parasites and correlations between behaviour and parasitism in juvenile Arctic charr

Raine Kortet, Tiina Lautala, Jukka Kekäläinen, Jouni Taskinen & Heikki Hirvonen
Hatchery-reared fish show high mortalities after release to the wild environment. Explanations for this include potentially predetermined genetics, behavioural and physiological acclimation to fish farm environments, and increased vulnerability to predation and parasitism in the wild. We studied vulnerability to Diplostomum spp. parasites (load of eye-flukes in the lenses), immune defence (relative spleen size) and anti-predator behaviours (approaches toward predator odour, freezing, and swimming activity) in hatchery-reared juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) using a nested...

Data from: Trade-offs in berry production and biodiversity under prescribed burning and retention regimes in Boreal forests

Gustaf Granath, Jari Kouki, Samuel Johnson, Osmo Heikkala, Antonio Rodríguez & Joachim Strengbom
1. Green tree retention and prescribed burning are practices used to mitigate negative effects of forestry. Beside their effects on biodiversity, these practices should also promote non-timber forest products (NTFPs). We assessed: (1) how prescribed burning and tree retention influence NTFPs by examining production of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and cowberry; Vaccinium vitis-idaea (2) if there are synergies or trade-offs in the delivery of these NTFPs in relation to delivery of species richness, focusing on five...

Data from: Female-induced remote regulation of sperm physiology may provide opportunities for gamete-level mate choice

Jukka Kekäläinen & Jonathan P. Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and pre-fertilization communication between sexes occur largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be...

Data from: Disturbance-mediated heterogeneity drives pollinator diversity in boreal managed forest ecosystems

Antonio Rodríguez & Jari Kouki
Intensive forest management, together with fire suppression, have decreased structural complexity and altered dynamics of boreal forests profoundly. Such management threatens forest biodiversity and can reduce the provision of ecosystem services. Although the importance of ecosystem services is widely acknowledged, conservation strategies are hindered by poor knowledge about diversity patterns of service provider species as well as on mechanisms affecting these assemblages at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed the effect...

Data from: Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses

Matthew G. Johnson, Gustaf Granath, Teemu Tahvanainen, Remy Pouliot, Hans K. Stenøien, Line Rochefort, Håkan Rydin & A. Jonathan Shaw
Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers— species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary...

Data from: Antiepileptic drug use and mortality among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease

Tatyana Sarycheva, Piia Lavikainen, Heidi Taipale, Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen, Sirpa Hartikainen & Anna-Maija Tolppanen
Objective: To evaluate the risk of death in relation to incident antiepileptic drug use compared with non-use in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through the assessment in terms of duration of use, specific drugs and main causes of death. Methods: The MEDALZ cohort includes all Finnish persons who received a clinically verified AD diagnosis (N=70718) in 2005‒2011. Incident AED users were identified with 1-year washout period. For each incident AED user (n=5638) one non-user was...

Initial application of the noise-sorted scanning clustering algorithm to the analysis of composition-dependent organic aerosol thermal desorption measurements

Christopher Cappa, Ziyue Li, Emma D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, John Shilling, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Jiumeng Liu, Cassandra Gaston & Joel Thornton
The FIGAERO-CIMS (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols + chemical ionization mass spectrometer) measures thermal desorption profiles for individual ions evolved from evaporation of organic aerosol components. Often, hundreds of individual thermograms are obtained, reflecting the compositional complexity of organic aerosol. We have developed a novel clustering algorithm, Noise-Sorted Scanning Clustering (NSSC), that provides a robust, reproducible analysis of the FIGAERO temperature-dependent mass spectral data. The NSSC allows for determination of thermal profiles for compositionally...

Data from: Assessment of dysmyelination with RAFFn MRI: application to murine MPS I

David Satzer, Christina DiBartolomeo, Michael M. Ritchie, Christine Storino, Timo Liimatainen, Hanne Hakkarainen, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Silvia Mangia, Shalom Michaeli, Ann M. Parr & Walter C. Low
Type I mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder with neurological features. Humans and laboratory animals with MPS I exhibit various white matter abnormalities involving the corpus callosum and other regions. In this study, we first validated a novel MRI technique, entitled Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field in the rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn), as a measure of myelination and dysmyelination in mice. We then examined differences between MPS I mice...

Data from: Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography

Ossi Lehtikangas, Kimmo Karhunen & Marko Vauhkonen
Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields...

Data from: Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem

Alessandro Manfrin, David Lehmann, Roy H.A. Van Grunsven, Stefano Larsen, Jari Syväranta, Geraldene Wharton, Christian C. Voigt, Michael T. Monaghan, Franz Hölker & Roy H. A. Van Grunsven
Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked by fluxes of carbon and nutrients in riparian areas. Processes that alter these fluxes may therefore change the diet and composition of consumer communities. We used stable carbon isotope (δ13C) analyses to test whether the increased abundance of aquatic prey observed in another study led to a dietary shift in riparian consumers in areas illuminated by artificial light at night (ALAN). We measured the contribution of aquatic-derived carbon to...

Data from: Pushing the limits of photoreception in twilight conditions: The rod-like cone retina of the deep-sea pearlsides

Fanny De Busserolles, Fabio Cortesi, Jon Vidar Helvik, Wayne I. L. Davies, Rachel M. Templin, Robert K. P. Sullivan, Craig T. Michell, Jessica K. Mountford, Shaun P. Collin, Xabier Irigoien, Stein Kaartvedt & Justin Marshall
Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes,...

Data from: Combined effects of retention forestry and prescribed burning on polypore fungi

Mai Suominen, Kaisa Junninen, Osmo Heikkala & Jari Kouki
1. Retention forestry and prescribed burning aim to alleviate the negative effects of forestry on biodiversity by maintaining the structural elements of natural forests in managed forests. We present the long-term effects of these methods on polypore fungi, a taxonomic group that has been severely affected by forestry. 2. Using a 10-year, large-scale field experiment, we studied how prescribed burning and two different tree retention levels (10 and 50 m3 ha−1) affect polypore fungi. We...

Data from: Phylogeny of Salix subgenus Salix s.l. (Salicaceae): delimitation biogeography and reticulate evolution

Jie Wu, Tommi Nyman, Dong-Chao Wang, George W. Argus, Yong-Ping Yang & Jia-Hui Chen
Background The taxonomy and systematics of Salix subgenus Salix s.l. is difficult. The reliability and evolutionary implications of two important morphological characters (number of stamens, and morphology of bud scales) used in subgeneric classification within Salix remain untested, and a disjunct Old–New World distribution pattern of a main clade of subgenus Salix s.l., revealed by a previous study, lacks a reasonable explanation. To study these questions, we conducted phylogenetic analyses based on 4,688 bp of...

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