24 Works

Data from: Known knowns, known unknowns, unknown unknowns and unknown knowns in DNA barcoding: a comment on Dowton et al.

Rupert A. Collins & Robert H. Cruickshank
In a recent commentary, Dowton et al. (2014) propose a framework for "next-generation" DNA barcoding, whereby multi-locus datasets are coupled with coalescent-based species delimitation methods to make specimen identifications. They claim single-locus DNA barcoding is outdated, and a multilocus approach superior, with their assertions supported by an analysis of 33 species of Sarcophaga flesh flies. Here, we reanalyse their data and show that a standard DNA barcode analysis is in fact capable of identifying 99.8%...

Data from: Flight of the bumble bee: buzzes predict pollination services

Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, David Heise, Johannes Schul, Jennifer C. Geib & Candace Galen
Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator...

Diversity change in forest plots of Blue Mountains, Jamaica

William Godsoe, Peter Bellingham & Elena Moltchanova
Beta diversity describes the differences in species composition among communities. Changes in beta diversity over time are thought to be due to selection based on species’ niche characteristics. For example, theory predicts that selection that favours habitat specialists will increase beta diversity. In practice, ecologists struggle to predict how beta diversity changes. To remedy this problem, we propose a novel solution that formally measures selection’s effects on beta diversity. Using the Price equation, we show...

Data from: Plant mutualisms with rhizosphere microbiota in introduced versus native ranges

Natasha Shelby, Richard P. Duncan, Wim H. Van Der Putten, Kevin J. McGinn, Carolin Weser & Philip E. Hulme
The performance of introduced plants can be limited by the availability of soil mutualists outside their native range, but how interactions with mutualists differ between ranges is largely unknown. If mutualists are absent, incompatible or parasitic, plants may compensate by investing more in root biomass, adapting to be more selective or by maximizing the benefits associated with the mutualists available. We tested these hypotheses using seven non-agricultural species of Trifolium naturalized in New Zealand (NZ)....

Data from: Priority effects are interactively regulated by top-down and bottom-up forces: evidence from wood decomposer communities

Devin R. Leopold, J. Paula Wilkie, Ian A. Dickie, Robert B. Allen, Peter K. Buchanan & Tadashi Fukami
Both top-down (grazing) and bottom-up (resource availability) forces can determine the strength of priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on the structure and function of ecological communities, but their combined influences remain unresolved. To test for such influences, we assembled experimental communities of wood-decomposing fungi using a factorial manipulation of fungivore (Folsomia candida) presence, nitrogen availability, and fungal assembly history. We found interactive effects of all three factors on fungal species composition...

Data from: Trait responses to AM fungi are stronger and more consistent than fixed differences among populations of Asclepias speciosa

Lauren P. Waller, Philip G. Hahn, John L. Maron & Ylva Lekberg
Premise of the study: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can promote plant growth and reproduction, but other plant physiological traits or traits that provide defense against herbivores can also be affected by AM fungi. However, whether responses of different traits to AM fungi are correlated, and whether these relationships vary among plants from different populations is unresolved. Methods: We assessed whether different populations of the perennial forb, Asclepias speciosa, grown from seed collected from different environmental...

Data from: Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signalling pathway define hairy and slick cattle

Matthew D. Littlejohn, Kristen M. Henty, Tiplady Kathryn, Thomas Johnson, Chad Harland, Thomas Lopdell, Richard G. Sherlock, Wanbo Li, Steven D. Lukefahr, Bruce C. Shanks, Dorian J. Garrick, Russel G. Snell, Richard J. Spelman & Stephen R. Davis
WGS Variants from 556 NZ Dairy Animals Chr23:30627379-40627379rtg_3.3.1_556_animal_Chr23:30627379-40627379_for_dryad.vcf.gzExome Variants in Multiple Breeds Chr20:34783594-42331973GATK-10MB-Window-Exomes.vcf.gzHairy syndrome genotypes and phenotypesGenotypes and phenotype used for genome-wide analysis of the hairy syndrome, Plink binary format (.bim .bed .fam)gen_phen_data_for_paper.zipHairy bull progeny TaqMan resultsHairy_bull_progeny_TaqMan_results.txtphysiological phenotypesphysiological_phenos.zipDFAM association results for 628,279 SNPDFAM_assoc_results.zipPhased genotypes and phenotypes for 82 Senepol crossbreedsphased_gen_phen_data_slick.zip

Data from: Inadvertent biological control: an Australian thrips killing an invasive New Zealand tree in California

Jon J. Sullivan
Transport hubs of international trade and tourism are sites of unprecedented long-distance dispersal of species and novel ecological interactions. In cases of invasive plants released from their specialist natural enemies, novel interactions with both resident enemies and new arrivals can accumulate and potentially reduce weed competitiveness. I present here one dramatic example of this, where an invasive woody weed in southern California is being rapidly controlled by an accidentally introduced genus-specialist herbivorous insect. The New...

Community-level direct and indirect impacts of an invasive plant favour exotic over native species

Warwick Allen, Ralph Wainer, Jason Tylianakis, Barbara Barratt, Marcus-Rongowhitiao Shadbolt, Lauren Waller & Ian Dickie
1. Indirect interactions mediated by shared enemies or mutualists (i.e., apparent competition) can influence whether invasive plants harm or benefit co-occurring species. However, studies to date have largely examined single pairwise interactions, limiting our understanding of the interplay among different types of interactions and whether indirect impacts systematically favour native or exotic species. Predicting indirect interaction strength has also proven challenging, and it remains unclear whether the strengths of different indirect interactions are correlated. 2....

Data from: Assessing patterns in introduction pathways of alien species by linking major invasion databases

Wolf-Christian Saul, Helen E. Roy, Olaf Booy, Lucilla Carnevali, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Piero Genovesi, Colin A. Harrower, Philip E. Hulme, Shyama Pagad, Jan Pergl & Jonathan M. Jeschke
1. Preventing the arrival of invasive alien species (IAS) is a major priority in managing biological invasions. However, information on introduction pathways is currently scattered across many databases that often use different categorisations to describe similar pathways. This hampers the identification and prioritisation of pathways in order to meet the main targets of recent environmental policies. 2. Therefore, we integrate pathway information from two major IAS databases, IUCN's Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the...

Data from: The role of species traits in mediating functional recovery during matrix restoration

Andrew D. Barnes, Rowan M. Emberson, Frank-Thorsten Krell & Raphael K. Didham
Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass...

Data from: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change

Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, Peter G. Kevan, Ricardo M. Holdo, Diane Ebert-May, Austin M. Lynn, Jessica A. Kettenbach, Elizabeth Hedrick & Candace Galen
Ecological partnerships, or mutualisms, are globally widespread, sustaining agriculture and biodiversity. Mutualisms evolve through the matching of functional traits between partners, such as tongue length of pollinators and flower tube depth of plants. Long-tongued pollinators specialize on flowers with deep corolla tubes, whereas shorter-tongued pollinators generalize across tube lengths. Losses of functional guilds because of shifts in global climate may disrupt mutualisms and threaten partner species. We found that in two alpine bumble bee species,...

Data from: The effect of trap colour and trap-flower distance on prey and pollinator capture in carnivorous Drosera species

Andreas Jürgens, Taina Witt, Amber Sciligo & Ashraf M. El-Sayed
1. The functional features of carnivorous plants’ traps have been mostly interpreted as adaptations to capture prey. Carnivorous plants that feed on insects, however, run the risk that increasing trapping effectiveness might in turn reduce reproductive success through capture of pollinators. Such a pollinator–prey conflict might play an important role in the evolution of trap features. In carnivorous plants with sticky leaves (e.g. Drosera, Pinguicula), both spatial distance between traps and flowers and their visual...

Data from: Predicting biotic interactions and their variability in a changing environment

Kohmei Kadowaki, Claire G. Barbera, William Godsoe, Frédéric Delsuc & Nicolas Mouquet
Global environmental change is altering the patterns of biodiversity worldwide. Observation and theory suggest that species' distributions and abundances depend on a suite of processes, notably abiotic filtering and biotic interactions, both of which are constrained by species' phylogenetic history. Models predicting species distribution have historically mostly considered abiotic filtering and are only starting to integrate biotic interaction. However, using information on present interactions to forecast the future of biodiversity supposes that biotic interactions will...

Data from: Pollination on the dark side: acoustic monitoring reveals impacts of a total solar eclipse on flight behavior and activity schedule of foraging bees

Candace Galen, Zachary Miller, Austin Lynn, Michael Axe, Samuel Holden, Levi Storks, Edward Ramirez, Emilia Asante, David Heise, Susan Kephart, James Kephart, Eddie Ramirez & Jim Kephart
The total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 traversed ~5000 km from coast to coast of North America. In its 90-min span, sunlight dropped by three orders of magnitude and temperature by 10–15°C. To investigate impacts of these changes on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) pollinators, we monitored their flights acoustically in natural habitats of Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountain, and Midwest regions. Temperature changes during the eclipse had little impact on bee activity. Most of the explained...

Qualitative responses from students during spring 2019

Eve Humphrey
During the Spring Semester of 2020, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the illnesses it caused (COVID-19) led to widespread cancelling of on-campus instruction at colleges and universities in the United States and other countries around the world. Response to the pandemic in university settings included a rapid and unexpected shift to online learning for faculty and students. The transition to teaching and learning online posed many challenges, and the experiences of students...

Data from: Social discrimination by quantitative assessment of immunogenetic similarity

Jandouwe Villinger & Bruce Waldman
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that underlie the adaptive immune system may allow vertebrates to recognise their kin. True kin-recognition genes should produce signalling products to which organisms can respond. Allelic variation in the peptide-binding region (PBR) of MHC molecules determines the pool of peptides that can be presented to trigger an immune response. To examine whether these MHC peptides also might underlie assessments of genetic similarity, we tested whether Xenopus laevis tadpoles...

Data from: Soil-mediated effects of invasive ungulates on native tree seedlings

Paul Kardol, Ian A. Dickie, Mark G. St. John, Sean W. Husheer, Karen I. Bonner, Peter J. Bellingham & David A. Wardle
1. Invasive browsing ungulates can have strong impacts on the structure and composition of forest ecosystems, particularly where ungulates are not native ecosystem components as in New Zealand. Ungulate impacts on plant communities have been considered mostly from an above-ground perspective. However, understanding below-ground effects of these invasive herbivores is critical as they may drive feedbacks to above-ground ecosystem components. 2. We measured growth responses of seedlings of five common tree species in a greenhouse...

Data from: Testing weed risk assessment paradigms: intraspecific differences in performance and naturalisation risk outweigh interspecific differences in alien Brassica

Ross Meffin, Richard P. Duncan & Philip E. Hulme
1.Risk assessments of alien species are usually conducted at species level, assuming that all individuals of a given species pose similar risks. However, this may not be the case if there is substantial within-species variation that could influence invasion success. 2.We used a seed addition experiment, comprising 25 taxonomically stratified varieties of three Brassica species introduced to roadside habitats in Canterbury, New Zealand, to quantify variation in performance among species, subspecies and varieties. We aimed...

Data from: Sleeping with the ‘enemy’ - Hybridization of an endangered tree weta

Rachel A. Van Heugten, Roddy J. Hale, Mike H. Bowie & Marie L. Hale
While hybridization is an important part of the evolutionary process, for rare species mating with more common species hybridization can increase the risks of extinction. By mating with heterospecifics rare species waste valuable reproductive resources and as a result population sizes may decline. If introgression occurs, the rare species can become genetically swamped by alleles from the more common species, rendering it effectively extinct. As a consequence of these risks, hybridization with the more common...

Data from: Community-level flammability declines over 25 years of plant invasion in grasslands

Josep Padullés Cubino, Hannah L. Buckley, Nicola J. Day, Robin Pieper & Timothy J. Curran
1. Exotic plant invasions can alter fire regimes in plant communities. Invaders often possess traits that differ from native plants in the community, resulting in increases or declines in community-level flammability, changing fire regimes, and potentially causing long-term modifications to plant community composition. Although considering traits of multiple invaders and native species together is useful to better understand how invasions change community-level flammability, few studies have done this. 2 Measured morphological and flammability traits of...

Data from: Novel interactions between non-native mammals and fungi facilitate establishment of invasive pines

Jamie R. Wood, Ian A. Dickie, Holly V. Moeller, Duane A. Peltzer, Karen I. Bonner, Gaye Rattray & Janet M. Wilmshurst
1. The role of novel ecological interactions between mammals, fungi and plants in invaded ecosystems remains unresolved, but may play a key role in the widespread successful invasion of pines and their ectomycorrhizal fungal associates, even where mammal faunas originate from different continents to trees and fungi as in New Zealand. 2. We examine the role of novel mammal associations in dispersal of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum of North American pines (Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziesii), and...

Data from: Experimental evidence that the effectiveness of conservation biological control depends on landscape complexity

Mattias Jonsson, Cory S. Straub, Raphael K. Didham, Hannah L. Buckley, Bradley S. Case, Roddy J. Hale, Claudio Gratton & Steve D. Wratten
1. The expansion of intensive agricultural practices is a major threat to biodiversity and to the delivery of ecosystem services on which humans depend. Local-scale conservation management strategies, such as agri-environment schemes to preserve biodiversity, have been widely adopted to reduce the negative impacts of agricultural intensification. However, it is likely that the effectiveness of these local-scale management actions depend on the structure and composition of the surrounding landscape. 2. We experimentally tested the utility...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

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