30 Works

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Priority effects can persist across floral generations in nectar microbial metacommunities

Hirokazu Toju, Rachel L. Vannette, Marie-Pierre L. Gauthier, Manpreet K. Dhami & Tadashi Fukami
The order of species arrival can influence how species interact with one another and, consequently, which species may coexist in local communities. This phenomenon, called priority effects, has been observed in various types of communities, but it remains unclear whether priority effects persist over the long term spanning multiple generations of local communities in metacommunities. Focusing on bacteria and yeasts that colonize floral nectar of the sticky monkey flower, Mimulus aurantiacus, via hummingbirds and other...

Data from: Dispersal enhances beta diversity in nectar microbes

Rachel L. Vannette & Tadashi Fukami
Dispersal is considered a key driver of beta diversity, the variation in species composition among local communities, but empirical tests remain limited. We manipulated dispersal of nectar-inhabiting bacteria and yeasts via flower-visiting animals to examine how dispersal influenced microbial beta diversity among flowers. Contrary to the prevailing view that dispersal lowers beta diversity, we found beta diversity was highest when dispersal was least limited. Our analysis suggested that this unexpected pattern might have resulted from...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinction dominates Holocene declines of West Indian mammals

Siobhán B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Samuel T. Turvey & Nathan S. Upham
The extensive postglacial mammal losses in the West Indies provide an opportunity to evaluate extinction dynamics, but limited data have hindered our ability to test hypotheses. Here, we analyze the tempo and dynamics of extinction using a novel data set of faunal last-appearance dates and human first-appearance dates, demonstrating widespread overlap between humans and now-extinct native mammals. Humans arrived in four waves (Lithic, Archaic, Ceramic, and European), each associated with increased environmental impact. Large-bodied mammals...

Data from: Rapid evolution rescues hosts from competition and disease but—despite a dilution effect—increases the density of infected hosts

Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Marta S. Shocket, Carla E. Cáceres, Meghan A. Duffy & Spencer R. Hall
Virulent parasites can depress the densities of their hosts. Taxa that reduce disease via dilution effects might alleviate this burden. However, ‘diluter’ taxa can also depress host densities through competition for shared resources. The combination of disease and interspecific competition could even drive hosts extinct. Then again, genetically variable host populations can evolve in response to both competitors and parasites. Can rapid evolution rescue host density from the harm caused by these ecological enemies? How...

Data from: Priority effects are interactively regulated by top-down and bottom-up forces: evidence from wood decomposer communities

Devin R. Leopold, J. Paula Wilkie, Ian A. Dickie, Robert B. Allen, Peter K. Buchanan & Tadashi Fukami
Both top-down (grazing) and bottom-up (resource availability) forces can determine the strength of priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on the structure and function of ecological communities, but their combined influences remain unresolved. To test for such influences, we assembled experimental communities of wood-decomposing fungi using a factorial manipulation of fungivore (Folsomia candida) presence, nitrogen availability, and fungal assembly history. We found interactive effects of all three factors on fungal species composition...

Data from: Utilization of health services in a resource-limited rural area in Kenya: prevalence and associated household-level factors

Anthony K. Ngugi, Felix Agoi, Megan R. Mahoney, Amyn Lakhani, David Mang’ong’o, Esther Nderitu, Robert Armstrong & Sarah Macfarlane
Introduction Knowledge of utilization of health services and associated factors is important in planning and delivery of interventions to improve health services coverage. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with health services utilization in a rural area of Kenya. Our findings inform the local health management in development of appropriately targeted interventions. Methods and Results We used a cluster sample survey design and interviewed household key informants on history of illness for household members...

Data from: Exams disadvantage women in introductory biology

Sehoya Cotner, Shima Salehi & Cissy J. Ballen
The gender gap in STEM fields has prompted a great deal of discussion, but what factors underlie performance deficits remain poorly understood. We show that female students underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts across ten large introductory biology course sections in fall 2016 (N > 1500 students). Females also reported higher levels of test anxiety and course-relevant science interest. Results from mediation analyses revealed an intriguing pattern: for female students only, and regardless...

Data from: A new low-turbulence wind tunnel for animal and small vehicle flight experiments

Daniel B. Quinn, Anthony Watts, Tony Nagle & David Lentink
Our understanding of animal flight benefits greatly from specialized wind tunnels designed for flying animals. Existing facilities can simulate laminar flow during straight, ascending and descending flight, as well as at different altitudes. However, the atmosphere in which animals fly is even more complex. Flow can be laminar and quiet at high altitudes but highly turbulent near the ground, and gusts can rapidly change wind speed. To study flight in both laminar and turbulent environments,...

Data from: Using mobile phones as acoustic sensors for high-throughput mosquito surveillance

Haripriya Mukundarajan, Felix Jan Hein Hol, Erica Araceli Castillo, Cooper Newby & Manu Prakash
The direct monitoring of mosquito populations in field settings is a crucial input for shaping appropriate and timely control measures for mosquito-borne diseases. Here, we demonstrate that commercially available mobile phones are a powerful tool for acoustically mapping mosquito species distributions worldwide. We show that even low-cost mobile phones with very basic functionality are capable of sensitively acquiring acoustic data on species-specific mosquito wingbeat sounds, while simultaneously recording the time and location of the human-mosquito...

Data from: The genomics of recovery from coral bleaching

Luke Thomas & Stephen R. Palumbi
Ecological damage from periodic environmental extremes is often repaired in resilient ecosystems, but the rate of return to a non-damaged state is critical. Measures of recovery of communities include biomass, productivity and diversity, while measures of recovery of individuals tend to focus on physiological conditions and the return to normal metabolic functioning. Transcriptomics offers a window into the entire physiology of the organism under stress and can represent a holistic view of organismal recovery. In...

Data from: Timing of mutualist arrival has a greater effect on Pinus muricata seedling growth than interspecific competition

Kabir G. Peay
Interactions with symbiotic microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi, have the potential to greatly influence plant growth, but it is unclear whether field variation in symbiont availability is common and, if so, sufficient to influence interspecific plant competition. In a greenhouse experiment using natural field soils, I varied the timing of ectomycorrhizal inoculation and the presence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal plant competitor, and measured their effects on pine seedling growth. I found that ectomycorrhizal colonization was...

Data from: Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics

Graham J. Slater, Jeremy A. Goldbogen & Nicholas D. Pyenson
Vertebrates have evolved to gigantic sizes repeatedly over the past 250 Myr, reaching their extreme in today's baleen whales (Mysticeti). Hypotheses for the evolution of exceptionally large size in mysticetes range from niche partitioning to predator avoidance, but there has been no quantitative examination of body size evolutionary dynamics in this clade and it remains unclear when, why or how gigantism evolved. By fitting phylogenetic macroevolutionary models to a dataset consisting of living and extinct...

Data from: Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal

Esteban J. Parra, Andrew Mazurek, Christopher R. Gignoux, Alexandra Sockell, Michael Agostino, Andrew P. Morris, Lauren E. Petty, Craig L. Hanis, Nancy J. Cox, Adan Valladares-Salgado, Jennifer E. Below & Miguel Cruz
We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this...

Data from: Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight

Elizabeth A. Andruszkiewicz, Lauren M. Sassoubre & Alexandria B. Boehm
Harnessing information encoded in environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine waters has the potential to revolutionize marine biomonitoring. Whether using organism-specific quantitative PCR assays or metabarcoding in conjunction with amplicon sequencing, scientists have illustrated that realistic organism censuses can be inferred from eDNA. The next step is establishing ways to link information obtained from eDNA analyses to actual organism abundance. This is only possible by understanding the processes that control eDNA concentrations. The present study uses...

Data from: Late spring nitrate distributions beneath the ice-covered northeastern Chukchi Shelf

Kevin R. Arrigo, Matthew M. Mills, Gert L. Van Dijken, Kate E. Lowry, Robert S. Pickart & Reiner Schlitzer
Measurements of late springtime nutrient concentrations in Arctic waters are relatively rare due to the extensive sea ice cover that makes sampling difficult. During the SUBICE cruise in May-June 2014, an extensive survey of hydrography and pre-bloom concentrations of inorganic macronutrients, oxygen, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and chlorophyll a was conducted in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Cold (< -1.5°C) winter water was prevalent throughout the study area, and the water column was weakly stratified....

Data from: Genome dynamics of hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae during vegetative and meiotic divisions

Abhishek Dutta, , Ajith V. Pankajam, Parijat Chakraborty, Nahush Bhat, Lars M. Steinmetz & Nishant K. Thazath
Mutation and recombination are the major sources of genetic diversity in all organisms. In the baker's yeast, all mutation rate estimates are in homozygous background. We determined the extent of genetic change through mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome during successive vegetative and meiotic divisions. We measured genome wide LOH and base mutation rates during vegetative and meiotic divisions in a hybrid (S288c/YJM789) S. cerevisiae strain. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid...

Data from: Logging and indigenous hunting impacts on persistence of large Neotropical animals

Anand Roopsind, T. Trevor Caughlin, Hemchandranauth Sambhu, Jose M.V. Fragoso, Francis E. Putz., Francis E. Putz & Jose M. V. Fragoso
Areas allocated for industrial logging and community-owned forests account for over 50% of all remaining tropical forests. Landscape-scale conservation strategies that include these forests are expected to have substantial benefits for biodiversity, especially for large mammals and birds that require extensive habitat but that are susceptible to extirpation due to synergies between logging and hunting. In addition, their responses to logging alone are poorly understood due to their cryptic behavior and low densities. In this...

Data from: Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current

Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Kelly M. Newton, John Calambokidis, Julia A. Burrows, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, James T. Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A. Croll & Kelly M. Zilliacus
1. Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify. 2. We investigated...

Data from: Rapid adaptation in large populations with very rare sex: scalings and spontaneous oscillations

Michael T. Pearce & Daniel S. Fisher
Genetic exchange in microbes and other facultative sexuals can be rare enough that evolution is almost entirely asexual and populations almost clonal. But the benefits of genetic exchange depend crucially on the diversity of genotypes in a population. How very rare recombination together with the accumulation of new mutations shapes the diversity of large populations and gives rise to faster adaptation is still poorly understood. This paper analyzes a particularly simple model: organisms with two...

Data from: Muscle-tendon mechanics explain unexpected effects of exoskeleton assistance on metabolic rate during walking

Rachel W. Jackson, Christopher L. Dembia, Scott L. Delp & Steve H. Collins
The goal of this study was to gain insight into how ankle exoskeletons affect the behavior of the plantarflexor muscles during walking. Using data from previous experiments, we performed electromyography-driven simulations of musculoskeletal dynamics to explore how changes in exoskeleton assistance affected plantarflexor muscle–tendon mechanics, particularly for the soleus. We used a model of muscle energy consumption to estimate individual muscle metabolic rate. As average exoskeleton torque was increased, while no net exoskeleton work was...

Data from: The magnitude of ivacaftor effects on fluid secretion via R117H-CFTR channels: human in vivo measurements

Jessica E. Char, Colleen Dunn, Zoe Davies, Carlos Milla, Richard B. Moss & Jeffrey J. Wine
We optically measured effects of orally available ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) on sweat rates of identified glands in 3 R117H subjects, each having a unique set of additional mutations, and compared them with 5 healthy control subjects tested contemporaneously. We injected β-adrenergic agonists intradermally to stimulate CFTR-dependent ‘C-sweat’ and methacholine to stimulate ‘M-sweat’, which persists in CF subjects. We focused on an R117H-7T/F508del subject who produced quantifiable C-sweat off ivacaftor and was available for 1 blinded, 3...

Data from: Movements of four native Hawaiian birds across a naturally fragmented landscape

Jessie L. Knowlton, David J. Flaspohler, Eben H. Paxton, Tadashi Fukami, Christian P. Giardina, Daniel S. Gruner & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Animals often increase their fitness by moving across space in response to temporal variation in habitat quality and resource availability, and as a result of intra and inter-specific interactions. The long-term persistence of populations and even whole species depends on the collective patterns of individual movements, yet animal movements have been poorly studied at the landscape level. We quantified movement behavior within four native species of Hawaiian forest birds in a complex lava-fragmented landscape: Hawai‛i...

Data from: Early spring phytoplankton dynamics in the western Antarctic Peninsula

Kevin R. Arrigo, Gert L. Van Dijken, Anne-Carlijn Alderkamp, Zachary K. Erickson, Kate M. Lewis, Kate E. Lowry, Hannah L. Joy-Warren, Rob Middag, Janice E. Nash-Arrigo, Virginia Selz, Willem H. Van De Poll & Willem Van De Poll
The Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research program has sampled waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP) annually each summer since 1990. However, information about the wAP prior to the peak of the phytoplankton bloom in January is sparse. Here we present results from a spring process cruise that sampled the wAP in the early stages of phytoplankton bloom development in 2014. Sea ice concentrations were high on the shelf relative to non-shelf waters, especially toward the...

Data from: Habitat risk assessment for regional ocean planning in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic

Katherine H. Wyatt, Rob Griffin, Anne D. Guerry, Mary Ruckelshaus, Michael Fogarty, Katie K. Arkema & Robert Griffin
Coastal habitats provide important benefits to people, including habitat for species targeted by fisheries and opportunities for tourism and recreation. Yet, such human activities also can imperil these habitats and undermine the ecosystem services they provide to people. Cumulative risk assessment provides an analytical framework for synthesizing the influence of multiple stressors across habitats and decision-support for balancing human uses and ecosystem health. To explore cumulative risk to habitats in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    30

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    30

Affiliations

  • Stanford University
    30
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of California, Santa Cruz
    2
  • Stony Brook University
    2
  • Michigan Technological University
    1
  • National Oceanography Centre
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • University of Newcastle Australia
    1
  • Lincoln University
    1
  • Spanish Institute of Oceanography
    1