47 Works

Variations in the Intensity and Spatial Extent of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation

Danielle Touma, Samantha Stevenson, Suzana J. Camargo, Daniel E. Horton & Noah S. Diffenbaugh
The intensity and spatial extent of tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) often shapes the risk posed by landfalling storms. Here we provide a comprehensive climatology of landfalling TCP characteristics as a function of tropical cyclone strength, using daily precipitation station data and Atlantic US landfalling tropical cyclone tracks from 1900-2017. We analyze the intensity and spatial extent of ≥ 1 mm/day TCP (Z1) and ≥ 50 mm/day TCP (Z50) over land. We show that the highest...

2013 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

Data from: Species richness change across spatial scales

Jonathan M. Chase, Brian J. McGill, Patrick L. Thompson, Laura H. Antão, Amanda E. Bates, Shane A. Blowes, Maria Dornelas, Andrew Gonzalez, Anne E. Magurran, Sarah R. Supp, Marten Winter, Anne D. Bjorkmann, Helge Bruelheide, Jarrett E.K. Byrnes, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Robin Ehali, Catalina Gomez, Hector M. Guzman, Forest Isbell, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Holly P. Jones, Jessica Hines, Mark Vellend, Conor Waldock & Mary O'Connor
Humans have elevated global extinction rates and thus lowered global-scale species richness. However, there is no a priori reason to expect that losses of global species richness should always, or even often, trickle down to losses of species richness at regional and local scales, even though this relationship is often assumed. Here, we show that scale can modulate our estimates of species richness change through time in the face of anthropogenic pressures, but not in...

Data from: Molecular physiology of chemical defenses in a poison frog

Stephanie N Caty, Aurora Alvarez-Buylla, Gary` D Byrd, Charles Vidoudez, Alexandre B Roland, Elicio E Tapia, Bogdan Bodnik, Sunia A Trauger, Luis A Coloma & Lauren A O'Connell
Poison frogs sequester small molecule lipophilic alkaloids from their diet of leaf litter arthropods for use as chemical defenses against predation. Although the dietary acquisition of chemical defenses in poison frogs is well-documented, the physiological mechanisms of alkaloid sequestration has not been investigated. Here, we used RNA sequencing and proteomics to determine how alkaloids impact mRNA or protein abundance in the Little Devil Frog (Oophaga sylvatica) and compared wild caught chemically defended frogs to laboratory...

Data from: Empowering conservation practice with efficient and economical genotyping from poor quality samples

Meghana Natesh, Ryan W. Taylor, Nathan Truelove, Elizabeth A. Hadly, Stephen Palumbi, Dmitri Petrov & Uma Ramakrishnan
1. Moderate to high density genotyping (100+ SNPs) is widely used to determine and measure individual identity, relatedness, fitness, population structure and migration in wild populations. 2. However, these important tools are difficult to apply when high-quality genetic material is unavailable. Most genomic tools are developed for high quality DNA sources from lab or medical settings. As a result, most genetic data from market or field settings is limited to easily-amplified mitochondrial DNA or a...

Data from: Patterned frequency-modulated oral stimulation in preterm infants: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

Dongli Song, Priya Jegatheesan, Suhas Nafday, Kaashif A. Ahmad, Jonathan Nedrelow, Mary Wearden, Sheri Nemerofsky, Sunshine Pooley, Diane Thompson, Daniel Vail, Tania Cornejo, Zahava Cohen & Balaji Govindaswami
Objective To evaluate the effect of patterned, frequency-modulated oro-somatosensory stimulation on time to full oral feeds in preterm infants born 26 - 30 weeks gestation. Study Design This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The experimental group (n = 109) received patterned, frequency-modulated oral stimulation via the NTrainer system through a pulsatile pacifier and the control group (n = 101) received a non-pulsatile pacifier. Intent-to-treat analysis (n = 210) was performed to compare the experimental...

Data from: Applying modern coexistence theory to priority effects

Tess Nahanni Grainger, Andrew D. Letten, Benjamin Gilbert & Tadashi Fukami
Modern coexistence theory is increasingly used to explain how differences between competing species lead to coexistence versus competitive exclusion. Although research testing this theory has focused on deterministic cases of competitive exclusion, in which the same species always wins, mounting evidence suggests that competitive exclusion is often historically contingent, such that whichever species happens to arrive first excludes the other. Coexistence theory predicts that historically contingent exclusion, known as priority effects, will occur when large...

Agricultural intensification drives changes in hybrid network robustness by modifying network structure

Beth Morrison, Berry Brosi & Rodolfo Dirzo
Within ecological communities, species engage in myriad interaction types, yet empirical examples of hybrid species interaction networks composed of multiple types of interactions are still scarce. A key knowledge gap is understanding how the structure and stability of such hybrid networks are affected by anthropogenic disturbance. Using 15,169 interaction observations, we constructed 16 hybrid herbivore-plant-pollinator networks along an agricultural intensification gradient to explore changes in network structure and robustness to local extinctions. We found that...

Data from: Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials

Leonard H Van Den Berg, Eric Sorenson, Gary Gronseth, Eric A. Macklin, Jinsy Andrews, Robert H. Baloh, Michael Benatar, James D. Berry, Adriano Chio, Philippe Corcia, Angela Genge, Amelie K. Gubitz, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Christopher J. McDermott, Erik P. Pioro, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Martin R. Turner, Markus Weber, Benjamin Rix Brooks, Robert G. Miller & Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry and regulatory agencies) addressed nine areas of need within ALS research: 1. Pre-clinical studies; 2. Biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; 3. Outcome measures; 4. Disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions;...

Top-down forcing of an apex predator (Puma concolor) on a suburban ecosystem

Kevin Leempoel, Jordana Meyer, Trevor Hébert, Nicole Nova & Elizabeth Hadly
Absence of apex predators simplifies food chains, leading to degradation of ecosystems and diminution of the services they provide (Estes et al. 2011). However, large predators do not coexist well with humans, which has resulted in a worldwide decline of carnivores and thus, their roles in ecosystem function (Ripple et al. 2014). With diminution of habitat, carnivores are more likely to move into urban landscapes causing conflict with humans and their domesticated animals. In a...

2011 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

Data from: Clinical Outcomes Associated with the use of the NexSite™ Hemodialysis Catheter with New Exit Barrier Technology: Results from a Prospective, Observational Multi-center Registry Study

Jeffery G. Hoggard, Richard D. Blair, Manuel Montero, Moustafa A. Moustafa, Joseph Newman, Pablo E. Pergola, Nathan Saucier, , Leonard A. Mermel, John R. Ross & Anatole D. Beserab
Purpose: Decreasing the risk of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) remains a key focus for improving outcomes and reducing cost of care for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Recent studies demonstrate CRBSI rates can be improved by managing bacterial colonization at the catheter exit site. Herein we present the results of a study documenting the clinical performance of the NexSite® HD catheter, a new tunneled central venous catheter which incorporates Exit Site Management (ESM) technology. Methods: We...

Data from: Grazing disturbance promotes exotic annual grasses by degrading soil biocrust communities

Heather Root, Jesse Miller & Roger Rosentreter
Exotic invasive plants threaten ecosystem integrity, and their success depends on a combination of abiotic factors, disturbances, and interactions with existing communities. In dryland ecosystems, soil biocrusts (communities of lichens, bryophytes and microorganisms) can limit favorable microsites needed for invasive species establishment, but the relative importance of biocrusts for landscape-scale invasion patterns remains poorly understood. We examine effects of livestock grazing in habitats at high risk for invasion to test the hypothesis that disturbance indirectly...

Data from: Early plant development depends on embryo damage location: the role of seed size in partial seed predation

Ramón Perea García-Calvo, Geraldo Fernandes & Rodolfo Dirzo
Data on 1) Observed weevil-infested acorns in the field; 2) Germination rates and times, and seedling emergence of control and embryo-damaged acorns; 3) Seedling performance and physiology of seedlings

Data from: Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Shane Blowes, Jonathan Chase, Antonio Di Franco, Ori Frid, Nicholas Gotelli, Paolo Guidetti, Tiffany Knight, Felix May, Daniel McGlinn, Fiorenza Micheli, Enric Sala & Jonathan Belmaker
1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local-scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total...

Mechanisms of convergent egg provisioning in poison frogs

Eva K. Fischer, Alexandre B. Roland, Nora A. Moskowitz, Charles Vidoudez, Ndimbintsoa Ranaivorazo, Elicio E. Tapia, Sunia A. Trauger, Miguel Vences, Luis A. Coloma & Lauren A. O'Connell
Parental provisioning of offspring with physiological products (nursing) occurs in many animals, yet little is known about the neuroendocrine basis of nursing in non-mammalian species. Within amphibians, maternal provisioning has evolved multiple times, with mothers of some species feeding unfertilized eggs to their developing offspring until tadpoles complete metamorphosis. We conducted field studies in Ecuador and Madagascar to ask whether convergence at the behavioral level provides similar benefits to offspring and relies on shared neural...

Variations in the Intensity and Spatial Extent of Tropical Cyclone Precipitation

Danielle Touma, Samantha Stevenson, Suzana Camargo, Daniel Horton & Noah Diffenbaugh
The intensity and spatial extent of tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) often shapes the risk posed by landfalling storms. Here we provide a comprehensive climatology of landfalling TCP characteristics as a function of tropical cyclone strength, using daily precipitation station data and Atlantic US landfalling tropical cyclone tracks from 1900-2017. We analyze the intensity and spatial extent of ≥ 1 mm/day TCP (Z1) and ≥ 50 mm/day TCP (Z50). We show that the highest median intensity...

Data from: Accumulation over evolutionary time as a major cause of biodiversity hotspots in conifers

Mekala Sundaram, Michael Donoghue, Aljos Farjon, Denis Filer, Sarah Mathews, Walter Jetz & Andrew Leslie
Biodiversity hotspots are important for understanding how areas of high species richness form, but disentangling the processes that produce them is difficult. We combine geographic ranges, phylogenetic relationships, and trait data for 606 conifer species in order to explore the mechanisms underlying richness hotspot formation. We identify eight richness hotspots that overlap known centers of plant endemism and diversity. We find that conifer richness hotspots occur in mountainous areas within broader regions of long-term climate...

Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity predicted to substantially decline due to climate changes in North American Pinaceae forests.

Brian Steidinger
AIM: Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are partners in a globally distributed tree symbiosis implicated in most major ecosystem functions. However, resilience of ECMF to future climates is uncertain. We forecast these changes over the extent of North American Pinaceae forests. LOCATION: 68 sites from North American Pinaceae forests ranging from Florida to Ontario in the east and southern California to Alaska in the west. TAXON: Ectomycorrhizal fungi (Asco- and Basidiomycetes). METHODS: We characterized ECMF communities at...

Data from: Host plant phylogeny and abundance predict root-associated fungal community composition and diversity of mutualists and pathogens

John W. Schroeder, Jessica T. Martin, Diego F. Angulo, Itzel Arias-Del Razo, Jomar M. Barbosa, Ramón Perea, Esther Sebastián-González & Rodolfo Dirzo
• Interactions between plants and their root-associated fungi (RAF) may influence the relative abundance of tree species and determine forest community diversity. Such plant-soil feedbacks in turn depend on the degree to which spatial distance and phylogenetic relatedness of host trees structure pathogen and mutualist communities, but research detailing these aspects of RAF communities is lacking. Here, we characterize plant-RAF associations across a diverse plant community, focusing on the degree to which RAF communities are...

Data from: Plant selection initiates alternative successional trajectories in the soil microbial community after disturbance

Marie Duhamel, Joe Wan, Laura Bogar, Richard Segnitz, Nora Duncritts & Kabir Peay
Because interactions between plants and microbial organisms can influence species diversity and rates of nutrient cycling, how plants shape microbial communities is fundamental to understanding the structure of ecosystems. Despite this, the spatial and temporal scales over which plants influence microbial communities is poorly understood, particularly whether past abiotic or biotic legacies strongly constrain microbial community development. We examined biogeochemical cycling and microbial community structure in a coastal landscape where historical patterns of vegetation transition...

Data from: Behavioral responses of individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to mid-frequency military sonar

Brandon L. Southall, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Ari Friedlaender, Alison K. Stimpert, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, Elliott Hazen, Caroline Casey, Selene Fregosi, David E. Cade, Ann N. Allen, Catriona M. Harris, Greg Schorr, David Moretti, Shane Guan & John Calambokidis
This study measured the degree of behavioral responses in blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to controlled noise exposure off the southern California coast. High-resolution movement and passive acoustic data were obtained from non-invasive archival tags (n=42) while surface positions were obtained with visual focal follows. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) were used to obtain direct behavioral measurements before, during, and after simulated and operational military mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS), pseudorandom noise (PRN), and controls (no noise exposure)....

Registration Year

  • 2019
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    45
  • Software
    1
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • Stanford University
    37
  • Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University
    9
  • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan
    9
  • SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow
    9
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
    9
  • Center for Data Science, New York University
    9
  • Lockheed Martin Solar & Astrophysics Laboratory
    9
  • SETI Institute
    9
  • Southwest Research Institute
    7
  • Department of Psychiatry, University of Amsterdam
    7