35 Works

The environmental factors limiting the distribution of shallow-water terebratulid brachiopods

Diego A. García-Ramos, Stjepan Coric, Michael M. Joachimski & Martin Zuschin
The Cenozoic genus Terebratula seems to be an exception to the Post-Permian trend in brachiopod retreat to offshore habitats because it was species-rich and numerically abundant in warm-temperate shallow-water environments in the Mediterranean and the Paratethys realms. This was so despite the general dominance of bivalves and the pervasive bioturbation and predation pressure during the Neogene. Terebratula, however, went extinct in the Calabrian (Pleistocene). The optimal environmental conditions for Terebratula during its prime are poorly...

Data from: Analysis of morphological variability in the clam shrimp Eosestheria middendorfii (Crustacea, Spinicaudata) from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and its implications for spinicaudatan taxonomy

Manja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Jacob D. Morton & Baoyu Jiang
Unresolved taxonomic issues regarding spinicaudatans, clam shrimps that formed the most abundant faunal element in the lacustrine Barremian to Aptian Yixian Formation, have hampered palaeoecological and evolutionary interpretations of this key fossil group. Here, we analyse morphological variability in East Asian clam-shrimp taxa by quantifying: (1) size and shape; and (2) ornamental features (radial lirae distances). Intergeneric variability was examined using 51 specimens of various East Asian Mesozoic taxa, 16 of which were chosen for...

Data from: Adding fossil occupancy trajectories to the assessment of modern extinction risk

Wolfgang Kiessling & Ádám T. Kocsis
Besides helping to identify species traits that are commonly linked to extinction risk, the fossil record may also be directly relevant for assessing the extinction risk of extant species. Standing geographical distribution or occupancy is a strong predictor of both recent and past extinction risk, but the role of changes in occupancy is less widely assessed. Here we demonstrate, based on the Cenozoic fossil record of marine species, that both occupancy and its temporal trajectory...

Data from: Marine invertebrate migrations trace climate change over 450 million years

Carl J Reddin, Ádám T Kocsis & Wolfgang Kiessling
Aim: Poleward migration is a clear response of marine organisms to current global warming but the generality and geographical uniformity of this response are unclear. Marine fossils are expected to record the range shift responses of taxa and ecosystems to past climate change. However, unequal sampling (natural and human) in time and space biases the fossil record, restricting previous studies of ancient migrations to individual taxa and events. We expect that temporal changes in the...

Unentdeckte Dichotomien in den Schriften Ismail Bey Gaspiralis

Hüseyin I. Çiçek

Bye, Bye, Bias! Digital-Humanities-Projekte informationsethisch überprüfen und gestalten mit Value Sensitive Design

Katharina Leyrer
Fabrikation von Erkenntnis – Experimente in den Digital Humanities. Hg. von Manuel Burghardt, Lisa Dieckmann, Timo Steyer, Peer Trilcke, Niels Walkowski, Joëlle Weis, Ulrike Wuttke. Wolfenbüttel 2021. (= Zeitschrift für digitale Geisteswissenschaften / Sonderbände, 5)

Data from: Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Jürgen Schmidl, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jonathan R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H.C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan, Andreas Floren, Roger L. Kitching … & Jacques H. C. Delabie
Quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of arthropods in tropical rainforests represents a first step towards scrutinizing the global distribution of biodiversity on Earth. To date most studies have focused on narrow taxonomic groups or lack a design that allows partitioning of the components of diversity. Here, we consider an exceptionally large dataset (113,952 individuals representing 5,858 species), obtained from the San Lorenzo forest in Panama, where the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa was surveyed using 14...

Data from: Retinal capillary rarefaction in patients with untreated mild-moderate hypertension

Agnes J. Bosch, Joanna M. Harazny, Iris Kistner, Stefanie Friedrich, Joanna Wojtkiewicz & Roland E. Schmieder
Background: Microvascular rarefaction influences peripheral vascular resistance, perfusion and metabolism by affecting blood pressure and flow pattern. In hypertension microvascular rarefaction has been described in experimental animal studies as well as in capillaroscopy of skin and biopsies of muscle tissue in patients. Retinal circulation mirrors cerebral microcirculation and allows non-invasive investigations. We compared capillary rarefaction of retinal vessels in hypertensive versus normotensive subjects. Methods: In this study retinal capillary rarefaction in 70 patients with long...

Data from: Recent decadal drought reverts warming–triggered growth enhancement in contrasting climates in the southern Andes treeline

Alex Fajardo, Antonio Gazol, Christoph Mayr & J. Julio Camarero
Aims: Rising temperature and declining summer precipitation due to the 1970s-climate shift in southern South America have reduced forest productivity at dry sites. Here, we worked with the most widespread Southern Hemisphere treeline species, Nothofagus pumilio, across contrasting climatic conditions and determined whether rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as warmer and drier climatic conditions provoked by the 70s-climatic shift have been causing systematic changes in treeline growth rates and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE).Location: 36–54°...

Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor

John M. Martinis, Sergio Boixo, Hartmut Neven, Frank Arute, Kunal Arya, Ryan Babbush, Dave Bacon, Joseph C. Bardin, Rami Barends, Rupak Biswas, Fernando G. S. L. Brandao, David A. Buell, Brian Burkett, Yu Chen, Zijun Chen, Ben Chiaro, Roberto Collins, William Courtney, Andrew Dunsworth, Edward Farhi, Brooks Foxen, Austin Fowler, Craig Gidney, Marissa Giustina, Rob Graff … & Adam Zalcman
The tantalizing promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here, we report using a processor with programmable superconducting qubits to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 2^53 ∼ 10^16. Measurements from repeated...

Taxonomical diversity and palaeobiogeographical affinity of belemnites from the Pliensbachian - Toarcian GSSP (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

Patrícia Rita
For the first time, high-resolution analysis of the Late Pliensbachian - Early Toarcian belemnite assemblages from the Peniche section (Lusitanian Basin) is presented. The systematic analysis allowed the recognition of eight taxa of the suborder Belemnitina, previously reported from contemporaneous NW Tethyan and Arctic sections. The presence of Bairstowius amaliae sp. nov. in the Late Pliensbachian (Emaciatum Zone) represents a novelty since hitherto the genus Bairstowius was only known from Late Sinemurian and Early Pliensbachian...

Distal and proximal hypoxia response elements cooperate to regulate organ-specific erythropoietin gene expression

Roland Wenger, Ilaria M.C. Orlando, Véronique N. Lafleur, Federica Storti, Patrick Spielmann, Lisa Crowther, Sara Santambrogio, Johannes Schödel, David Hoogewijs & David R. Mole
While it is well-established that distal hypoxia response elements (HREs) regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes such as erythropoietin (Epo), an interplay between multiple distal and proximal (promoter) HREs has not been described so far. Hepatic Epo expression is regulated by a HRE located downstream of the EPO gene, but this 3' HRE is dispensable for renal EPO gene expression. We previously identified a 5' HRE and could show that both HREs direct exogenous reporter...

Data from: Measuring β‐diversity by remote sensing: a challenge for biodiversity monitoring

Duccio Rocchini, Sandra Luque, Nathalie Pettorelli, Lucy Bastin, Daniel Doktor, Nicolò Faedi, Hannes Feilhauer, Jean-Baptiste Féret, Giles M. Foody, Yoni Gavish, Sergio Godinho, William E. Kunin, Angela Lausch, Pedro J. Leitao, Matteo Marcantonio, Markus Neteler, Carlo Ricotta, Sebastian Schmidtlein, Petteri Vihervaara, Martin Wegmann & Harini Nagendra
Biodiversity includes multiscalar and multitemporal structures and processes, with different levels of functional organization, from genetic to ecosystemic levels. One of the mostly used methods to infer bio- diversity is based on taxonomic approaches and community ecology theories. However, gathering extensive data in the field is difficult due to logistic problems, especially when aiming at modelling biodiversity changes in space and time, which assumes statistically sound sampling schemes. In this context, airborne or satellite remote...

Data from: In-vivo imaging of cell migration using contrast enhanced MRI and SVM based post-processing

Christian Weis, Andreas Hess, Lubos Budinsky & Ben Fabry
The migration of cells within a living organism can be observed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with iron oxide nanoparticles as an intracellular contrast agent. This method, however, suffers from low sensitivity and specificty. Here, we developed a quantitative non-invasive in-vivo cell localization method using contrast enhanced multiparametric MRI and support vector machines (SVM) based post-processing. Imaging phantoms consisting of agarose with compartments containing different concentrations of cancer cells labeled with iron oxide...

Data from: Harnessing stratigraphic bias at the section scale: conodont diversity in the Homerian (Silurian) of the Midland Platform, England

Emilia Jarochowska, David C. Ray, Philipp Röstel, Graham Worton & Axel Munnecke
Fossil abundance and diversity in geological successions are subject to bias arising from shifting depositional and diagenetic environments, resulting in variable rates of fossil accumulation and preservation. In simulations, this bias can be constrained based on sequence-stratigraphic architecture. Nonetheless, a practical quantitative method of incorporating the contribution of sequence-stratigraphic architecture in community palaeoecology and diversity analyses derived from individual successions is missing. As a model of faunal turnover affected by the stratigraphic bias, we use...

Data from: Nanoscopic imaging of thick heterogeneous soft-matter structures in aqueous solution

Tobias F. Bartsch, Martin D. Kochanczyk, Emanuel N. Lissek, Janina R. Lange & Ernst-Ludwig Florin
Precise nanometre-scale imaging of soft structures at room temperature poses a major challenge to any type of microscopy because fast thermal fluctuations lead to significant motion blur if the position of the structure is measured with insufficient bandwidth. Moreover, precise localization is also affected by optical heterogeneities, which lead to deformations in the imaged local geometry, the severity depending on the sample and its thickness. Here we introduce quantitative thermal noise imaging, a three-dimensional scanning...

Data from: Objective estimation of sensory thresholds based on neurophysiological parameters

Achim Schilling, Richard Gerum, Patrick Krauss, Claus P. D. Metzner, Konstantin Tziridis & Holger Schulze
Reliable determination of sensory thresholds is the holy grail of signal detection theory. However, there exists no assumption-independent gold standard for the estimation of thresholds based on neurophysiological parameters, although a reliable estimation method is crucial for both scientific investigations and clinical diagnosis. Whenever it is impossible to communicate with the subjects, as in studies with animals or neonates, thresholds have to be derived from neural recordings or by indirect behavioral tests. Whenever the threshold...

FORobotics - Mobile, ad-hoc kooperierende Roboterteams

Julia Berger, Christian Colceriu & Andreas Blank

Global Tree-Ring Growth Evolution Neural Network (VS-GENN)

Vladimir Shishov, Ivan Tychkov, Margarita Popkova, Minhui He , Bao Yang & Philippe Rozenberg

Intravital quantification reveals dynamic calcium concentration changes across B cell differentiation stages

Carolin Ulbricht, Ruth Leben, Asylkhan Rakhymzhan, Frank Kirchhoff, Lars Nitschke, Helena Radbruch, Raluca Niesner & Anja Hauser
Calcium is a universal second messenger present in all eukaryotic cells. The mobilization and storage of Ca2+ ions drives a number of signaling-related processes, stress-responses or metabolic changes, all of which are relevant for the development of immune cells and their adaption to pathogens. Here, we introduce the FRET-reporter mouse YellowCaB expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator TN-XXL in B lymphocytes. Calcium-induced conformation change of TN-XXL results in FRET-donor quenching measurable by two-photon fluorescence lifetime...

Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity

Moriaki Yasuhara, Chih-Lin Wei, Michal Kucera, Mark Costello, Derek Tittensor, Wolfgang Kiessling, Timothy Bonebrake, Clay Tabor, Ran Feng, Andrés Baselga, Kerstin Kretschmer, Buntarou Kusumoto & Yasuhiro Kubota
A major research question concerning global pelagic biodiversity remains unanswered: when did the apparent tropical biodiversity depression (i.e., bimodality of latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) begin? The bimodal LDG may be a consequence of recent ocean warming or of deep-time evolutionary speciation and extinction processes. Using rich time-slice datasets of planktonic foraminifers, we show here that a unimodal (or only weakly bimodal) diversity gradient, with a plateau in the tropics, occurred during the last ice age...

Data from: Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models

Adam Smith, Benjamin Hofner, Juliet S. Lamb, Jason Osenkowski, Taber Allison, Giancarlo Sadoti, Scott McWilliams & Peter Paton
1. Modeling organism distributions from survey data involves numerous statistical challenges, including zero-inflation, overdispersion, and selection and incorporation of environmental covariates. In environments with high spatial and temporal variability, addressing these challenges often requires numerous assumptions regarding organism distributions and their relationships to biophysical features. These assumptions may limit the resolution or accuracy of predictions resulting from survey-based distribution models. 2. We propose an iterative modeling approach that incorporates a negative binomial hurdle, followed by...

Data from: Climate change and the latitudinal selectivity of ancient marine extinctions

Carl J. Reddin, Ádám T. Kocsis & Wolfgang Kiessling
Geologically rapid climate change is anticipated to increase extinction risk non-uniformly across the Earth’s surface. Tropical species may be more vulnerable than temperate species to current climate warming because of high tropical climate velocities and reduced seawater oxygen levels. To test if rapid warming indeed preferentially increased the extinction risk of tropical fossil taxa, we combine a robust statistical assessment of latitudinal extinction selectivity (LES) with the dominant views on climate change occurring at ancient...

Data from: From resource to female defence: the impact of roosting ecology on a bat's mating strategy

Linus Günther, Marlena D. Lopez, Mirjam Knörnschild, Kyle Reid, Martina Nagy & Frieder Mayer
With their extraordinary species richness and diversity in ecological traits and social systems, bats are a promising taxon for testing socio-ecological hypotheses in order to get new insights into the evolution of animal social systems. Regarding its roosting habits, proboscis bats form an extreme by occupying sites which are usually completely exposed to daylight (e.g. tree trunks, vines or rocks). This is accompanied by morphological and behavioural adaptations to remain cryptic in exposed day roosts....

Data from: A remote-controlled observatory for behavioural and ecological research: a case study on emperor penguins

Sebastian Richter, Richard C. Gerum, Werner Schneider, Ben Fabry, Céline Le Bohec & Daniel P. Zitterbart
1. Long-term photographic recordings of animal populations provide unique insights in ecological and evolutionary processes. However, image acquisition at remote locations under harsh climatic conditions is highly challenging. 2. We present a robust, energetically self-sufficient and remote-controlled observatory designed to operate year-round in the Antarctic at temperatures below -50 °C and wind speeds above 150 km/h. The observatory is equipped with multiple overview cameras and a high resolution steerable camera with a telephoto lens for...

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