15 Works

Data from: Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time

Alison G. Ossip-Drahos, José R. Oyola Morales, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-Garcia, José Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Diana K. Hews & Emilia P. Martins
Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary...

Data from: Volatile fatty acid and aldehyde abundances evolve with behavior and habitat temperature in Sceloporus lizards

Stephanie Campos, Jake Pruett, Helena Soini, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Jay Goldberg, Cuauhcihuatl Vital-García, Milos Novotny, Diana Hews & Emília Martins
Animal signals evolve by striking a balance between the need to convey information through particular habitats and the limitations of what types of signals can most easily be produced and perceived. Here, we present new results from field measures of undisturbed behavior and biochemical analyses of scent marks from 12 species of Sceloporus lizards to explore whether evolutionary changes in chemical composition are better predicted by measures of species behavior , particularly those associated with...

Data from: Impacts of white-nose syndrome observed during long-term monitoring of a midwestern bat community

Joseph L. Pettit & Joy M. O'Keefe
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease suspected to have infected Indiana caves in the winter of 2010–2011.This disease places energetic strains on cave-hibernating bats by forcing them to wake and use energy reserves. It has caused >5.5 million bat deaths across eastern North America, and may be the driving force for extinction of certain bat species. White-nose syndrome infection can be identified in hibernacula, but it may be difficult to determine whether bats...

Gay Males in Fraternities

Jack Trump & James A. Wallace

Data from: Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles

Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Esteban Fernández-Juricic & E. Fernandez-Juricic
Animal–vehicle collisions cause high levels of vertebrate mortality worldwide, and what goes wrong when animals fail to escape and ultimately collide with vehicles is not well understood. We investigated alert and escape behaviours of captive brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in response to virtual vehicle approaches of different sizes and at speeds ranging from 60 to 360 km h−1. Alert and flight initiation distances remained similar across vehicle speeds, and accordingly, alert and flight initiation times...

Data from: Nocturnal hypothermia impairs flight ability in birds: a cost of being cool

Jennie M. Carr & Steven L. Lima
Many birds use regulated drops in night-time body temperature (Tb) to conserve energy critical to winter survival. However, a significant degree of hypothermia may limit a bird's ability to respond to predatory attack. Despite this likely energy–predation trade-off, the behavioural costs of avian hypothermia have yet to be examined. We thus monitored the nocturnal hypothermia of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a laboratory setting in response to food deprivation. Nocturnal flight tests were used to...

Data from: Elevating perceived predation risk modifies the relationship between parental effort and song complexity in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

Melissa L. Grunst, John T. Rotenberry & Andrea S. Grunst
Adult-directed predation risk elevates costs of parental care, and may modify relationships between sexually selected ornaments and parental effort by accentuating the tradeoff between survival and parental investment. We assessed multiple hypotheses regarding the relationship between maternal effort, paternal effort, and the sexually selected trait of male song complexity in the song sparrow Melospiza melodia. Further, we explored whether experimentally elevating perceived adult-directed predation risk near nests affected these relationships. We quantified two dimensions of...

Data from: Evolving from static to dynamic signals: evolutionary compensation between two communicative signals

Emilia P. Martins, Alison G. Ossip-Klein, J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Cuauhcihuatl Vital García, Stephanie M. Campos & Diana K. Hews
Signals that convey related information may impose selection on each other, creating evolutionary links between different components of the communicative repertoire. Here, we ask about the consequences of the evolutionary loss of one signal (a colour patch) on another (a motion display) in Sceloporus lizards. We present data on male lizards of four species: two pairs of sister taxa representing two independent evolutionary losses of the static colour patch (S. cozumelae and S. parvus; S....

Data from: Partial incubation during egg laying reduces eggshell microbial loads in a temperate‐breeding passerine

Patricia B. Bollinger, Eric K. Bollinger, Steven L. Daniel, Rusty A. Gonser & Elaina M. Tuttle
Incubation prior to clutch completion may be adaptive if it maintains egg viability by inhibiting eggshell microbial growth, thus reducing the likelihood that the embryo becomes infected. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of partial incubation during egg laying on eggshell microbial loads in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis breeding at a temperate‐zone site. We sampled eggshell microbes prior to and following four days of exposure to either partial incubation during the laying period...

Data from: Extrapair mating and the strength of sexual selection: insights from a polymorphic species

Andrea S. Grunst, Melissa L. Grunst, Marisa L. Korody, Lindsay M. Forrette, Rusty A. Gonser & Elaina M. Tuttle
Extra-pair mating could drive sexual selection in socially monogamous species, but support for this hypothesis remains equivocal. We used lifetime fitness data and a unique model species, the dimorphic white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), to examine how extra-pair mating affects the potential for sexual selection. The morphs of this species employ distinct reproductive strategies, with white males pursuing extra-pair mating at higher rates than tan counterparts. Social and extra-pair mating is disassortative by morph, with paternity...

Data from: Developmental stress and telomere dynamics in a genetically polymorphic species

Andrea S. Grunst, Melissa L. Grunst, Rusty A. Gonser & Elaina M. Tuttle
A central objective of evolutionary biology is understanding variation in life-history trajectories and aging rate, or senescence. Senescence can be affected by tradeoffs and behavioral strategies in adults, but may also be affected by developmental stress. Developmental stress can accelerate telomere degradation, with long-term longevity and fitness consequences. Little is known regarding whether variation in developmental stress and telomere dynamics contribute to patterns of senescence during adulthood. We investigated this question in the dimorphic white-throated...

Data from: Breeding synchrony and extrapair paternity in a species with alternative reproductive strategies

Melissa L. Grunst, Andrea S. Grunst, Rusty A. Gonser, Elaina M. Tuttle & Mellisa L. Grunst
Breeding synchrony may affect the tradeoff between pursuing multiple mates and avoiding paternity loss, translating into differences in the rate of extrapair paternity (EPP). However, diverse empirical relationships between breeding synchrony and EPP remain challenging to explain. We examined whether the relationship between breeding synchrony and EPP varied with male morph, age, body size, or breeding density in the white-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis. In this species, males of two genetically determined morphs pursue alternative mating...

Data from: Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night

Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll & Justin G. Boyles
1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection. 2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution...

Data from: Thermoregulatory behavior limits local adaptation of thermal niches and confers sensitivity to climate change

Lauren B. Buckley, Joseph C. Ehrenberger, & Michael J. Angilletta
1. Thermoregulation buffers environmental variation, which enables a species to persist during climate change but ultimately hinders adaptation of thermal tolerance by weakening selective pressure. 2. We used a model of optimal thermal physiology to demonstrate how thermoregulatory behaviour limits local adaptation of thermal physiology in a widespread group of lizards, the Sceloporus undulatus complex. 3. Empirical data for seven populations demonstrates conservatism of thermal tolerance, consistent with the model's prediction in the case of...

Data from: Actuarial senescence in a dimorphic bird: different rates of aging in morphs with discrete reproductive strategies

Melissa L. Grunst, Andrea S. Grunst, Vincent Formica, Marisa L. Korody, Adam M. Betuel, Margarida Barcelo-Serra, Rusty A. Gonser, Elaina M. Tuttle & Vincent A. Formica
It is often hypothesized that intra-sexual competition accelerates actuarial senescence, or the increase in mortality rates with age. However, an alternative hypothesis is that parental investment is more important to determining senescence rates. We used a unique model system, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), to study variation in actuarial senescence. In this species, genetically-determined morphs display discrete mating strategies and disassortative pairing, providing an excellent opportunity to test the predictions of the above hypotheses. Compared...

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