98 Works

Sun compass neurons are tuned to migratory orientation in monarch butterflies

Tu Anh Thi Nguyen, M. Jerome Beetz, Christine Merlin & Basil El Jundi
Every autumn, monarch butterflies migrate from North America to their overwintering sites in Central Mexico. To maintain their southward direction, these butterflies rely on celestial cues as orientation references. The position of the sun combined with additional skylight cues are integrated in the central complex, a region in the butterfly’s brain that acts as an internal compass. However, the central complex does not solely guide the butterflies on their migration but helps monarchs in their...

New insights into tree architecture from mobile laser scanning and geometry analysis

Dominik Seidel, Yonten Dorji, Bernhard Schuldt, Emilie Isasa & Klaus Körber
The structure and dynamics of a forest are defined by the architecture and growth patterns of its individual trees. In turn, tree architecture and growth result from the interplay between the genetic building plans and environmental factors. We set out to investigate whether (i) latitudinal adaptations of the crown shape occur due to characteristic solar elevation angles at a species’ origin, (ii) architectural differences in trees are related to seed dispersal strategies, and (iii) tree...

Data from: Flower fields and pesticide use interactively shape pollen beetle infestation and parasitism in oilseed rape fields.

Elena Krimmer, Emily Martin, Andrea Holzschuh, Jochen Krauss & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
MANUSCRIPT STILL UNDER REVISION Pollen beetles (Brassicogethes spp.) are the main pest of oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) in Europe and responsible for massive yield losses. Upcoming pesticide resistances highlight the need for other means of crop protection, such as natural pest control. Sown flower fields aim to counteract the decrease of insect biodiversity in agricultural landscapes by providing breeding and foraging sites to ecosystem service providers such as parasitoids. However, the optimal age and...

Sustainable landscape, soil and crop management practices enhance biodiversity and yield in conventional cereal systems

Sarah Redlich, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Emily Martin
1. Input-driven, modern agriculture is commonly associated with large-scale threats to biodiversity, the disruption of ecosystem services and long-term risks to food security and human health. A switch to more sustainable yet highly productive farming practices seems unavoidable. However, an integrative evaluation of targeted management schemes at field and landscape scales is currently lacking. Furthermore, the often-disproportionate influence of soil conditions and agrochemicals on yields may mask the benefits of biodiversity-driven ecosystem services. 2. Here,...

Drosophila carboxypeptidase D (SILVER) is a key enzyme in neuropeptide processing required to maintain locomotor activity levels and survival rate

Dennis Pauls, Yasin Hamarat, Luisa Trufasu, Tim M. Schendzielorz, Gertrud Gramlich, Jörg Kahnt, Jens T. Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser & Christian Wegener
Neuropeptides are processed from larger preproproteins by a dedicated set of enzymes. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying preproprotein processing and the functional importance of processing enzymes are well‐characterised in mammals, but little studied outside this group. In contrast to mammals, Drosophila melanogaster lacks a gene for carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a key enzyme for mammalian peptide processing. By combining peptidomics and neurogenetics, we addressed the role of carboxypeptidase D (dCPD) in global neuropeptide processing and...

Data from: Strength of sexual and postmating prezygotic barriers varies between sympatric populations with different histories and species abundances

Noora Poikela, Johanna Kinnunen, Mareike Wurdack, Hannele Kauranen, Thomas Schmitt, Maaria Kankare, Rhonda R. Snook & Anneli Hoikkala
The impact of different reproductive barriers on species or population isolation may vary in different stages of speciation depending on evolutionary forces acting within species and through species’ interactions. Genetic incompatibilities between interacting species are expected to reinforce prezygotic barriers in sympatric populations and lead to cascade reinforcement between conspecific populations living within and outside the areas of sympatry. We tested these predictions and studied whether and how the strength and target of reinforcement between...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Analysis of RNA-seq, DNA target enrichment, and Sanger nucleotide sequence data resolves deep splits in the phylogeny of cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae)

Thomas Pauli, Karen Meusemann, Sandra Kukowka, Manuela Sann, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Jan Philip Oeyen, Yolanda Ballesteros, Alexander Berg, Eric Van Den Berghe, Hermes Escalona, Adalgisa Guglielmino, Manfred Niehuis, Massimo Olmi, Lars Podsiadlowski, Carlo Polidori, Jeroen De Rond, Paolo Rosa, Thomas Schmitt, Franco Strumia, Mareike Wurdack, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Ralph Peters … & Oliver Niehuis
The wasp family Chrysididae (cuckoo wasps, gold wasps) comprises exclusively parasitoid and kleptoparasitic species, many of which feature a stunning iridescent coloration and phenotypic adaptations to their parasitic life style. Previous attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among the family’s major lineages (subfamilies, tribes, genera) based on Sanger sequence data were insufficient to statistically resolve the monophyly and the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Amiseginae and the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Allocoeliini, Chrysidini, Elampini, and...

Are native and non-native pollinator friendly plants equally valuable for native wild bee communities?

Nicola Seitz, Dennis VanEngelsdorp & Sara D. Leonhardt
Bees rely on floral pollen and nectar for food. Therefore, pollinator friendly plantings are often used to enrich habitats in bee conservation efforts. As part of these plantings, non-native plants may provide valuable floral resources, but their effects on native bee communities have not been assessed in direct comparison with native pollinator friendly plantings. In this study, we performed a common garden experiment by seeding mixes of 20 native and 20 non-native pollinator friendly plant...

Data from: Limitation of complementary resources affects colony growth, foraging behavior, and reproduction in bumble bees

Fabrice Requier, Kim K. Jowanowitsch, Katharina Kallnik & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Resource availability has been disturbed for many organisms in agricultural landscapes including pollinator species. Abundance and diversity in flower availability benefit bee populations, however, little is known about which of protein or carbohydrate resources may limit their growth and reproductive performance. Here, we test the hypothesis of complementary resource limitation using a supplemental feeding approach. We applied this assumption with bumble bees (Bombus terrestris), assuming that colony growth and reproductive performance should depend on the...

Data from: Contribution of European forests to safeguard wild honey bee populations

Fabrice Requier, Yoan Paillet, Fabien Laroche, Benjamin Rutschmann, Jie Zhang, Fabio Lombardi, Miroslav Svoboda & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Recent studies reveal the use of tree cavities by wild honey bee colonies in European forests. This highlights the conservation potential of forests for a highly threatened component of the native entomofauna in Europe, but currently no estimate of potential wild honey bee population sizes exists. Here, we analysed the tree cavity densities of 106 forest areas across Europe and inferred an expected population size of wild honey bees. Both forest and management types affected...

Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering crops

Ainhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...

Data from: Specialization and phenological synchrony of plant–pollinator interactions along an altitudinal gradient

Gita Benadi, Thomas Hovestadt, Hans-Joachim Poethke & Nico Blüthgen
1. One of the most noticeable effects of anthropogenic climate change is the shift in timing of seasonal events towards earlier occurrence. The high degree of variation in species' phenological shifts has raised concerns about the temporal decoupling of interspecific interactions, but the extent and implications of this effect are largely unknown. In the case of plant–pollinator systems, more specialized species are predicted to be particularly threatened by phenological decoupling, since they are assumed to...

Data from: Selective logging intensity in an East African rain forest predicts reductions in ant diversity

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Marcell K. Peters & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As natural forest ecosystems increasingly face pressure from deforestation, it is ever more important to understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on biodiversity. Most studies of anthropogenic change in the tropics come from Southeast Asia and South America, and impacts of habitat modification are often taxon-specific. Here we empirically assessed the impact of habitat fragmentation and recent (within 25 years) and historic (>25 years ago) selective logging on the diversity of ants in...

Data from: The evolution of a complex trait: cuticular hydrocarbons in ants evolve independent from phylogenetic constraints

Florian Menzel, Thomas Schmitt & Bonnie B. Blaimer
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are ubiquitous and highly diverse in insects, serving as communication signal and waterproofing agent. Despite their vital function, the causes, mechanisms and constraints on CHC diversification are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated phylogenetic constraints on the evolution of CHC profiles, using a global dataset of the species-rich and chemically diverse ant genus Crematogaster. We decomposed CHC profiles into quantitative (relative abundances, chain length) and qualitative traits (presence/absence of CHC classes). A...

Data from: High cover of hedgerows in the landscape supports multiple ecosystem services in Mediterranean cereal fields

Matteo Dainese, Silvia Montecchiari, Tommaso Sitzia, Maurizia Sigura & Lorenzo Marini
Field-margin diversification through conservation and restoration of hedgerows is becoming a prominent intervention for promoting biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in intensive agricultural landscapes. However, how increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape can affect ecosystem services has rarely been considered. Here, we assessed the effect of increased field-margin complexity at the local scale and increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape on the provision of pest control, weed control and potential pollination. Locally, three...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

Data from: Picky hitch-hikers: vector choice leads to directed dispersal and fat-tailed kernels in a passively dispersing mite

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Ellen B. Sperr, Anna Kreis, Manfred Ayasse, Hans Joachim Poethke & Marco Tschapka
Dispersal is a central life-history trait for most animals and plants: it allows to colonize new habitats, escape from competition or avoid inbreeding. Yet, not all species are mobile enough to perform sufficient dispersal. Such passive dispersers may use more mobile animals as dispersal vectors. If multiple potential vectors are available, an active choice can allow to optimize the dispersal process and to determine the distribution of dispersal distances, i.e. an optimal dispersal kernel. We...

Data from: Landscape-level crop diversity benefits biological pest control

Sarah Redlich, Emily A. Martin & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1.Landscape-level crop diversification is a promising tool for ecological intensification, whereby biodiversity and ecosystem services are enhanced, and pesticide applications reduced. Yet evidence for the effects of crop diversity at multiple scales and in different landscape contexts is lacking. Here, we investigate the potential benefits and context-dependencies of multiscale crop diversity on natural enemies and overall biological control in winter wheat. Simultaneously, we examine the mediating effects of bird predation on aphid regulation in this...

Data from: Assortative mating counteracts the evolution of dispersal polymorphisms

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Alexander Kubisch, Thomas Hovestadt & Hans Joachim Poethke
Polymorphic dispersal strategies are found in many plant and animal species. An important question is how the genetic variation underlying such polymorphisms is maintained. Numerous mechanisms have been discussed, including kin competition or frequency-dependent selection. In the context of sympatric speciation events genetic and phenotypic variation is often assumed to be preserved by assortative mating. Thus, recently, this has been advocated as a possible mechanism leading to the evolution of dispersal polymorphisms. Here, we examine...

Data from: Comparative landscape genetics of two river frog species occurring at different elevations on Mount Kilimanjaro

Giulia Zancolli, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Andrew Storfer
Estimating population connectivity and species’ abilities to disperse across the landscape is crucial for understanding the long-term persistence of species in changing environments. Surprisingly, few landscape genetics studies focused on tropical regions despite the alarming extinction rates within these ecosystems. Here, we compared the influence of landscape features on the distribution of genetic variation of an Afromontane frog, Amietia wittei, with that of its more broadly distributed lowland congener, A. angolensis, on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania....

Data from: Independent effects of host and environment on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi

Franz-Sebastian Krah, Sebastian Seibold, Roland Brandl, Petr Baldrian, Jörg Müller & Claus Bässler
1. Dead wood is a habitat for numerous fungal species, many of which are important agents of decomposition. Previous studies suggested that wood-inhabiting fungal communities are affected by climate, availability of dead wood in the surrounding landscape and characteristics of the colonized dead-wood object (e.g. host tree species). These findings indicate that different filters structure fungal communities at different scales, but how these factors individually drive fungal fruiting diversity on dead-wood objects is unknown. 2....

Data from: Model-based acceleration of Look-Locker T1 mapping

Johannes Tran-Gia, Tobias Wech, Thorsten A. Bley, Herbert Köstler & Thorsten Bley
Mapping the longitudinal relaxation time T1 has widespread applications in clinical MRI as it promises a quantitative comparison of tissue properties across subjects and scanners. Due to the long scan times of conventional methods, however, the use of quantitative MRI in clinical routine is still very limited. In this work, an acceleration of Inversion-Recovery Look-Locker (IR-LL) T1 mapping is presented. A model-based algorithm is used to iteratively enforce an exponential relaxation model to a highly...

Data from: Agri-environmental schemes promote ground-dwelling predators in adjacent oilseed rape fields: diversity, species traits and distance-decay functions

Fabian A. Boetzl, Elena Krimmer, Jochen Krauss & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. Rising demands for agricultural products and high environmental costs of intensive agriculture reinforce the need for ecological replacements in agricultural management. In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) are implemented to enhance species richness and provision of ecosystem services, but the effectiveness of different AES types and the spatial extent of possible beneficial effects are little understood. In this study we assessed the effects of different AES types on diversity, species traits and distance-decay functions of...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

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