272 Works

Data from: The evolutionary history of Xiphophorus fish and their sexually selected sword: a genome-wide approach using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing

Julia C. Jones, Shaohua Fan, Paolo Franchini, Manfred Schartl & Axel Meyer
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are now key tools in the detection of population genomic and gene expression differences in a large array of organisms. However, so far few studies have utilized such data for phylogenetic estimations. Here, we use NGS data obtained from genome-wide restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) (∼66000 SNPs) to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among all 26 species of swordtail and platyfish (genus Xiphophorus) from Central America. Past studies, both sequence and morphology-based, have...

Data from: Biological pest control and yields depend on spatial and temporal crop cover dynamics

Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Verena Riedinger, Andrea Holzschuh & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. Modern agricultural landscapes are dynamic systems with interannually changing proportions of different crop types. However, the effects of spatiotemporal changes in crop area on crop yields and crop–herbivore–antagonist interactions have been rarely considered, in contrast to documented beneficial effects of semi-natural habitats on biological pest control at local and landscape scales. In this study, we examined how the proportion of oilseed rape (OSR) fields in a landscape and the annual increase or decrease in...

Data from: Configurational landscape heterogeneity shapes functional community composition of grassland butterflies

David Perović, Sagrario Gámez-Virués, Carmen Börschig, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Juliane Steckel, Christoph Rothenwöhrer, Stefan Erasmi, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
1. Landscape heterogeneity represents two aspects of landscape simplification: (i) compositional heterogeneity (diversity of habitat types) and (ii) configurational heterogeneity (number, size and arrangement of habitat patches); both with different ecological implications for community composition. 2. We examined how independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity, at eight spatial scales, shape taxonomic and functional composition of butterfly communities in 91 managed grasslands across Germany. We used landscape metrics that were calculated from functional maps...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

Data from: \"De novo assembled transcriptome of organs involved in reproduction in an endangered endemic Iberian cyprinid fish (Squalius pyrenaicus)\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 June 2015 to 31 July 2015

Miguel P. Machado, Joana Pinho, Ana R. Grosso, Manfred Schartl, Maria M. Coelho, C. Vilas, Wolfgang Arthofer, Alexander Rief, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Julia Seeber, Florian M. Steiner, D. Conklin, A. Estonba, J. Langa & I. Montes
Sex determination systems are diverse, especially among fish, and include genetic and/or environmental components. Unexpectedly for such a basic aspect of development, sex determination systems change rapidly during evolution and gonadal fate is not ultimate, being actively maintained lifelong. Here, sequences of expressed genes involved in maintenance of gonad identity and reproduction processes were obtained through transcriptome assembly of the brain-gonadal axis tissues of a freshwater fish inhabiting highly variable environments, the gonochoristic Iberian fish...

Data from: The evolution of optimal emergence times: bet hedging and the quest for an ideal free temporal distribution of individuals

Hans Joachim Poethke, Thomas Hovestadt & Oliver Mitesser
Proper timing of activities is one of the principal challenges faced by most organisms. Organisms need to account for various aspects in decision making like avoiding inordinate risks, synchronizing with resource availability, or finding mates. We provide analytical and simulation models to investigate the influence of life expectancy, resource competition and unpredictable environmental conditions (environmental uncertainty) on the evolutionarily stable distribution of emergence times in organisms depending on seasonally available resources. We focus on the...

Data from: Mass-flowering crops dilute pollinator abundance in agricultural landscapes across Europe

Andrea Holzschuh, Matteo Dainese, Juan P. González-Varo, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Verena Riedinger, , Jeroen Scheper, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, David Kleijn, Simon G. Potts, Stuart P.M. Roberts, Henrik G. Smith, Montserrat Vilà, Ante Vujić, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops (MFCs) are increasingly cultivated and might influence pollinator communities in MFC fields and nearby semi-natural habitats (SNHs). Across six European regions and 2 years, we assessed how landscape-scale cover of MFCs affected pollinator densities in 408 MFC fields and adjacent SNHs. In MFC fields, densities of bumblebees, solitary bees, managed honeybees and hoverflies were negatively related to the cover of MFCs in the landscape. In SNHs, densities of bumblebees declined with increasing cover...

Data from: Allatostatin A signalling in Drosophila regulates feeding and sleep and is modulated by PDF

Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A. Veenstra & Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are...

Data from: Enhanced aphid abundance in spring desynchronizes predator–prey and plant–microorganism interactions

Benjamin Fuchs, Tatjana Breuer, Simone Findling, Markus Krischke, Martin J. Müller, Andrea Holzschuh, Jochen Krauss & Martin J. Mueller
Climate change leads to phenology shifts of many species. However, not all species shift in parallel, which can desynchronize interspecific interactions. Within trophic cascades, herbivores can be top–down controlled by predators or bottom–up controlled by host plant quality and host symbionts, such as plant-associated micro-organisms. Synchronization of trophic levels is required to prevent insect herbivore (pest) outbreaks. In a common garden experiment, we simulated an earlier arrival time (~2 weeks) of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi...

Data from: How do cuticular hydrocarbons evolve? Physiological constraints and climatic and biotic selection pressures act on a complex functional trait

Florian Menzel, Bonnie B. Blaimer & Thomas Schmitt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) cover the cuticles of virtually all insects, serving as a waterproofing agent and as a communication signal. The causes for the high CHC variation between species, and the factors influencing CHC profiles, are scarcely understood. Here, we compare CHC profiles of ant species from seven biogeographic regions, searching for physiological constraints and for climatic and biotic selection pressures. Molecule length constrained CHC composition: long-chain profiles contained fewer linear alkanes, but more hydrocarbons...

Data from: Low levels of hybridization in two species of African driver ants

Ian A. Butler, Marcell K. Peters, Daniel J.C. Kronauer & D. J. C. Kronauer
Hybridization in ants can have consequences different from those observed in most other species, with many of the potential deleterious effects being mitigated due to haplodiploidy and eusociality. In some species where colonies are either headed by multiple queens or single queens that mate with many males, hybridization is associated with genetic caste determination, where hybrids develop into workers and purebred individuals develop into queens. A previous study suggested that hybridization occurs between two Dorylus...

Data from: Trophic level, successional age and trait matching determine specialization of deadwood-based interaction networks of saproxylic beetles

Beate Wende, Martin M. Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles...

Data from: Desynchronizations in bee-plant interactions cause severe fitness losses in solitary bees

Mariela Schenk, Jochen Krauss & Andrea Holzschuh
1. Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. 2. However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. 3. We tested the effect of temporal mismatches...

Data from: Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at origin

Maartje P. Groot, Alexander Kubisch, N. Joop Ouborg, Joern Pagel, Karl J. Schmid, Philippine Vergeer & Christian Lampei
Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about genetic variation for these life-history-traits. Here we present effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour...

Data from: Mating timing, dispersal and local adaptation in patchy environments

Milica Lakovic, Oliver Mitesser & Thomas Hovestadt
Dispersal is a life-history trait that can evolve under various known selective pressures as identified by a multitude of theoretical and empirical studies. Yet only few of them are considering the succession of mating and dispersal. The sequence of these events influences gene flow and consequently affects the dynamics and evolution of populations. We use individual-based simulations to investigate the evolution of the timing of dispersal and mating, i.e. mating before or after dispersal. We...

Data from: Long-term experimental hybridisation results in a heterologous transition and the evolution of a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish

Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer & Manfred Schartl
The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding for biodiversity monitoring in a national park: screening for invasive and pest species

Laura Hardulak, Jérôme Morinière, Axel Hausmann, Lars Hendrich, Stefan Schmidt, Dieter Doczkal, Jörg Müller, Paul Hebert & Gerhard Haszprunar
DNA metabarcoding was utilized for a large-scale, multi-year assessment of biodiversity in Malaise trap collections from the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany, Bavaria). Principal Component Analysis of read count-based biodiversities revealed clustering in concordance with whether collection sites were located inside or outside of the National Park. Jaccard distance matrices of the presences of BINs at collection sites in the two survey years (2016 and 2018) were significantly correlated. Overall similar patterns in the presence...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Primary determinants of communities in deadwood vary among taxa but are regionally consistent

Jörg Müller
These data are the raw data for Figure 2 in "Primary determinants of communities in deadwood vary among taxa but are regionally consistent"

Data for: Tracking the temporal dynamics of insect defoliation by high-resolution radar satellite data

Soyeon Bae, Jörg Müller, Bernhard Förster, Torben Hilmers, Sophia Hochrein, Martin Jacobs, Benjamin Leroy, Hans Pretzsch, Wolfgang Weisser & Oliver Mitesser
1. Quantifying tree defoliation by insects over large areas is a major challenge in forest management, but it is essential in ecosystem assessments of disturbance and resistance against herbivory. However, the trajectory from leaf-flush to insect defoliation to refoliation in broadleaf trees is highly variable. Its tracking requires high temporal- and spatial-resolution data, particularly in fragmented forests. 2. In a unique replicated field experiment manipulating gypsy moth Lymantria dispar densities in mixed-oak forests, we examined...

Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Abstract Background Renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains the key rescue therapy for critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there are currently no tools available to predict successful liberation from RRT. Biomarkers may allow for risk stratification and individualization of treatment strategies. Proenkephalin A 119–159 (penKid) has been suggested as a promising marker of kidney function in the context of AKI, but has not yet been evaluated for RRT liberation in critically...

Additional file 4 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 4. Figure S4: Estimated cumulative incidence functions of successful liberation from RRT (a) and death without prior liberation from RRT (b) separated by pre-RRT penKid group and randomization group.

Additional file 5 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 5. Figure S5: ROC curve showing the prediction of successful liberation from RRT by day 7 based on the pre-RRT penKid value. The penKid threshold maximizing Youden’s index is 100.25 pmol/l yielding a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 66% (orange dot).

Additional file 6 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 6. Figure S6: ROC curve showing the prediction of successful liberation from RRT by day 28 based on the pre-RRT penKid value. The penKid threshold maximizing Youden’s index is 95.25 pmol/l yielding a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 67% (orange dot).

Additional file 9 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 9. Table S1: Patient characteristics of landmark patients, i.e., patients still receiving RRT at day 3. All variables were collected at the time of randomization except for estimated GFR, which was measured at the time of landmark penKid measurement. aFisher’s exact test comparing the low and high landmark penKid group. bMann–Whitney U test comparing the low and high landmark penKid group. Abbreviations: APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, GFR, Glomerular...

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