114 Works

Data from: The evolution of a complex trait: cuticular hydrocarbons in ants evolve independent from phylogenetic constraints

Florian Menzel, Thomas Schmitt & Bonnie B. Blaimer
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are ubiquitous and highly diverse in insects, serving as communication signal and waterproofing agent. Despite their vital function, the causes, mechanisms and constraints on CHC diversification are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated phylogenetic constraints on the evolution of CHC profiles, using a global dataset of the species-rich and chemically diverse ant genus Crematogaster. We decomposed CHC profiles into quantitative (relative abundances, chain length) and qualitative traits (presence/absence of CHC classes). A...

Data from: Specialization and phenological synchrony of plant–pollinator interactions along an altitudinal gradient

Gita Benadi, Thomas Hovestadt, Hans-Joachim Poethke & Nico Blüthgen
1. One of the most noticeable effects of anthropogenic climate change is the shift in timing of seasonal events towards earlier occurrence. The high degree of variation in species' phenological shifts has raised concerns about the temporal decoupling of interspecific interactions, but the extent and implications of this effect are largely unknown. In the case of plant–pollinator systems, more specialized species are predicted to be particularly threatened by phenological decoupling, since they are assumed to...

Data from: Strength of sexual and postmating prezygotic barriers varies between sympatric populations with different histories and species abundances

Noora Poikela, Johanna Kinnunen, Mareike Wurdack, Hannele Kauranen, Thomas Schmitt, Maaria Kankare, Rhonda R. Snook & Anneli Hoikkala
The impact of different reproductive barriers on species or population isolation may vary in different stages of speciation depending on evolutionary forces acting within species and through species’ interactions. Genetic incompatibilities between interacting species are expected to reinforce prezygotic barriers in sympatric populations and lead to cascade reinforcement between conspecific populations living within and outside the areas of sympatry. We tested these predictions and studied whether and how the strength and target of reinforcement between...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Drosophila carboxypeptidase D (SILVER) is a key enzyme in neuropeptide processing required to maintain locomotor activity levels and survival rate

Dennis Pauls, Yasin Hamarat, Luisa Trufasu, Tim M. Schendzielorz, Gertrud Gramlich, Jörg Kahnt, Jens T. Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser & Christian Wegener
Neuropeptides are processed from larger preproproteins by a dedicated set of enzymes. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying preproprotein processing and the functional importance of processing enzymes are well‐characterised in mammals, but little studied outside this group. In contrast to mammals, Drosophila melanogaster lacks a gene for carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a key enzyme for mammalian peptide processing. By combining peptidomics and neurogenetics, we addressed the role of carboxypeptidase D (dCPD) in global neuropeptide processing and...

Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering crops

Ainhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...

Data from: Selective logging intensity in an East African rain forest predicts reductions in ant diversity

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Marcell K. Peters & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As natural forest ecosystems increasingly face pressure from deforestation, it is ever more important to understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on biodiversity. Most studies of anthropogenic change in the tropics come from Southeast Asia and South America, and impacts of habitat modification are often taxon-specific. Here we empirically assessed the impact of habitat fragmentation and recent (within 25 years) and historic (>25 years ago) selective logging on the diversity of ants in...

Analysis of RNA-seq, DNA target enrichment, and Sanger nucleotide sequence data resolves deep splits in the phylogeny of cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae)

Thomas Pauli, Karen Meusemann, Sandra Kukowka, Manuela Sann, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Jan Philip Oeyen, Yolanda Ballesteros, Alexander Berg, Eric Van Den Berghe, Hermes Escalona, Adalgisa Guglielmino, Manfred Niehuis, Massimo Olmi, Lars Podsiadlowski, Carlo Polidori, Jeroen De Rond, Paolo Rosa, Thomas Schmitt, Franco Strumia, Mareike Wurdack, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Ralph Peters … & Oliver Niehuis
The wasp family Chrysididae (cuckoo wasps, gold wasps) comprises exclusively parasitoid and kleptoparasitic species, many of which feature a stunning iridescent coloration and phenotypic adaptations to their parasitic life style. Previous attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among the family’s major lineages (subfamilies, tribes, genera) based on Sanger sequence data were insufficient to statistically resolve the monophyly and the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Amiseginae and the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Allocoeliini, Chrysidini, Elampini, and...

Data from: Limitation of complementary resources affects colony growth, foraging behavior, and reproduction in bumble bees

Fabrice Requier, Kim K. Jowanowitsch, Katharina Kallnik & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Resource availability has been disturbed for many organisms in agricultural landscapes including pollinator species. Abundance and diversity in flower availability benefit bee populations, however, little is known about which of protein or carbohydrate resources may limit their growth and reproductive performance. Here, we test the hypothesis of complementary resource limitation using a supplemental feeding approach. We applied this assumption with bumble bees (Bombus terrestris), assuming that colony growth and reproductive performance should depend on the...

Data from: Contribution of European forests to safeguard wild honey bee populations

Fabrice Requier, Yoan Paillet, Fabien Laroche, Benjamin Rutschmann, Jie Zhang, Fabio Lombardi, Miroslav Svoboda & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Recent studies reveal the use of tree cavities by wild honey bee colonies in European forests. This highlights the conservation potential of forests for a highly threatened component of the native entomofauna in Europe, but currently no estimate of potential wild honey bee population sizes exists. Here, we analysed the tree cavity densities of 106 forest areas across Europe and inferred an expected population size of wild honey bees. Both forest and management types affected...

Are native and non-native pollinator friendly plants equally valuable for native wild bee communities?

Nicola Seitz, Dennis VanEngelsdorp & Sara D. Leonhardt
Bees rely on floral pollen and nectar for food. Therefore, pollinator friendly plantings are often used to enrich habitats in bee conservation efforts. As part of these plantings, non-native plants may provide valuable floral resources, but their effects on native bee communities have not been assessed in direct comparison with native pollinator friendly plantings. In this study, we performed a common garden experiment by seeding mixes of 20 native and 20 non-native pollinator friendly plant...

New insights into tree architecture from mobile laser scanning and geometry analysis

Dominik Seidel, Yonten Dorji, Bernhard Schuldt, Emilie Isasa & Klaus Körber
The structure and dynamics of a forest are defined by the architecture and growth patterns of its individual trees. In turn, tree architecture and growth result from the interplay between the genetic building plans and environmental factors. We set out to investigate whether (i) latitudinal adaptations of the crown shape occur due to characteristic solar elevation angles at a species’ origin, (ii) architectural differences in trees are related to seed dispersal strategies, and (iii) tree...

Sustainable landscape, soil and crop management practices enhance biodiversity and yield in conventional cereal systems

Sarah Redlich, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Emily Martin
1. Input-driven, modern agriculture is commonly associated with large-scale threats to biodiversity, the disruption of ecosystem services and long-term risks to food security and human health. A switch to more sustainable yet highly productive farming practices seems unavoidable. However, an integrative evaluation of targeted management schemes at field and landscape scales is currently lacking. Furthermore, the often-disproportionate influence of soil conditions and agrochemicals on yields may mask the benefits of biodiversity-driven ecosystem services. 2. Here,...

Data from: Flower fields and pesticide use interactively shape pollen beetle infestation and parasitism in oilseed rape fields.

Elena Krimmer, Emily Martin, Andrea Holzschuh, Jochen Krauss & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
MANUSCRIPT STILL UNDER REVISION Pollen beetles (Brassicogethes spp.) are the main pest of oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) in Europe and responsible for massive yield losses. Upcoming pesticide resistances highlight the need for other means of crop protection, such as natural pest control. Sown flower fields aim to counteract the decrease of insect biodiversity in agricultural landscapes by providing breeding and foraging sites to ecosystem service providers such as parasitoids. However, the optimal age and...

Data from: Natural Zeitgebers under temperate conditions cannot compensate for the loss of a functional circadian clock in timing of a vital behavior in Drosophila

Christian Wegener, Franziska Ruf, Simon Tii Mungwa, Melanie Horn & Dirk Rieger
The adaptive significance of adjusting behavioral activities to the right time of the day seems obvious but is under debate. Our data provides evidence that proper timing of eclosion, a vital behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, requires a functional molecular clock under quasi-natural conditions. We compared eclosion profiles and assessed eclosion rhythmicity in wildtype flies (CS) and clock-related mutant strains (per01, pdf01, han5304) under laboratory and outdoor conditions. In the laboratory, flies were...

Ant body size mediates functional performance and species interactions in carrion decomposer communities

Sabine Sylvia Nooten, Kin Chan, Patrick Schultheiss, Taylor Bogar & Benoit Guénard
Growing concern over rapid species declines and extinctions has led to considerable interest in the role of biodiversity for maintaining ecological processes. However, the loss of particular species has more pronounced effects on ecosystem services than others, highlighting the importance of key functional species traits and their relationships to ecosystem functioning. Human induced disturbances, such as species invasions, land use changes or abiotic changes, appear to disproportionally impact larger species rather than smaller ones. The...

Sun compass neurons are tuned to migratory orientation in monarch butterflies

Tu Anh Thi Nguyen, M. Jerome Beetz, Christine Merlin & Basil El Jundi
Every autumn, monarch butterflies migrate from North America to their overwintering sites in Central Mexico. To maintain their southward direction, these butterflies rely on celestial cues as orientation references. The position of the sun combined with additional skylight cues are integrated in the central complex, a region in the butterfly’s brain that acts as an internal compass. However, the central complex does not solely guide the butterflies on their migration but helps monarchs in their...

Data from: Landscape diversity and local temperature, but not climate, affect arthropod predation among habitat types

Ute Fricke, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Jie Zhang, Cynthia Tobisch, Sandra Rojas-Botero, Caryl S Benjamin, Jana Englmeier, Cristina Ganuza, Maria Haensel, Rebekka Riebl, Johannes Uhler, Lars Uphus, Jörg Ewald, Johannes Kollmann & Sarah Redlich
Arthropod predators are relevant for top-down regulation of insect herbivores. Biotic and abiotic factors influence predator communities and their activity with consequences for the strength of top-down regulation (‘arthropod predation’). Anthropogenic climate and land-use change urges a deeper understanding of the combined effects of potential drivers on arthropod predation. This study obtained arthropod predation rates on 113 plots of open herbaceous vegetation adjacent to different habitat types (forest, grassland, arable field, settlement) along climate and...

Filogenômica e macroecologia em Orchidaceae: integrando a citogenética e a ecologia no estudo da evolução de orquídeas neotropicais

Ana Moraes
A existência de associações entre os caracteres citogenéticos, em especial a ploidia, e as características ecológicas, como a colonização de ambientes extremos, foi inicialmente proposta a quase um século, mas ainda hoje são poucos os estudos que avaliam se tais associações representam tendências gerais em plantas ou são resultados de casos pontuais. Tais análises macroecológicas, integrando dados citogenéticos e ecológicos, dependem obrigatoriamente de um background evolutivo que só pode ser oferecido por hipóteses filogenéticas robustas,...

\"Jodeln\" im interkulturellen Kontext

Max Peter Baumann

Abundance and beta-diversity of bumble bees, wildflowers, and their interactions in the Berchtesgadener Alps

Douglas Sponsler
The structuring of biological communities along mountain slopes is complex, and elevational range shifts in response to climate change involve more than merely tracking suitable temperature envelopes. When species move, they do so in the context of biological communities, and the outcomes of these movements depend on how and to what extent biotic interactions are reordered. Bumble bees (Hymentopera: *Bombus* spp.) are cold-adapted species associated with mountain habitats, and they are already exhibiting upslope range...

Data from: The rising moon promotes mate finding in moths

Jacqueline Degen
To counteract insect decline, it is essential to understand the underlying causes, especially for key pollinators such as nocturnal moths whose ability to orientate can easily be influenced by ambient light conditions. These comprise natural light sources as well as artificial light, but their specific relevance for moth orientation is still unknown. We investigated the influence of moonlight on the reproductive behavior of privet hawkmoths (Sphinx ligustri) at a relatively dark site where the Milky...

Evidence of cognitive spezialization in an insect: proficiency is maintained across elemental and higher-order visual learning but not between sensory modalities in honey bees

Valerie Finke, David Baracchi, Martin Giurfa, Ricarda Scheiner & Aurore Avarguès-Weber
Individuals differing in their cognitive abilities and foraging strategies may confer a valuable benefit to their social groups as variability may help responding flexibly in scenarios with different resource availability. Individual learning proficiency may either be absolute or vary with the complexity or the nature of the problem considered. Determining if learning abilities correlate between tasks of different complexity or between sensory modalities has a high interest for research on brain modularity and task-dependent specialisation...

Data from: High cover of hedgerows in the landscape supports multiple ecosystem services in Mediterranean cereal fields

Matteo Dainese, Silvia Montecchiari, Tommaso Sitzia, Maurizia Sigura & Lorenzo Marini
Field-margin diversification through conservation and restoration of hedgerows is becoming a prominent intervention for promoting biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in intensive agricultural landscapes. However, how increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape can affect ecosystem services has rarely been considered. Here, we assessed the effect of increased field-margin complexity at the local scale and increasing cover of hedgerows in the landscape on the provision of pest control, weed control and potential pollination. Locally, three...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

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