Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering cropsAinhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...
Data from: The evolution of a complex trait: cuticular hydrocarbons in ants evolve independent from phylogenetic constraintsFlorian Menzel, Thomas Schmitt & Bonnie B. Blaimer
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are ubiquitous and highly diverse in insects, serving as communication signal and waterproofing agent. Despite their vital function, the causes, mechanisms and constraints on CHC diversification are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated phylogenetic constraints on the evolution of CHC profiles, using a global dataset of the species-rich and chemically diverse ant genus Crematogaster. We decomposed CHC profiles into quantitative (relative abundances, chain length) and qualitative traits (presence/absence of CHC classes). A...
Data from: A new enigmatic hyolith from the Cambrian of West Gondwana and its bearing on the systematics of hyolithsGerd Geyer
The genus Aladraco nom. nov. is described and discussed with two species recognized from coeval strata of the lower traditional middle Cambrian, A. schloppensis (Wurm, 1925) from the Tannenknock Formation of the Franconian Forest region, Germany, and A. ougnatensis sp. nov. from the Jbel Wawrmast Formation of the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Aladraco was formerly known as Oxyprymna Kiderlen, 1933, a preoccupied generic name that compelled renaming of the genus. The genus bears morphological characters such...
Data from: LiDAR-derived canopy structure supports the more-individuals hypothesis for arthropod diversity in temperate forestsJörg Müller, Roland Brandl, Martin Brändle, Bernhard Förster, Bruno Cancian De Araujo, Martin M. Gossner, Alexander Ladas, Martin Wagner, Mark Maraun, Peter Schall, Stefan Schmidt, Marco Heurich, Simon Thorn & Sebastian Seibold
Despite considerable progress in the ability to measure the complex 3-D structure of forests with the improvement of remote-sensing techniques, our mechanistic understanding of how biodiversity is linked to canopy structure is still limited. Here we tested whether the increase in arthropod abundance and richness in beech forest canopies with increasing canopy complexity supports the more-individuals hypothesis or the habitat-heterogeneity hypothesis. We used fogging to collect arthropod samples from 80 standardized plots from canopies of...
Biodiversity includes multiscalar and multitemporal structures and processes, with different levels of functional organization, from genetic to ecosystemic levels. One of the mostly used methods to infer bio- diversity is based on taxonomic approaches and community ecology theories. However, gathering extensive data in the field is difficult due to logistic problems, especially when aiming at modelling biodiversity changes in space and time, which assumes statistically sound sampling schemes. In this context, airborne or satellite remote...
Data from: Managing trap-nesting bees as crop pollinators: spatiotemporal effects of floral resources and antagonistsMatteo Dainese, Verena Riedinger, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Jeroen Scheper & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
1. The decline of managed honeybees and the rapid expansion of mass-flowering crops increase the risk of pollination limitation in crops and raise questions about novel management approaches for wild pollinators in agroecosystems. Adding artificial nesting sites, such as trap nests, can promote cavity-nesting bees in agroecosystems, but effectiveness could be limited by the availability of floral resources in the surrounding landscape and by natural antagonists. 2. In two European regions, we exposed artificial trap...
Data from: Release from prey preservation behavior via prey switch allowed diversification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in digger waspsMareike Wurdack, Carlo Polidori, Alexander Keller, Heike Feldhaar & Thomas Schmitt
The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHCs), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species-specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile co-evolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the...
Data from: Desynchronizations in bee-plant interactions cause severe fitness losses in solitary beesMariela Schenk, Jochen Krauss & Andrea Holzschuh
1. Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. 2. However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. 3. We tested the effect of temporal mismatches...
Data from: Trophic level, successional age and trait matching determine specialization of deadwood-based interaction networks of saproxylic beetlesBeate Wende, Martin M. Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles...
Dispersal is a life-history trait that can evolve under various known selective pressures as identified by a multitude of theoretical and empirical studies. Yet only few of them are considering the succession of mating and dispersal. The sequence of these events influences gene flow and consequently affects the dynamics and evolution of populations. We use individual-based simulations to investigate the evolution of the timing of dispersal and mating, i.e. mating before or after dispersal. We...
Data from: Transgenerational effects of mild heat in Arabidopsis thaliana show strong genotype specificity that is explained by climate at originMaartje P. Groot, Alexander Kubisch, N. Joop Ouborg, Joern Pagel, Karl J. Schmid, Philippine Vergeer & Christian Lampei
Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about genetic variation for these life-history-traits. Here we present effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour...
University of Würzburg11
University of Göttingen2
University of Freiburg2
Technical University Munich2
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
Azim Premji University1
Estación Biológica de Doñana1
University of Hohenheim1
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg1