22 Works

Data from: Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands

Judith Sitters, E.R. Jasper Wubs, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter B. Adler, Sumanta Bagchi, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Elsa E. Cleland, Nico Eisenhauer, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Sarah E. Hobbie, Johannes M.H. Knops, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Joslin L. Moore, Brent Mortensen, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Charlotte Riggs, Anita C. Risch … &
Grasslands have been subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations...

Data From: Breeders are less active foragers than non-breeders in wild Damaraland mole-rats

Yannick Francioli, Jack Thorley, Kyle Finn, Tim Clutton-Brock & Markus Zöttl
Eusocial insect societies are characterised by a clear division of labour between non-breeding workers and breeding queens and queens often do not contribute to foraging, defence and other maintenance tasks. It has been suggested that the structure and organisation of social mole-rat groups resembles that of eusocial insect societies. However, the division of labour has rarely been investigated in wild mole-rats and it is unknown whether breeders show decreased foraging activity compared to non-breeding helpers...

Herbivory meets fungivory: insect herbivores feed on plant pathogenic fungi for their own benefit

Franziska Eberl, Maite Fernandez De Bobadilla, Almuth Hammerbacher, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon & Sybille Unsicker
Plants are regularly colonized by fungi and bacteria, but plant-inhabiting microbes are rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. Here we show that young gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars prefer to feed on black poplar (Populus nigra) foliage infected by the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina instead of uninfected control foliage, and selectively consume fungal spores. This consumption, also observed in a related lepidopteran species, is stimulated by the sugar alcohol mannitol, found in much higher...

Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina L.) in the Antarctic Treaty Area

Marthán Bester, Horst Bornemann, Gustavo A. Daneri & John van den Hoff
Despite the wholesale slaughter of southern elephant seals for the commercial extraction of blubber-oil during the mid and late 1800’s, their populations have persisted at almost all historical breeding locations There are presently an estimated 749,000 southern elephant seals in the Southern Ocean, about 2% (14,500) of which live permanently in the Antarctic Treaty Area south of 60º South Although these southernmost permanent breeding populations are relatively small, a large (yet to be determined) proportion...

Data from: Body mass affects short term heterothermy in Neotropical bats

Zenon J. Czenze & Miranda B. Dunbar
Recent work in Australia and Africa has shown that heterothermy is widespread among phylogenetically diverse tropical and subtropical mammalian taxa. However, data on the use of heterothermy by Neotropical mammals are relatively scant, and those studies that exist focus on insect-eating bats. We investigated the capacity of fruit-eating Neotropical bats to use heterothermy when exposed to acute cold temperatures, and compared this to previous data focused on insect-eating bats sampled from the same region and...

Traces of air and body temperature in six hummingbird species in the Andes

Blair Wolf, Andrew McKechnie, Jonathan Schmitt, Zenon Czenze, Andrew Johnson & Christopher Witt
Torpor is thought to be particularly important for small endotherms occupying cold environments and with limited fat reserves to fuel metabolism. It remains mysterious why, among birds, torpor is both rare and variable in extent. We investigated torpor in a hummingbird community at ~3,800 m a.s.l. in the tropical Andes by monitoring body temperature (Tb) in 26 individuals of six species held captive overnight and experiencing natural air temperature (Ta) patterns. All species used pronounced...

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Body temperature, evaporative water loss and resting metabolic rate data for 12 southern African arid-zone passerines

Zenon Czenze, Ryno Kemp, Van Jaarsveld Barry, Marc Freeman, Ben Smit, Blair Wolf & Andrew McKechnie
Surface water is a critical resource for many birds inhabiting arid regions, but the implications of regular drinking and dependence on surface water for the evolution of thermal physiology remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that avian thermoregulation in the heat has evolved in tandem with the use of surface water and predicted that a) regularly-drinking species have a greater capacity to elevate rates of evaporative water loss (EWL) compared to non-drinking species, and b) heat...

Impact of intercept trap type on plume structure: a potential mechanism for differential performance of intercept trap designs for Monochamus species

Marc C. Bouwer, Chris J. K. MacQuarrie, Oniel J. Aguirre-Gil, Bernard Slippers & Jeremy D. Allison
Studies have demonstrated that semiochemical-baited intercept traps differ in their performance for sampling insects, but we have an incomplete understanding of how and why intercept trap design effects vary among insects. This can significantly delay both the development of new and optimization of existing survey and detection tools. The development of a mechanistic understanding of why trap performance varies within and among species would mitigate this delay. The primary objective of this study was to...

Genomics of population differentiation in humpback dolphins, Sousa spp. in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

Ana Rita Amaral, Cátia Chanfana, Brian Smith, Rubaiyat Mansur, Tim Collins, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Guido Parra, Michael Krutzen, Thomas Jefferson, Leszek Karczmarski, Almeida Guissamulo, & Howard Rosenbaum
Speciation is a fundamental process in evolution and crucial to the formation of biodiversity. It is a continuous and complex process, which can involve multiple interacting barriers leading to heterogeneous genomic landscapes with various peaks of divergence among populations. In this study, we used a population genomics approach to gain insights on the speciation process and to understand the population structure within the genus Sousa across its distribution in the Indo-Pacifc region. We found 5...

Internal Migration of South Africa 1999-2000

Co-infection best predicts respiratory viral infection in a wild host

Caroline Glidden, Courtney Coon, Brianna Beechler, Chase McNulty, Vanessa Ezenwa & Anna Jolles
1) The dynamics of directly transmitted pathogens in natural populations are likely to result from the combined effects of host traits, pathogen biology and interactions among pathogens within a host. Discovering how these factors work in concert to shape variation in pathogen dynamics in natural host – multi‐pathogen systems is fundamental to understanding population health. 2) Here, we describe temporal variation in incidence and then elucidate the effect of hosts trait, season, and pathogen co‐occurrence...

UV-green dichromacy in the basal hymenoptera Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

Quentin Guignard
A precondition for colour vision is the presence of at least two spectral types of photoreceptors in the eye. In the Apocrita, trichromacy is the basal pattern. Most species possess three different photoreceptor types in their compound eyes, with peak sensitivities in the ultraviolet, blue and green range of the light spectrum, and the corresponding visual pigments, the opsins. Experimental studies in basal Hymenoptera report from one to four photoreceptors, but results remained inconclusive. To...

Oxidative costs of cooperation in cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats

Rute Mendonça, Philippe Vullioud, Nathan Katlein, Armelle Vallat, Gaetan Glauser, Nigel Bennett & Fabrice Helfenstein
Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximise indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus...

Data from: The role of browsers in maintaining the openness of savanna grazing lawns

Michael Voysey, Michelle Greve, Sally Archibald, William Bond, Carla Staver & Jason Donaldson
1. In savannas, ruminant herbivores can have divergent impacts on tree recruitment and resulting woody cover. Heavy grazing by cattle results in woody thickening, whereas intensive grazing by wildlife instead tends to be associated with lower woody cover. 2. To disentangle why woody cover is low in areas heavily grazed by wildlife, we tested (I) whether short-grass environments attract indigenous mammalian browsers; (II) whether preference for short grass decreases with browser body mass because of...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Evolutionary history and eco-climatic diversification in southern African Sisyphus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

Gimo Daniel, Adrian Davis, Catherine Sole & Clarke Scholtz
Aim: The high diversity of species in southern Africa has been attributed to geological and palaeoclimatic factors. The timing of radiations in some groups is held to be linked to these geoclimatic trends. Using the Scarabaeinae dung beetle genus, Sisyphus, as a model system, we investigate how geological uplift and climatic changes in the late Cenozoic affected its diversification patterns in southern Africa. Location: southern Africa. Taxon: The dung beetle genus, Sisyphus Latreille, 1807 (Coleoptera:...

Mixed-species herding levels the landscape of fear

Keenan Stears, Melissa Schmitt, Christopher Wilmers & Adrian Shrader
Prey antipredator behaviours are influenced by perceived predation risk in a landscape and social information gleaned from herd mates regarding predation risk. It is well documented that high-quality social information about risk can come from heterospecific herd mates. Here, we integrate social information with the landscape of fear to quantify how these landscapes are modified by mixed-species herding. To do this, we investigated zebra vigilance in single- and mixed-species herds across different levels of predation...

Genomic evidence of introgression and adaptation in a model subtropical tree species, Eucalyptus grandis

Marja Mostert-O'Neill, Sharon Reynolds, Juan Acosta, David Lee, Justin Borevitz & Alexander Myburg
The genetic consequences of adaptation to changing environments can be deciphered using landscape genomics, which may help predict species’ responses to global climate change. Towards this, we used genome-wide SNP marker analysis to determine population structure and patterns of genetic differentiation in terms of neutral and adaptive genetic variation in the natural range of Eucalyptus grandis, a widely cultivated subtropical and temperate species, serving as genomic reference for the genus. We analysed introgression patterns at...

The beak and unfeathered skin as heat radiators in the Southern Ground-hornbill

Andries Janse Van Vuuren, Lucy Kemp & Andrew McKechnie
The avian beak is increasingly recognised as an important organ for thermoregulation, particularly in disproportionately large-beaked taxa such as toucans and hornbills. We used infrared thermography to test the prediction that Southern Ground-hornbills (Bucorvus leadbeateri) physiologically regulate the surface temperature of their beak (Tbeak), as well as that of their facial (Tfacial) and gular skin (Tgular) in such a way that these surfaces provide avenues for non-evaporative heat dissipation in warm weather. Our data, collected...

Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), improve offspring fitness by avoiding oviposition substrates with competitors or parasites

Bernard Steve Soh Baleba, Torto Baldwyn, Daniel Masiga, Merid Negash Getahun & Christopher Weldon
Oviposition site selection by gravid female insects is an important determinant in species distribution, abundance, and population dynamics. Females may assess the suitability of a potential oviposition substrate by using cues from conspecific or heterospecific individuals already present. Here, we assessed whether the presence of conspecific or heterospecific larvae and parasites influenced oviposition decisions by the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus). Using dual and multiple-choice oviposition bioassays, we found that gravid female S. calcitrans avoided...

Supplementary data: What drives grassland-forest boundaries? Assessing fire and frost effects on tree seedling survival and architecture

Monique Botha, Sally Archibald & Michelle Greve
Fire and frost represent two major hurdles for the persistence of trees in open grassy biomes and have both been proposed as drivers of grassland-forest boundaries in Africa. We assess the response of young tree seedlings, which represent a vulnerable stage in tree recruitment, to traumatic fire and frost disturbances. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated how seedling traits predicted survival and resprouting ability in response to fire vs frost; we characterised survival strategies of...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Pretoria
    22
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Oregon State University
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Lisbon
    2
  • University of Guelph
    2
  • Monash University
    2
  • University of the Witwatersrand
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    2