49 Works

Cultivating an engaged stakeholder group: Learning from the Long Island solar roadmap

Jessica Price

Ventenata Dubia Cover, forb diversity and forb richness

Scott Lukas, Brogan Watson, Lesley Morris, Sandra DeBano, Joshua Leffler & Heidi Schmalz
Questions: Grassland degradation due to agriculture, changing fire regimes, and invasive species negatively affects forb communities. Conserving forbs and the services they provide requires a better understanding of their responses to interacting disturbances. Although fire and livestock grazing are important disturbances, their effect on forb communities in the Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass Prairies is not fully understood. Our objectives were to: 1) determine how prescribed fire and livestock grazing influence forb community composition, cover, species richness,...

Preliminary Results of Patterns of 2019 Thermal Stress and Coral Bleaching Across the Hawaiian Archipelago

Morgan Winston, Courtney S. Couch, Brittany Huntington, Bernardo Vargas-Ángel, Rhonda R. Suka, Thomas Oliver, Ariel Halperin, Andrew Elisha Gray, Kaylyn McCoy, Mollie Asbury, Hannah Barkley, Jamison M. Gove, Nikki Smith, Lindsey Kramer, Julia Rose, Eric Conklin, Nadeira Sukhraj & James Morioka
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center administrative report H ; 20-04

Woodlands survey tree diameter data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements taken from trees and shrubs recorded in plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Woodlands survey soil data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of pH, Loss on ignition (Soil organic matter) measurements and soil group information taken from soil samples from plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Vegetation map of the Moor House National Nature Reserve

A. Eddy, D. Welch & M. Rawes
This is a spatial dataset containing polygons representing areas of vegetation mapped within the Moor House National Nature Reserve in the northern Pennines, England. The map was created by staff of The Nature Conservancy in the 1960s.

Are Tidal Salt Marshes Exposed to Nutrient Pollution more Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise?

Johannes Krause, Elizabeth Watson, Cathleen Wigand & Nicole Maher
Over the past four decades, Long Island, NY, USA, has lost coastal wetlands at a rate of 4% per decade due to submergence. In this study, we examined relationships between the rate of tidal salt marsh loss and environmental factors, including marsh elevation, tidal range, and wastewater exposure through analysis of stable isotope ratios of marsh soils and biota. Our goal was to identify factors that increase vulnerability of marshes to sea level rise, with...

Data from: Planning for climate change through additions to a national protected area network: implications for cost and configuration

Joshua Lawler, D. Scott Rinnan, Julia Michalak, John Withey & Hugh Possingham
Expanding the network of protected areas is a core strategy for conserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. Here we explore the impacts on reserve network cost and configuration associated with planning for climate change in the United States using networks that prioritize areas projected to be climatically suitable for 1,460 species both today and into the future, climatic refugia, and areas likely to facilitate climate-driven species movements. For 14% of the species, networks...

Agricultural intensification heightens food safety risks posed by wild birds

Olivia Smith, Amanda Edworthy, Joseph Taylor, Matthew Jones, Aaron Tormanen, Christina M. Kennedy, Zhen Fu, Christopher Latimer, Kevin Cornell, Lucas Michelotti, Chika Sato, Tobin Northfield, William Snyder & Jeb Owen
1. Agricultural intensification and simplification are key drivers of recent declines in wild bird populations, heightening the need to better balance conservation with food production. This is hindered, however, by perceptions that birds threaten food safety. While birds are known reservoirs of foodborne pathogens, there remains uncertainty about the links between landscape context, farming practices, and actual crop contamination by birds. 2. Here, we examine relationships between landscape context, farming practices, and pathogen contamination by...

Flowering time advances since the 1970s in a sagebrush steppe community: implications for management and restoration

Trevor Bloom, Donal O'Leary & Corinna Riginos
Climate change is widely known to affect plant phenology, but little is known about how these impacts manifest in the widespread sagebrush ecosystem of the Western US which supports a number of wildlife species of concern. Shifts in plant phenology can trigger consequences for the plants themselves as well as the communities of consumers that depend upon them. We assembled historical observations of first flowering dates for 51 species collected in the 1970 and 80s...

Body size is associated with yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay

Michelle A. Desrosiers, Kathryn M. Langin, W. Chris Funk, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Lisa M. Angeloni
Large body size is an important determinant of individual fitness in many animal species, especially in island systems where habitat saturation may result in strong intraspecific competition for mates and breeding territories. Here we show that large body size is associated with benefits to yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. This species is approximately 20% larger than its mainland congener, consistent with the island...

Connectivity for climate change adaptation in California

Carrie Schloss, D. Richard Cameron, Brad McRae, David Theobald & Aaron Jones
This spatial data identifies connectivity potential between natural lands in the present climate and natural lands with future analogous climate following topo-climatically diverse routes. Present-day land use, topographic diversity, and projections of shifting climate regimes were combined into a single connectivity modeling approach to identify pathways for mid-century shifts in species ranges. Climate linkages, or areas important for climate change-driven movement, were identified as the areas where the Omniscape model indicated more current flow than...

Bird predation and landscape context shape arthropod communities on broccoli

Joseph Taylor, Olivia Smith, William Snyder, Jeb Owen, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Max Edworthy, Christina Kennedy, Chris Latimer & William Snyder
Birds increase crop yields via consumption of pests in some contexts but disrupt pest control via intraguild predation in others. Landscape complexity acts as an inconsistent mediator, sometimes increasing, decreasing, or not impacting pest control. Here, we examined how landscape context and seasonal variation mediate the impact of birds on arthropod pests and natural enemies, leaf damage, and yields of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) on highly diversified farms that spanned the USA West Coast. Our study...

Data from: Spatial variation in the biotic and abiotic filters of oyster recruitment: Implications for restoration

Juan Ramon Esquivel-Muelbert, Brendan Lanham, Francisco Martinez-Baena, Katherine Dafforn, Paul Gribben & Melanie Bishop
Attempts to restore marine ecosystems are increasing, but the success of projects remains variable. For marine invertebrates, the establishment of self-sustaining populations requires a larval supply as well as conditions that permit recruitment. Abiotic and biotic conditions that determine recruitment can vary across environmental gradients and have opposing or reinforcing effects. We assessed how predation and tidal inundation influence recruitment of the reef-forming oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, at 15 sites, 5 estuaries and 8 degrees of...

Data from: Larval dispersal and fishing pressure influence recruitment in a coral reef fishery

Richard J. Hamilton, Diego Lozano-Cortés, Michael Bode, Glenn Almany, Hugo B. Harrison, John Pita, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Colin Gereniu, Nate Peterson, Howard Choat, Peter A. Waldie & Michael L. Berumen
Understanding larval connectivity patterns in exploited fishes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective management strategies and assessing the vulnerability of a fishery to recruitment overfishing and localised extinction. To date however, researchers have not considered how regional variations in fishing pressure also influence recruitment. We used genetic parentage analyses and modelling to infer the dispersal patterns of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) larvae in the Kia fishing grounds, Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. We then extrapolated...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Data from: Effects of Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Forest Landscape Pattern in the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

Kyle Rodman, Robert Andrus, Cori Butkiewicz, Teresa Chapman, Nathan Gill, Brian Harvey, Dominik Kulakowski, Niko Tutland, Thomas Veblen & Sarah Hart
Since the late 1990s, extensive outbreaks of native bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have affected coniferous forests throughout Europe and North America, driving changes in carbon storage, wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling, and water resource provisioning. Remote sensing is a crucial tool for quantifying the effects of these disturbances across broad landscapes. In particular, Landsat time series (LTS) are increasingly used to characterize outbreak dynamics, including the presence and severity of bark beetle-caused tree mortality, though broad-scale...

A trait-based framework for predicting foodborne pathogen risk from wild birds

Olivia Smith, Elissa Olimpi, Nora Navarro-González, Kevin Cornell, Luke Frishkoff, Tobin Northfield, Timothy Bowles, Max Edworthy, Johnna Eilers, Zhen Fu, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Matthew Jones, Christina Kennedy, Christopher Latimer, Jeb Owen, Chika Sato, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson Rankin, William Snyder & Daniel Karp
Recent foodborne illness outbreaks have heightened pressures on growers to deter wildlife from farms, jeopardizing conservation efforts. However, it remains unclear which species, particularly birds, pose the greatest risk to food safety. Using >11,000 pathogen tests and 1,565 bird surveys covering 139 bird species from across the western U.S.A., we examined the importance of 11 traits in mediating wild bird risk to food safety. We tested whether traits associated with pathogen exposure (e.g., habitat associations,...

Spatial scaling properties of coral reef benthic communities

Helen Ford, Jamison Gove, Andrew Davies, Nicholas Graham, John Healey, Eric Conklin & Gareth Williams
The spatial structure of ecological communities on tropical coral reefs across seascapes and geographies have historically been poorly understood. Here we addressed this for the first time using spatially expansive and thematically resolved benthic community data collected around five uninhabited central Pacific oceanic islands, spanning 6° latitude and 17° longitude. Using towed-diver digital image surveys over ~140 linear km of shallow (8 – 20 m depth) tropical reef, we highlight the autocorrelated nature of coral...

Data from: The utility of environmental DNA from sediment and water samples for recovery of observed plant and animal species from four Mojave Desert springs

MAURA PALACIOS MEJIA, Emily Curd, Kiumars Edalati, Mark Renshaw, Roy Dunn, Daniel Potter, Naomi Fraga, Jenna Moore, Justin Saiz, Robert Wayne & Sophie Parker
Background: Mojave Desert springs are fragile ecosystems, hosting endemic plants and animals, which are threatened by the increasing human demand for water and climate change. To develop management practices that will protect the groundwater-dependent ecosystems at Mojave Desert springs, real-time, low cost biodiversity monitoring and assessments are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding uses DNA shed from organisms (e.g. skin cells, feces, pollen, etc.) that is present in water, air, soil, or sediment samples to assess...

Relationships between a common Caribbean corallivorous snail and protected area status, coral cover, and predator abundance

Elizabeth Shaver, Julianna Renzi, Maite Bucher & Brian Silliman
As coral populations decline across the Caribbean, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the forces that inhibit coral survivorship and recovery. Predation by corallivores, such as the short coral snail Coralliophila abbreviata,are one threat to the health of reefs worldwide, but understanding of the factors controlling corallivore populations, and therefore corallivore predation pressure, remains limited. To examine the extent to which bottom-up (i.e., coral prey) and top-down (i.e., predators) forces relate to C. abbreviata...

Data from: Translocation with targeted vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect an island endemic bird threatened by West Nile virus

Victoria Bakker, T. Sillett, Walter Boyce, Daniel Doak, T. Winston Vickers, William Reisen, Brian Cohen, Michael Hallworth & Scott Morrison
Aim Invasive pathogens are a growing conservation challenge and often occur in tandem with rapid environmental transformation, such as climate change, drought, and habitat loss. Climate change appears to have facilitated the spread of West Nile virus (WNV), a cause of widespread avian mortality. WNV is considered the primary threat to island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. Two approaches have been proposed to safeguard island scrub-jays: (1) vaccination and (2) conservation...

Woodlands survey flora data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
This dataset consists of the vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens recorded in plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Data from: Challenges in the conservation of wide-ranging nomadic species

Dejid Nandintsetseg, Chloe Bracis, Kirk A. Olson, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Justin M. Calabrese, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming, Michael Heiner, Petra Kaczensky, Peter Leimgruber, Dalannast Munkhnast, Theresa Stratmann & Thomas Mueller
1. Conservation of nomadic ungulates presents significant conservation challenges because of unpredictability in their movements and space use. Long-term studies on nomadic ungulates offering insights into the variability in space use within and between years are largely missing but are necessary to develop effective conservation strategies. 2. We examined the temporal variability in space-use of 22 Mongolian gazelle, tracked for one to three years with GPS and used the resulting movement patterns to evaluate conservation...

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