10 Works

Data from: No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

H. Christoph Liedtke, Hendrik Müller, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Michele Menegon, LeGrand Nono Gonwouo, Michael F. Barej, Václav Gvoždík, Andreas Schmitz, Alan Channing, Peter Nagel & Simon P. Loader
The niche-filling process predicted by the “ecological opportunity” (EO) model is an often-invoked mechanism for generating exceptional diversity in island colonizers. Whether the same process governs lineage accumulation and trait disparity during continental colonization events is less clear. Here, we test this prediction by investigating the rate dynamics and trait evolution of one of Africa's most widespread amphibian colonizers, the true toads (Bufonidae). By reconstructing the most complete molecular phylogeny of African Bufonidae to date,...

Data from: A revision of African helmeted terrapins (Testudines: Pelomedusidae: Pelomedusa), with descriptions of six new species

Alice Petzold, Mario Vargas-Ramírez, Christian Kehlmaier, Melita Vamberger, William R. Branch, Louis Du Preez, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr, Leon Meyer, Alfred Schleicher, Pavel Široký & Uwe Fritz
Using nearly range-wide sampling, we analyze up to 1848 bp of mitochondrial DNA of 183 helmeted terrapins and identify a minimum of 12 deeply divergent species-level clades. Uncorrected p distances of these clades equal or clearly exceed those between the currently recognized species of Pelusios, the genus most closely related to Pelomedusa. We correlate genetic discontinuities of Pelomedusa with data on morphology and endoparasites and describe six new Pelomedusa species. Moreover, we restrict the name...

Microhardness and Bleaching Effectiveness on Human Tooth Enamel After The Application of Nano hydroxyapatite

Razia Adam
Modern age aesthetic dentistry aims to improve patients’ smiles with minimally invasive procedures (M. Sulieman et al.2004).In- office bleaching is performed using a relatively high concentration of bleaching agents e.g. 25- 30% hydrogen peroxide for a short period of time. Supervised home bleaching involves the fabrication of night guards delivered with a lower bleaching agent concentration for at least two
weeks. Mass market products can be found over the counter and they are provided in...

Data from: An ambusher’s arsenal: chemical crypsis in the puff adder (Bitis arietans)

Ashadee Kay Miller, Bryan Maritz, Shannon McKay, Xavier Glaudas & Graham J. Alexander
Ambush foragers use a hunting strategy that places them at risk of predation by both visual and olfaction-oriented predators. Resulting selective pressures have driven the evolution of impressive visual crypsis in many ambushing species, and may have led to the development of chemical crypsis. However, unlike visual crypsis, few studies have attempted to demonstrate chemical crypsis. Field observations of puff adders (Bitis arietans) going undetected by several scent-orientated predator and prey species lead us to...

Ancient mitogenomics clarifies radiation of extinct Mascarene giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.)

Christian Kehlmaier, Eva Graciá, Patrick D. Campbell, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr, Silke Schweiger, Albert Martínez-Silvestre, Walter Joyce & Uwe Fritz
The five extinct giant tortoises of the genus Cylindraspis belong to the most iconic species of the enigmatic fauna of the Mascarene Islands that went largely extinct after the discovery of the islands. To resolve the phylogeny and biogeography of Cylindraspis, we analysed a data set of 45 mitogenomes that includes all lineages of extant tortoises and eight near-complete sequences of all Mascarene species extracted from historic and subfossil material. Cylindraspis is an ancient lineage...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Linkage into care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals tested through outreach and facility-based HIV testing models in Mbeya, Tanzania: a prospective mixed-method cohort study

Erica Samson Sanga, Wondwossen Lerebo, Adiel K. Mushi, Petra Clowes, Willyhelmina Olomi, Leonard Maboko & Christina Zarowsky
Objective: Linkage to care is the bridge between HIV testing and HIV treatment, care and support. In Tanzania, mobile testing aims to address historically low testing rates. Linkage to care was reported at 14% in 2009 and 28% in 2014. The study compares linkage to care of HIV-positive individuals tested at mobile/outreach versus public health facility-based services within the first 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Setting: Rural communities in four districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania....

Data from: Disentangling the Pelomedusa complex using type specimens and historical DNA (Testudines: Pelomedusidae)

Uwe Fritz, Alice Petzold, Christian Kehlmaier, Carolin Kindler, Patrick Campbell, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr & William R. Branch
Recent research has shown that the helmeted terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa), a species that occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, in Madagascar and the southwestern Arabian Peninsula, consists of several deeply divergent genetic lineages. Here we examine all nominal taxa currently synonymized with Pelomedusa subrufa (Bonnaterre, 1789) and provide mitochondrial DNA sequences of type specimens or topotypic material for most taxa. Lectotypes are designated for Testudo galeata Schoepff, 1792, Pentonyx capensis Duméril & Bibron, 1835, Pelomedusa nigra Gray,...

Data from: Idiosyncratic responses to climate-driven forest fragmentation and marine incursions in reed frogs from Central Africa and the Gulf of Guinea Islands

Rayna C. Bell, Juan L. Parra, Gabriel Badjedjea, Michael F. Barej, David C. Blackburn, Marius Burger, Alan Channing, J. Maximilian Dehling, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Jos Kielgast, Chifundera Kusamba, Stefan Lötters, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Zoltán T. Nagy, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Daniel M. Portik, Bryan L. Stuart, Jeremy VanDerWal, Ange-Ghislain Zassi Boulou & Kelly R. Zamudio
Organismal traits interact with environmental variation to mediate how species respond to shared landscapes. Thus, differences in traits related to dispersal ability or physiological tolerance may result in phylogeographic discordance among co-distributed taxa, even when they are responding to common barriers. We quantified climatic suitability and stability, and phylogeographic divergence within three reed frog species complexes across the Guineo-Congolian forests and Gulf of Guinea archipelago of Central Africa to investigate how they responded to a...

AN IN VITRO STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC DERIVED NANO HYDROXYAPATITE ON DENTINE PERMEABILITY.

Razia Adam
Dentine Hypersensitivity (DH) is a common symptom that patients present at a dental practice report to have a short sharp painful reaction in response to thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic, or chemical stimuli. Various methods have been but not limited to use of calcium carbonate, topical fluoride application and current use of hydroxyapatite containing dentifrices (Hiller et al 2018).Onwubu et al ( 2020) showed the remineralization effect of nano hydroxyapatite and its use in the management...

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