38 Works

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Genome-wide association study in Arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

Sandra E. Branham, Sara J. Wright, Aaron Reba, Ginnie D. Morrison & C. Randal Linder
Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were...

Data from: Matrix context and patch quality jointly determine diversity in a landscape-scale experiment

Robert A. Deans & David R. Chalcraft
The biodiversity of a habitat patch is predicted to be driven in part by interactions between patch quality and landscape context (i.e., type of regional matrix), but these interactions are rarely explored experimentally. Understanding the interaction between patch quality and matrix context can provide insight into the kind of dynamics that best describe a metacommunity and help predict how the diversity of a patch will respond to environmental change at different scales. We conducted a...

Data from: Receiver discriminability drives the evolution of complex sexual signals by sexual selection

Jianguo Cui, Xiaowei Song, Bicheng Zhu, Guangzhan Fang, Yezhong Tang & Michael J. Ryan
A hallmark of sexual selection by mate choice is the evolution of exaggerated traits, such as longer tails in birds and more acoustic components in the calls of birds and frogs. Trait elaboration can be opposed by costs such as increased metabolism and greater predation risk, but cognitive processes of the receiver can also put a brake on trait elaboration. For example, according to Weber's Law traits of a fixed absolute difference will be more...

Data from: Adaptive differentiation in floral traits in the presence of high gene flow in scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata)

Elizabeth R. Milano, Amanda M. Kenney & Thomas E. Juenger
Plant-pollinator interactions are thought to be major drivers of floral trait diversity. However, the relative importance of divergent pollinator-mediated selection versus neutral processes in floral character evolution has rarely been explored. We tested for adaptive floral trait evolution by comparing differentiation at neutral genetic loci to differentiation at quantitative floral traits in a putative Ipomopsis aggregata hybrid zone. Typical I. aggregata subsp. candida displays slender white tubular flowers that are typical of flowers pollinated by...

Data from: Behavioural hypervolumes of spider communities predict community performance and disbandment

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Daniel I. Bolnick, Andrew Sih, Nicholas DiRienzo & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Trait-based ecology argues that an understanding of the traits of interactors can enhance the predictability of ecological outcomes. We examine here whether the multidimensional behavioural-trait diversity of communities influences community performance and stability in situ. We created experimental communities of web-building spiders, each with an identical species composition. Communities contained one individual of each of five different species. Prior to establishing these communities in the field, we examined three behavioural traits for each individual spider....

Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistance

Joel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, , Michael Pfrender &
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...

Data from: Rapid adaptive evolution of colour vision in the threespine stickleback radiation

Diana J. Rennison, Gregory L. Owens, Nancy Heckman, Dolph Schluter & Thor Veen
Vision is a sensory modality of fundamental importance for many animals, aiding in foraging, detection of predators, and mate choice. Adaptation to local ambient light conditions is thought to be commonplace, and a match between spectral sensitivity and light spectrum is predicted. We use opsin gene expression to test for local adaptation and matching of spectral sensitivity in multiple independent lake populations of threespine stickleback populations derived since the last ice age from an ancestral...

Data from: Pigmented anatomy in Carboniferous cyclostomes and the evolution of the vertebrate eye

Sarah E. Gabbott, Philip C.J. Donoghue, Robert S. Sansom, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Mark A. Purnell & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The success of vertebrates is linked to the evolution of a camera-style eye and sophisticated visual system. In the absence of useful data from fossils, scenarios for evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate eye have been based necessarily on evidence from development, molecular genetics and comparative anatomy in living vertebrates. Unfortunately, steps in the transition from a light-sensitive ‘eye spot’ in invertebrate chordates to an image-forming camera-style eye in jawed vertebrates are constrained only by hagfish...

Data from: Nanoscopic imaging of thick heterogeneous soft-matter structures in aqueous solution

Tobias F. Bartsch, Martin D. Kochanczyk, Emanuel N. Lissek, Janina R. Lange & Ernst-Ludwig Florin
Precise nanometre-scale imaging of soft structures at room temperature poses a major challenge to any type of microscopy because fast thermal fluctuations lead to significant motion blur if the position of the structure is measured with insufficient bandwidth. Moreover, precise localization is also affected by optical heterogeneities, which lead to deformations in the imaged local geometry, the severity depending on the sample and its thickness. Here we introduce quantitative thermal noise imaging, a three-dimensional scanning...

Data from: Population genetic structure between Yap and Palau for the coral Acropora hyacinthus

Annick Cros, Robert J. Toonen, Sarah W. Davies & Stephen A. Karl
Information on connectivity is becoming increasingly in demand as marine protected areas are being designed as an integral part of a network to protect marine resources at the ecosystem level. Larval dispersal and population structure, however, remain very difficult to assess. Here, we tested the predictions of a detailed oceanographic connectivity model of larval dispersal and coral recruitment within Palau and between Palau and Yap, which was developed to support the review of the existing...

Data from: Sensory trait variation contributes to biased dispersal of threespine stickleback in flowing water

Yuexin Jiang, Catherine L. Peichel, Fei Ling, Daniel I. Bolnick, Z. Rizvi, S. Thompson, V. V. Palivela & L. Torrance
Gene flow is widely thought to homogenize spatially separate populations, eroding effects of divergent selection. The resulting theory of ‘migration-selection balance’ is predicated on a common assumption that all genotypes are equally prone to dispersal. If instead certain genotypes are disproportionately likely to disperse, then migration can actually promote population divergence. For example, previous work has shown that threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) differ in their propensity to move up- or down-stream (‘rheotactic response’), which may...

Data from: Dynamic sinking behaviour in marine phytoplankton: rapid changes in buoyancy may aid in nutrient uptake

Brad J. Gemmell, Genesok Oh, Edward J. Buskey & Tracy A. Villareal
Phytoplankton sinking is an important property that can determine community composition in the photic zone and material loss to the deep ocean. To date, studies of diatom suspension have relied on bulk measurements with assumptions that bulk rates adequately capture the essential characteristics of diatom sinking. However, recent work has illustrated that individual diatom sinking rates vary considerably from the mean bulk rate. In this study, we apply high-resolution optical techniques, individual-based observations of diatom...

Data from: Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in Anolis lizard speciation

Travis Ingram, Alexis Harrison, D. Luke Mahler, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Richard E. Glor, Anthony Herrel, Yoel E. Stuart & Jonathan B. Losos
Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as...

Data from: Major histocompatibility complex selection dynamics in pathogen-infected túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) populations

Tiffany A. Kosch, Arnaud Bataille, Chelsea Didinger, John A. Eimes, Sofia Rodríguez-Brenes, Michael J. Ryan & Bruce Waldman
Pathogen-driven selection can favour major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles that confer immunological resistance to specific diseases. However, strong directional selection should deplete genetic variation necessary for robust immune function in the absence of balancing selection or challenges presented by other pathogens. We examined selection dynamics at one MHC class II (MHC-II) locus across Panamanian populations of the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, infected by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We compared MHC-II diversity in...

Data from: Does biomass growth increase in the largest trees? Flaws, fallacies and alternative analyses

Douglas Sheil, Chris S. Eastaugh, Mart Vlam, Pieter A. Zuidema, Peter Groenendijk, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alex Jay & Jerome Vanclay
The long-standing view that biomass growth in trees typically follows a rise-and-fall unimodal pattern has been challenged by studies concluding that biomass growth increases with size even among the largest stems in both closed forests and in open competition-free environments. We highlight challenges and pitfalls that influence such interpretations. The ability to observe and calibrate biomass change in large stems requires adequate data regarding these specific stems. Data checking and control procedures can bias estimates...

Data from: Neuroendocrine profiles associated with discrete behavioural variation in Symphodus ocellatus, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics

Bridget M. Nugent, Kelly A. Stiver, Suzanne H. Alonzo & Hans A. Hofmann
The molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity are not well understood. Identifying mechanisms underlying alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in species for which the behavioural and fitness consequences of this variation are well characterized provides an opportunity to integrate evolutionary and mechanistic understanding of the maintenance of variation within populations. In the ocellated wrasse Symphodus ocellatus, the behavioural phenotypes of three distinct male morphs (sneakers, satellites and nesting males), which arise from a single genome, have been...

Data from: Evaluation of TagSeq, a reliable low-cost alternative for RNAseq

Brian K. Lohman, Jesse N. Weber, Daniel Bolnick & Daniel I. Bolnick
RNAseq is a relatively new tool for ecological genetics that offers researchers insight into changes in gene expression in response to a myriad of natural or experimental conditions. However, standard RNAseq methods (e.g., Illumina TruSeq® or NEBNext®) can be cost prohibitive, especially when study designs require large sample sizes. Consequently, RNAseq is often underused as a method, or is applied to small sample sizes that confer poor statistical power. Low cost RNAseq methods could therefore...

Data from: Intruder colour and light environment jointly determine how nesting male stickleback respond to simulated territorial intrusions

Daniel I. Bolnick, Kimberly Hendrix, Lyndon Alexander Jordan, Thor Veen & Chad D. Brock
Variation in male nuptial colour signals might be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. This can occur if males are more aggressive towards rivals with locally common colour phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we introduced red or melanic three-dimensional printed-model males into the territories of nesting male stickleback from two optically distinct lakes with different coloured residents. Red-throated models were attacked more in the population with red males, while melanic models were attacked more in the...

Data from: Spread of amphibian chytrid fungus across lowland populations of Túngara frogs in Panamá

Sofia Rodríguez-Brenes, David Rodriguez, Roberto Ibáñez & Michael J. Ryan
Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emergent infectious disease partially responsible for worldwide amphibian population declines. The spread of Bd along highland habitats ( > 500 m a.s.l.) of Costa Rica and Panamá is well documented and has been linked to amphibian population collapses. In contrast, data are scarce on the prevalence and dispersal of Bd in lowland habitats where amphibians may be infected but asymptomatic. Here we describe the...

Data from: Differential changes with age in multiscale entropy of electromyography signals from leg muscles during treadmill walking

Hyun Gu Kang & Jonathan B. Dingwell
Age-related gait changes may be due to the loss of complexity in the neuromuscular system. This theory is disputed due to inconsistent results from single-scale analyses. Also, behavioral adaptations may confound these changes. We examined whether EMG dynamics during gait is less complex in older adults over a range of timescales using the multiscale entropy method, and whether slower walking attenuates this effect. Surface EMG was measured from the left vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris...

Data from: Cline coupling and uncoupling in a stickleback hybrid zone

Timothy H. Vines, Anne C. Dalziel, Arianne Albert, Thor Veen, Patricia Marita Schulte, Dolph Schluter & Arianne Y. K. Albert
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across a hybrid zone, linkage disequilibria between loci can force clines to share the same slopes and centers. However, strong ecological selection on a locus can...

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in the melanin-based color system of birds

Chad M. Eliason, Matthew D. Shawkey, Julia A. Clark & Julia A. Clarke
Melanin pigments contained in organelles (melanosomes) impart earthy colors to feathers. Such melanin-based colors are distributed across birds and thought to be the ancestral color-producing mechanism in birds. However, we have had limited data on melanin-based color and melanosome diversity in Palaeognathae, which includes the flighted tinamous and large-bodied, flightless ratites and is the sister taxon to all other extant birds. Here, we use scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry to assess melanosome morphology and quantify...

Data from: A hierarchical model of whole assemblage island biogeography

Jesse R. Lasky, Timothy H. Keitt, Brian C. Weeks & Evan P. Economo
Island systems have long played a central role in the development of ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while many empirical studies suggest species differ in vital biogeographic rates, such as dispersal abilities, quantitative methods have had difficulty incorporating such differences into analyses of whole-assemblages. In particular, differences in dispersal abilities among species can cause variation in the spatial clustering and localization of species distributions. Here, we develop a single, hierarchical Bayes, assemblage-wide model of 252...

Data from: A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler & Casey P. TerHorst
Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Kansas
  • Ghent University
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Akron
  • Yale University
  • Michigan State University
  • Southern Cross University