38 Works

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in the melanin-based color system of birds

Chad M. Eliason, Matthew D. Shawkey, Julia A. Clark & Julia A. Clarke
Melanin pigments contained in organelles (melanosomes) impart earthy colors to feathers. Such melanin-based colors are distributed across birds and thought to be the ancestral color-producing mechanism in birds. However, we have had limited data on melanin-based color and melanosome diversity in Palaeognathae, which includes the flighted tinamous and large-bodied, flightless ratites and is the sister taxon to all other extant birds. Here, we use scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry to assess melanosome morphology and quantify...

Data from: Cline coupling and uncoupling in a stickleback hybrid zone

Timothy H. Vines, Anne C. Dalziel, Arianne Albert, Thor Veen, Patricia Marita Schulte, Dolph Schluter & Arianne Y. K. Albert
Strong ecological selection on a genetic locus can maintain allele frequency differences between populations in different environments, even in the face of hybridization. When alleles at divergent loci come into tight linkage disequilibrium, selection acts on them as a unit and can significantly reduce gene flow. For populations interbreeding across a hybrid zone, linkage disequilibria between loci can force clines to share the same slopes and centers. However, strong ecological selection on a locus can...

Data from: The plumage and colouration of an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of China

Jennifer A. Peteya, Julia A. Clarke, Quanguo Li, Ke-Qin Gao & Matthew D. Shawkey
Brilliant colour displays and diverse feather morphologies that are often sexual ornaments are common throughout much of extant Avialae. Here we describe a new basal enantiornithine bird specimen recovered from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province in northeastern China. We present new information on the plumage of Bohaiornithidae as well as the first detailed colour reconstruction of an enantiornithine bird. The new specimen retains subadult skeletal characteristics, including periosteal pitting of the long...

Data from: A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

Erica M. Holdridge, Catalina Cuellar-Gempeler & Casey P. TerHorst
Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density...

Data from: Differential changes with age in multiscale entropy of electromyography signals from leg muscles during treadmill walking

Hyun Gu Kang & Jonathan B. Dingwell
Age-related gait changes may be due to the loss of complexity in the neuromuscular system. This theory is disputed due to inconsistent results from single-scale analyses. Also, behavioral adaptations may confound these changes. We examined whether EMG dynamics during gait is less complex in older adults over a range of timescales using the multiscale entropy method, and whether slower walking attenuates this effect. Surface EMG was measured from the left vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris...

Data from: A hierarchical model of whole assemblage island biogeography

Jesse R. Lasky, Timothy H. Keitt, Brian C. Weeks & Evan P. Economo
Island systems have long played a central role in the development of ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while many empirical studies suggest species differ in vital biogeographic rates, such as dispersal abilities, quantitative methods have had difficulty incorporating such differences into analyses of whole-assemblages. In particular, differences in dispersal abilities among species can cause variation in the spatial clustering and localization of species distributions. Here, we develop a single, hierarchical Bayes, assemblage-wide model of 252...

Data from: Dissecting signal and noise in diatom chloroplast protein encoding genes with phylogenetic information profiling

Edward C. Theriot, Matthew P. Ashworth, Teofil Nakov, Elizabeth Ruck, Robert K. Jansen & Matt P. Ashworth
Previous analyses of single diatom chloroplast protein-encoded genes recovered results highly incongruent with both traditional phylogenies and phylogenies derived from the nuclear encoded small subunit (SSU) gene. Our analysis here of six individual chloroplast genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC and rbcL) obtained similar anomalous results. However, phylogenetic noise in these genes did not appear to be correlated, and their concatenation appeared to effectively sum their collective signal. We empirically demonstrated the value of combining...

Data from: Herbivory enhances the diversity of primary producers in pond ecosystems

Mathew A. Leibold, Spencer R. Hall, Val H. Smith & David A. Lytle
Diversity of primary producer is often surprisingly high, despite few limiting factors such as nutrients and light to facilitate species coexistence. In theory, the presence of herbivores could increase the diversity of primary producers, resolving this “paradox of the plankton”. Little experimental evidence supports this natural enemies hypothesis, but previous tests suffer from several deficiencies. Previous experiments often did not allow for multigeneration effects; utilized low diversity assemblages of herbivores; and limited opportunities for new...

Data from: Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic

Julia A. Clarke, Sankar Chatterjee, Zhiheng Li, Tobias Riede, Federico Angolin, Franz Goller, Marcelo P. Isasi, Daniel R. Martinioni, Francisco J. Mussel & Fernando E. Novas
From complex songs to simple honks, birds produce sounds using a unique vocal organ called the syrinx1, 2. Located close to the heart at the tracheobronchial junction, vocal folds or membranes attached to modified mineralized rings vibrate to produce sound1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Syringeal components were not thought to commonly enter the fossil record6, and the few reported fossilized parts of the syrinx are geologically young8, 9, 10, 11 (from the Pleistocene...

Data from: Matrix context and patch quality jointly determine diversity in a landscape-scale experiment

Robert A. Deans & David R. Chalcraft
The biodiversity of a habitat patch is predicted to be driven in part by interactions between patch quality and landscape context (i.e., type of regional matrix), but these interactions are rarely explored experimentally. Understanding the interaction between patch quality and matrix context can provide insight into the kind of dynamics that best describe a metacommunity and help predict how the diversity of a patch will respond to environmental change at different scales. We conducted a...

Data from: Genome-wide association study in Arabidopsis thaliana of natural variation in seed oil melting point, a widespread adaptive trait in plants

Sandra E. Branham, Sara J. Wright, Aaron Reba, Ginnie D. Morrison & C. Randal Linder
Seed oil melting point is an adaptive, quantitative trait determined by the relative proportions of the fatty acids that compose the oil. Micro- and macro-evolutionary evidence suggests selection has changed the melting point of seed oils to covary with germination temperatures because of a trade-off between total energy stores and the rate of energy acquisition during germination under competition. The seed oil compositions of 391 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under common-garden conditions, were...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Agonistic character displacement in social cognition of advertisement signals

Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford & Steven M. Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston’s singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in...

Data from: A new species of Illacme Cook & Loomis, 1928 from Sequoia National Park, California, with a world catalog of the Siphonorhinidae (Diplopoda, Siphonophorida)

Paul E. Marek, Jean K. Krejca & William A. Shear
Members of the family Siphonorhinidae Cook, 1895 are thread-like eyeless millipedes that possess an astounding number of legs, including one individual with 750. Due to their cryptic lifestyle, rarity in natural history collections, and sporadic study over the last century, the family has an unclear phylogenetic placement, and intrafamilial relationships remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a second species of Illacme, a millipede genus notable for possessing the greatest number of legs of...

Data from: Methylation of avpr1a in the cortex of wild prairie voles: effects of CpG position and polymorphism

Mariam Okhovat, Sean M. Maguire & Steven M. Phelps
DNA methylation can cause stable changes in neuronal gene expression, but we know little about its role in individual differences in the wild. In this study, we focus on the vasopressin 1a receptor (avpr1a), a gene extensively implicated in vertebrate social behaviour, and explore natural variation in DNA methylation, genetic polymorphism and neuronal gene expression among 30 wild prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Examination of CpG density across 8 kb of the locus revealed two distinct...

Data from: Reliability and minimum detectable change of temporal-spatial, kinematic, and dynamic stability measures during perturbed gait

Christopher A. Rabago, Jonathan B. Dingwell & Jason M. Wilken
Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks...

Data from: Gene expression plasticity as a mechanism of coral adaptation to a variable environment

Carly D. Kenkel & Mikhail V. Matz
Local adaptation is ubiquitous, but the molecular mechanisms that give rise to this ecological phenomenon remain largely unknown. A year-long reciprocal transplant of mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) between a highly environmentally variable inshore habitat and a more stable offshore habitat demonstrated that populations exhibit phenotypic signatures that are consistent with local adaptation. We characterized the genomic basis of this adaptation in both coral hosts and their intracellular symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.) using genome-wide gene expression...

Data from: The role of cognitive and affective empathy in spouses' support interactions: an observational study

Lesley L. Verhofstadt, Inge Devoldre, Ann Buysse, Michael Stevens, Celine Hinnekens, William Ickes & Mark Davis
The present study examined how support providers’ empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to...

Data from: Patterns in parasitism frequency explained by diet and immunity

Alyssa C. Hansen, Andrea E. Glassmire, Lee A. Dyer & Angela M. Smilanich
We sought to explain patterns in parasitism frequency of two specialist herbivores (Geometridae) by investigating the influence of plant diet as a source of variation in immune response variables important for defense against parasitism. Field collected caterpillars (Eois apyraria and Eois nympha) were assigned to one of two species in the plant genus Piper (Piperaceae): 1) a host species with high diversity of defensive chemistry, P. cenocladum C.DC., or 2) a host species with lower...

Data from: An integrative framework of coexistence mechanisms in competitive metacommunities

Bertrand Fournier, Nicolas Mouquet, Mathew A. Leibold & Dominique Gravel
Species distribution in a metacommunity varies according to their traits, the distribution of environmental conditions and connectivity among localities. These ingredients contribute to coexistence across spatial scales via species sorting, patch dynamics, mass effects and neutral dynamics. These mechanisms however seldom act in isolation and the impact of landscape configuration on their relative importance remains poorly understood. We present a new model of metacommunity dynamics that simultaneously considers these four possible mechanisms over spatially explicit...

Data from: Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment

Olivier Tenaillon, Jeffrey E. Barrick, Noah Ribeck, Daniel E. Deatherage, Jeffrey L. Blanchard, Aurko Dasgupta, Gabriel C. Wu, Sébastien Wielgoss, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Dominique Schneider & Richard E. Lenski
Adaptation by natural selection depends on the rates, effects and interactions of many mutations, making it difficult to determine what proportion of mutations in an evolving lineage are beneficial. Here we analysed 264 complete genomes from 12 Escherichia coli populations to characterize their dynamics over 50,000 generations. The populations that retained the ancestral mutation rate support a model in which most fixed mutations are beneficial, the fraction of beneficial mutations declines as fitness rises, and...

Data from: Pigmented anatomy in Carboniferous cyclostomes and the evolution of the vertebrate eye

Sarah E. Gabbott, Philip C.J. Donoghue, Robert S. Sansom, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Mark A. Purnell & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The success of vertebrates is linked to the evolution of a camera-style eye and sophisticated visual system. In the absence of useful data from fossils, scenarios for evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate eye have been based necessarily on evidence from development, molecular genetics and comparative anatomy in living vertebrates. Unfortunately, steps in the transition from a light-sensitive ‘eye spot’ in invertebrate chordates to an image-forming camera-style eye in jawed vertebrates are constrained only by hagfish...

Data from: Adaptive differentiation in floral traits in the presence of high gene flow in scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata)

Elizabeth R. Milano, Amanda M. Kenney & Thomas E. Juenger
Plant-pollinator interactions are thought to be major drivers of floral trait diversity. However, the relative importance of divergent pollinator-mediated selection versus neutral processes in floral character evolution has rarely been explored. We tested for adaptive floral trait evolution by comparing differentiation at neutral genetic loci to differentiation at quantitative floral traits in a putative Ipomopsis aggregata hybrid zone. Typical I. aggregata subsp. candida displays slender white tubular flowers that are typical of flowers pollinated by...

Data from: Population genetic structure between Yap and Palau for the coral Acropora hyacinthus

Annick Cros, Robert J. Toonen, Sarah W. Davies & Stephen A. Karl
Information on connectivity is becoming increasingly in demand as marine protected areas are being designed as an integral part of a network to protect marine resources at the ecosystem level. Larval dispersal and population structure, however, remain very difficult to assess. Here, we tested the predictions of a detailed oceanographic connectivity model of larval dispersal and coral recruitment within Palau and between Palau and Yap, which was developed to support the review of the existing...

Data from: Dynamic sinking behaviour in marine phytoplankton: rapid changes in buoyancy may aid in nutrient uptake

Brad J. Gemmell, Genesok Oh, Edward J. Buskey & Tracy A. Villareal
Phytoplankton sinking is an important property that can determine community composition in the photic zone and material loss to the deep ocean. To date, studies of diatom suspension have relied on bulk measurements with assumptions that bulk rates adequately capture the essential characteristics of diatom sinking. However, recent work has illustrated that individual diatom sinking rates vary considerably from the mean bulk rate. In this study, we apply high-resolution optical techniques, individual-based observations of diatom...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Kansas
  • Ghent University
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Akron
  • Yale University
  • Michigan State University
  • Southern Cross University