48 Works

7,000 years of turnover: historical contingency and human niche construction shape the Caribbean’s Anthropocene biota

Melissa Kemp, Alexis Mychajliw, Jenna Wadman & Amy Goldberg
The human-mediated movement of species across biogeographic boundaries—whether intentional or accidental—is dramatically reshaping the modern world. Conservation biologists are grappling with the present-day effects of these introductions, but humans have in fact been reshaping ecosystems and translocating species for millennia. Acknowledging the effects of human-mediated species introductions through time is important for understanding present-day biodiversity loss, ecosystem functioning, and management needs. Here, we present the first database of terrestrial vertebrate species introductions spanning the entire...

No evidence for neonicotinoid preferences in the bumblebee Bombus impatiens

Felicity Muth
Neonicotinoid pesticides can have a multitude of negative sub-lethal effects on bees. Understanding their impact on wild populations requires accurately estimating the dosages bees encounter under natural conditions. This is complicated by the possibility that bees might influence their own exposure: two recent studies found that bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) preferentially consumed neonicotinoid-contaminated nectar, even though these chemicals are thought to be tasteless and odourless. Here we used Bombus impatiens to explore two elements of these...

Data from: Evaluating Sphagnum traits in the context of resource economics and optimal partitioning theories

Tobi Oke & Merritt R. Turetsky
Trade-offs between key aspects of plant performance such as resource acquisition and allocation underpin several trait-based theories that have been derived for vascular plants. However, due to difficulty in quantifying traits in nonvascular plants, our theoretical understanding of how traits govern the physiological and ecological preferences of nonvascular plant species is quite limited. Here, we used the resource economics theory (RET) and optimal partitioning theory (OPT) to evaluate functional traits in mosses. We evaluated aspects...

Data from: Plant biomass, not plant economics traits, determines responses of soil CO2 efflux to precipitation in the C4 grass Panicum virgatum

Robert Heckman, Albina Khasanova, Nicholas Johnson, Sören Weber, Jason Bonnette, Mike Aspinwall, Lara Reichman, Thomas Juenger, Philip Fay & Christine Hawkes
1. Plant responses to major environmental drivers like precipitation can influence important aspects of carbon (C) cycling like soil CO2 efflux (JCO2). These responses may be predicted by two independent classes of drivers: plant size—larger plants respire more and produce a larger quantity of labile C, and plant economics—plants possessing more acquisitive plant economics strategies (i.e., high metabolic rate and tissue nutrient content) produce higher-quality tissue that respires rapidly and decomposes quickly. 2. At two...

Microhabitat contributes to microgeographic divergence in threespine stickleback

Meghan Maciejewski, Cynthia Jiang, Yoel Stuart & Daniel Bolnick
Since the New Synthesis, most migration-selection balance theory predicted that there should be negligible differentiation over small spatial scales (relative to dispersal), because gene flow should erode any effect of divergent selection. Nevertheless, there are classic examples of microgeographic divergence, which theory suggests can arise under specific conditions: exceptionally strong selection, phenotypic plasticity in philopatric individuals, or non-random dispersal. Here, we present evidence of microgeographic morphological variation within lake and stream populations of threespine stickleback...

Data from: Emigrating together but not establishing together: A cockroach rides ants and leaves

Zachary I. Phillips
Symbionts of ant colonies can hitchhike on winged ant reproductives (alates) during colony nuptial flights. Attaphila fungicola Wheeler, a miniature cockroach that lives in the nests of Texas leaf-cutter ants (Atta texana Buckley), hitchhikes on female alates (winged queens). Hitchhiking roaches are presumably vertically transmitted from leaf-cutter parent colony to daughter colony, remaining with female alates as they transition into foundresses (workerless queens); however, foundresses have limited resources and high mortality rates. Rather than remaining...

Do novel insecticides pose a threat to beneficial insects?

Harry Siviter & Felicity Muth
Systemic insecticides, such as neonicotinoids, are a major contributor towards beneficial insect declines. This has led to bans and restrictions on neonicotinoid use globally, most noticeably in the Europe Union, where four commonly-used neonicotinoids are banned from outside agricultural use. While this might seem like a victory for conservation, restrictions on neonicotinoid use will only benefit insect populations if newly emerging insecticides do not have similar negative impacts on beneficial insects. Flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor are...

Fractures with variable roughness and wettability

Eric Guiltinan, Javier Estrada Santos, Qinjun Kang, Bayani Cardenas & D. Nicolas Espinoza

Data from: Chemical novelty facilitates herbivore resistance and biological invasions in some introduced plant species

Brian Sedio, John Devaney, Jamie Pullen, Geoffrey Parker, S. Joseph Wright & John Parker
Ecological release from herbivory due to chemical novelty is commonly predicted to facilitate biological invasions by plants, but has not been tested on a community scale. We used metabolomics based on mass spectrometry molecular networks to assess the novelty of foliar secondary chemistry of 15 invasive plant species compared to 46 native species at a site in eastern North America. Locally, invasive species were more chemically distinctive than natives. Among the 15 invasive species, the...

Targeted CT: Predictive Digital Rock Physics Models Without Segmentation

Eric Goldfarb, Masa Prodanovic, Richard Ketcham, Nicola Tisato & Ken Ikeda
In order to understand measurements from geophysical surveys, it is important to study rock samples in a laboratory setting. Digital rock physics (DRP) is a non invasive way estimate these same properties using numerical models. We have introduced a workflow to estimate rock properties, and this repository accompanies a manuscript where we explain the method. Here, we include our CT scans of four Berea Sandstone plugs which are used in the manuscript by Goldfarb et...

Evaluation of Capillary Pressure in Digital Rock Petrophysics

Christoph Arns, , , &

QTL × environment interactions underlie adaptive divergence in switchgrass across a large latitudinal gradient

David Lowry, John Lovell, Li Zhang, Jason Bonnette, Philip Fay, Robert Mitchell, John Lloyd-Reilley, Arvid Boe, Yanqi Wu, Francis Rouquette, Richard Wynia, Xiaoyu Weng, Kathrine Behrman, Adam Healey, Kerrie Barry, Anna Lipzen, Diane Bauer, Aditi Sharma, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Felix B. Fritschi & Thomas E. Juenger
Local adaptation is the process by which natural selection drives adaptive phenotypic divergence across environmental gradients. Theory suggests that local adaptation results from genetic trade-offs at individual genetic loci, where adaptation to one set of environmental conditions results in a cost to fitness in alternative environments. However, the degree to which there are costs associated with local adaptation is poorly understood because most of these experiments rely on two-site reciprocal transplant experiments. Here, we quantify...

A new species of Eogruidae (Aves: Gruiformes) from the Miocene of the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China: Evolutionary and climatic implications

Grace Musser, Zhiheng Li & Julia A Clarke
Despite having one of the most robust fossil records within core-gruiform birds (rails, cranes, and allies), the biogeographic history of Gruidae (cranes) and key drivers of diversification within this group remain largely unknown. The Eogruidae of Eurasia represent some of the earliest known crane-like fossils. Here, we present description of a new species represented by a well-preserved specimen of a foot from the late Miocene (7–6.5 mya) Liushu Formation of Linxia Basin, Gansu, China. It...

Data from: Plant community dynamics and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in the era of global change

Tobi A. Oke & Heather A. Hager
Aim: Hydroclimatic shift and anthropogenic-driven nitrogen deposition are major outcomes of global change that could compromise the functioning of many peatlands as a carbon sink. For Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, an emerging hypothesis is that the change could be triggered by shifts in competitive dominance among plant functional groups, specifically from the currently predominant decay-resistant Sphagnum to the more decomposable vascular plants. However, the relationship between Sphagnum and vascular plant occurrence is notably complex and also includes...

Resurrection of a global, metagenomically defined gokushovirus

Paul Kirchberger
Gokushoviruses are single-stranded, circular DNA bacteriophages found in metagenomic datasets from diverse ecosystems wordwide, including human gut microbiomes. Despite their ubiquity and abundance, little is known about their biology or host range: isolates are exceedingly rare, known only from three obligate intracellular bacterial genera. By synthesizing circularized phage genomes from prophages embedded in diverse enteric bacteria, we produced gokushoviruses in an experimentally tractable model system, allowing us to investigate their features and biology. We demonstrate...

High-Resolution SEM Image Mosaics of Overburden Shales: Wilcox Group, Midway, Navarro

Christopher Landry, Masa Prodanovic & Bruce Hart

Barriers to cross-shelf coral connectivity in the Florida Keys

Mikhail Matz

Data from: Dynamics of diet-egg transfer of fatty acids in the teleost fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

Zhenxin Hou, Cynthia Faulk & Lee Fuiman
Eggs of marine organisms are increasingly being recognized as important components of marine food webs. The degree to which egg fatty acid profiles reflect maternal diet fatty acid profiles, and therefore the value of fatty acids in eggs as trophic biomarkers, depends on the species’ reproductive strategy and the extent of modification of ingested fatty acids. We measured the dynamics of transfer of recently ingested fatty acids to spawned eggs in a batch-spawning teleost, red...

Data from: Multiple constraints cause positive and negative feedbacks limiting grassland soil CO2 efflux under CO2 enrichment

Philip Fay, Dafeng Hui, Robert Jackson, Harold Collins, Lara Reichmann, Michael Aspinwall, Virginia Jin, Albina Khasanova, Robert Heckman & Wayne Polley
Terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly enriched with resources such as atmospheric CO2 that limit ecosystem processes. The consequences for ecosystem carbon cycling depend on the feedbacks from other limiting resources and plant community change, which remain poorly understood for soil CO2 efflux, JCO2, a primary carbon flux from the biosphere to the atmosphere. We applied a unique CO2 enrichment gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) for eight years to grassland plant communities on soils from different...

Natural enemy-herbivore networks along local management and landscape gradients in urban agroecosystems

Stacy Philpott, Azucena Lucatero, Peter Bichier, Monika Egerer, Shalene Jha, Brenda Lin & Heidi Liere
Ecological networks can provide insight into how biodiversity loss and changes in species interactions impact the delivery of ecosystem services. In agroecosystems that vary in management practices, quantifying changes in ecological network structure across gradients of local and landscape composition can inform both the ecology and function of productive agroecosystems. In this study, we examined natural enemy-herbivore co-occurrence networks associated with Brassica oleracea (cole crops), a common crop in urban agricultural systems. Specifically, we investigated...

Capillary rise in vuggy porous media

Hasan J Khan, Masa Prodanovic, Ayaz Mehmani, David DiCarlo & Dayeed Khan
Capillary rise in vuggy porous media

Mudrock images from Nankai Trough

Abhishek Bihani, Hugh Daigle, Masa Prodanovic, Kitty Milliken & Javier E. Santos
An image analysis workflow was used to study the electron microscopy images of uncemented muds obtained at various depths (< 1.1 km burial) in the Kumano Basin of Nankai Trough offshore Japan for studying the silt bridging phenomenon. Forty-nine images from five core samples at different depths of Site C0002 obtained during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 315 and 338 were used for the study. The original image set can be found at https://www.digitalrocksportal.org/projects/42....

Data from: Exploring genomic variation associated with drought stress in Picea mariana populations

Joseph Napier, Guillaume De Lafontaine & Feng Sheng Hu
Predicted increases in drought and heat stress will likely induce shifts in species bioclimatic envelopes. Genetic variants adapted to water limitation may prove pivotal for species response under scenarios of increasing drought. In this study, we aimed to explore this hypothesis by investigating genetic variation in 16 populations of black spruce (Picea mariana) in relation to climate variables in Alaska. A total of 520 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for 158 trees sampled from...

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