181 Works

Body Meets Self. An interview of Frédérique de Vignemont by Raphaël Millière and Carlota Serrahima.

Frédérique de Vignemont, Raphaël Millière & Carlota Serrahima
In this interview, Frédérique de Vignemont discusses her wide-ranging and influential research program on philosophical issues related to bodily awareness. The conversation explores core questions of this research program, such as the existence of a sense of body ownership, the nature of pain and touch, and the role of the peripersonal space, as well as methodological questions regarding the role of empirical evidence in philosophical investigation and the value of arguments from phenomenal contrast in...

Spatiotemporal study of iron oxide nanoparticle monolayer formation at liquid/liquid interfaces by using in situ small-angle x‐ray scattering

Jiayang Hu, Evan W. C. Spotte-Smith, Brady Pan, Roy J. Garcia, Carlos Colosqui & Irving P. Herman
Spatial and temporal small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) scans show that 8.6 and 11.8 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in heptane drop-cast on top of a heptane layer atop a diethylene glycol (DEG) layer are trapped at the DEG/heptane interface to generally form a single ordered, hexagonal close packed monolayer (ML), and this occurs long before the heptane evaporates. Many NPs remain dispersed in the heptane after this NP assembly. Assembly occurs faster than expected...

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Feminist Friendship as an Affective Engagement through the Arts

Miguel Ángel Blanco Martínez & Paola Mendoza Téllez-Girón
This paper considers friendship as an affective terrain of feminist alliance among subjects that belong to territories with a colonial record responding to the colonial/modern gender system (Lugones 2007) through the arts. Friendship is here conceptualized as an engagement of feminist solidarity unfolding within theoretical and practical models of change and resistance against the logics of cultural imperialism (Lugones and Spelman 1983). Turning friendship into a polyphonic feminist reaction, this work is conducted by acknowledging...

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808

Herbert S. Klein & Stanley L. Engerman

Slave Movement -- Angola Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1723-1771

Herbert S. Klein

Data from: Multiple processes drive genetic structure of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations across spatial scales

Francine Kershaw, Inês Carvalho, Jacqueline Loo, Cristina Pomilla, Peter B. Best, Ken P. Findlay, Salvatore Cerchio, Tim Collins, Marcia H. Engel, Gianna Minton, Peter Ersts, Jaco Barendse, P. G. H. Kotze, Yvette Razafindrakoto, Solange Ngouessono, Michael Meӱer, Meredith Thornton & Howard C. Rosenbaum
Elucidating patterns of population structure for species with complex life histories, and disentangling the processes driving such patterns, remains a significant analytical challenge. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations display complex genetic structures that have not been fully resolved at all spatial scales. We generated a data set of nuclear markers for 3,575 samples spanning the seven breeding stocks and substocks found in the South Atlantic and western and northern Indian Oceans. For the total sample,...

Data from: Light regulates tropical symbiotic nitrogen fixation more strongly than soil nitrogen

Benton N. Taylor
Nitrogen limits primary production in almost every biome on Earth1,2. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, conducted by certain angiosperms and their endosymbiotic bacteria, is the largest potential natural source of new nitrogen into the biosphere3, influencing global primary production, carbon sequestration and element cycling. Because symbiotic nitrogen fixation represents an alternative to soil nitrogen uptake, much of the work on symbiotic nitrogen fixation regulation has focused on soil nitrogen availability4,5,6,7,8. However, because symbiotic nitrogen fixation is an...

Data from: Reduced signal for polygenic adaptation of height in UK Biobank

Jeremy J. Berg, Arbel Harpak, Nasa Sinnott-Armstrong, Anja Moltke Joergensen, Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Yair Field, Evan August Boyle, Xinjun Zhang, Fernando Racimo, Jonathan K. Pritchard & Graham Coop
Several recent papers have reported strong signals of selection on European polygenic height scores. These analyses used height effect estimates from the GIANT consortium and replication studies. Here, we describe a new analysis based on the the UK Biobank (UKB), a large, independent dataset. We find that the signals of selection using UKB effect estimates are strongly attenuated or absent. We also provide evidence that previous analyses were confounded by population stratification. Therefore, the conclusion...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Data from: Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

Robert Muscarella & María Uriarte
The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of...

Data from: Effects of plant functional group loss on soil biota and net ecosystem exchange: a plant removal experiment in the Mongolian grassland

Dima Chen, Qingmin Pan, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu, Jianhui Huang, Qibing Wang, Shahid Naeem, James J. Elser, Jianguo Wu & Xingguo Han
1. The rapid loss of global biodiversity can greatly affect the functioning of above-ground components of ecosystems. However, how such biodiversity losses affect below-ground communities and linkages to soil carbon (C) sequestration is unclear. Here we describe how losses in plant functional groups (PFGs) affect soil microbial and nematode communities and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a 4-year removal experiment conducted on the Mongolian plateau, the world's largest remaining natural grassland. 2. Our results demonstrated...

Data from: Ret and Etv4 promote directed movements of progenitor cells during renal branching morphogenesis

Paul Riccio, Cristina Cebrian, Hui Zong, Simon Hippenmeyer & Frank Costantini
Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive...

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Data from: HS1BP3 negatively regulates autophagy by modulation of phosphatidic acid levels

Petter Holland, Helene Knævelsrud, Kristiane Søreng, Benan John Mathai, Alf Håkon Lystad, Serhiy Pankiv, Gunnveig T. Bjørndal, Sebastian W. Schultz, Viola H. Lobert, Robin B. Chan, Bowen Zhou, Knut Liestøl, Sven R. Carlsson, Thomas J. Melia, Gilbert Di Paolo & Anne Simonsen
A fundamental question is how autophagosome formation is regulated. Here we show that the PX domain protein HS1BP3 is a negative regulator of autophagosome formation. HS1BP3 depletion increased the formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes and degradation of cargo both in human cell culture and in zebrafish. HS1BP3 is localized to ATG16L1- and ATG9-positive autophagosome precursors and we show that HS1BP3 binds phosphatidic acid (PA) through its PX domain. Furthermore, we find the total PA content of...

Data from: Late Oligocene caviomorph rodents from Contamana, Peruvian Amazonia

Myriam Boivin, Laurent Marivaux, Adriana M. Candela, Maëva J. Orliac, François Pujos, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Julia V. Tejada-Lara & Pierre-Olivier Antoine
The Deseadan South American Land Mammal Age (late Early Oligocene – Late Oligocene) attests to a time of great diversification in the caviomorph rodent fossil record. Nevertheless, Deseadan rodent-bearing localities in Neotropical lowlands are few and poorly known. Here we describe the rodent assemblages from two Late Oligocene localities, near Contamana, Loreto, Peru. Seven taxa are new to science: Palaeosteiromys amazonensis gen. et sp. nov., Plesiosteiromys newelli gen. et sp. nov., Loretomys minutus gen. et...

Data from: Transforming water: social influence moderates psychological, physiological, and functional response to a placebo product

Alia J. Crum, Damon J. Phillips, J. Parker Goyer, Modupe Akinola & E. Tory Higgins
This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect...

Data from: Contrasting effects of phylogenetic relatedness on plant invader success in experimental grassland communities

Shao-Peng Li, Tao Guo, Marc W. Cadotte, Yong-Jian Chen, Jia-Liang Kuang, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Yi Zeng, Ying Song, Zheng Liu, Wen-Sheng Shu & Jin-Tian Li
1. Identifying the factors determining the success of invasive species is critical for management of biological invasions. Darwin's naturalization conundrum states that exotic species closely related to natives should be successful because of a shared affinity for local environmental conditions, but at the same time close relatives often compete more intensively, limiting ‘niche’ opportunities for the invaders. Previous studies have generally considered these two ‘opposing’ hypotheses as mutually exclusive, yet evidence for both of them...

Data from: Season-specific and guild-specific effects of anthropogenic landscape modification on metacommunity structure of tropical bats

Laura M. Cisneros, Matthew E. Fagan & Michael R. Willig
1. Fragmentation per se due to human land conversion is a landscape-scale phenomenon. Accordingly, assessment of distributional patterns across a suite of potentially connected communities (i.e. metacommunity structure) is an appropriate approach for understanding the effects of landscape modification, and complements the plethora of fragmentation studies that have focused on local community structure. To date, metacommunity structure within human-modified landscapes has been assessed with regard to nestedness along species richness gradients. This is problematic because...

Data from: Impaired hippocampal place cell dynamics in a mouse model of the 22q11.2 deletion

Jeffrey D. Zaremba, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Nathan B. Danielson, Andres D. Grosmark, Patrick W. Kaifosh, Jack C. Bowler, Zhenrui Liao, Fraser T. Sparks, Joseph A. Gogos & Attila Losonczy
Hippocampal place cells represent the cellular substrate of episodic memory. Place cell ensembles reorganize to support learning but must also maintain stable representations to facilitate memory recall. Despite extensive research, the learning-related role of place cell dynamics in health and disease remains elusive. Using chronic two-photon Ca2+ imaging in hippocampal area CA1 of wild-type and Df(16)A+/− mice, an animal model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, one of the most common genetic risk factors for cognitive dysfunction...

Data from: Profound reversible seasonal changes of individual skull size in a mammal

Javier Lázaro, Dina K. N. Dechmann, Scott LaPoint, Martin Wikelski, Moritz Hertel & Dina K.N. Dechmann
Postnatal size changes in most vertebrates are unidirectional and finite once the individual reaches full size. In rare cases, changes of body length may occur in response to harsh environmental conditions. Such reactionary changes are distinct from seasonal, often anticipatory morphological changes, such as the reversible size change of some adult bird brains. A unique pattern of profound anatomical change known as Dehnel’s phenomenon has been described for the body, skull and brain size of...

Data from: Automated analysis of long-term grooming behavior in Drosophila using a k-nearest neighbors classifier

Bing Qiao, Chiyuan Li, Victoria W. Allen, Mimi M. Shirasu-Hiza & Sheyum Syed
Despite being pervasive, the control of programmed grooming is poorly understood. We addressed this gap by developing a high-throughput platform that allows long-term detection of grooming in Drosophila melanogaster. In our method, a k-nearest neighbors algorithm automatically classifies fly behavior and finds grooming events with over 90% accuracy in diverse genotypes. Our data show that flies spend ~13% of their waking time grooming, driven largely by two major internal programs. One of these programs regulates...

Data from: Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes

Molly Schumer, Chenling Xu, Daniel L Powell, Arun Durvasula, Laurits Skov, Chris Holland, John C Blazier, Sriram Sankararaman, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the “minor” parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with poor sleep health during a period of COVID-19 induced nation-wide lockdown: a cross-sectional analysis of adults in the Middle East

Yazan Al-Ajlouni
Background: Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, declared a state of national emergency due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and a strict nation-wide lockdown on March 17, 2020, banning all travel and movement around the country, potentially impacting mental health. This study sought to investigate the association between mental health (e.g., anxiety and depressive symptoms) and sleep health among a sample of Jordanians living through a state of COVID-19 induced nation-wide lockdown. Methods: Using Facebook, participants...

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