572 Works

Data from: Stable recombination hotspots in birds

Sonal Singhal, Ellen M. Leffler, Keerthi Sannareddy, Isaac Turner, Oliver Venn, Daniel M. Hooper, Alva I. Strand, Qiye Li, Brian Raney, Christopher N. Balakrishnan, Simon C. Griffith, Gil McVean & Molly Przeworski
The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have...

Data from: Understanding the dominant controls on litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, Bjorn Berg, Daniel S. Maynard, William R. Wieder & Stephen A. Wood
Litter decomposition is a biogeochemical process fundamental to element cycling within ecosystems, influencing plant productivity, species composition and carbon storage. Climate has long been considered the primary broad-scale control on litter decomposition rates, yet recent work suggests that plant litter traits may predominate. Both decomposition paradigms, however, rely on inferences from cross-biome litter decomposition studies that analyse site-level means. We re-analyse data from a classical cross-biome study to demonstrate that previous research may falsely inflate...

Data from: Sex-specific fitness effects of unpredictable early life conditions are associated with DNA methylation in the avian glucocorticoid receptor

Dustin R. Rubenstein, Hannah Skolnik, Alejandro Berrio, Frances A. Champagne, Steven Phelps & Joseph Solomon
Organisms can adapt to variable environments by using environmental cues to modulate developmental gene expression. In principle, maternal influences can adaptively adjust offspring phenotype when early life and adult environments match, but they may be maladaptive when future environments are not predictable. One of the best-studied ‘maternal effects’ is through modification of the offspring's hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine system that controls responses to stress. In addition to the direct transfer of glucocorticoids from mother...

Data from: Continuum of vasodilator stress from rest to contrast medium to adenosine hyperemia for fractional flow reserve assessment

Nils P. Johnson, Allen Jeremias, Frederik M. Zimmermann, Julien Adjedj, Nils Witt, Barry Hennigan, Bon-Kwon Koo, Akiko Maehara, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Emanuele Barbato, Giovanni Esposito, Bruno Trimarco, Gilles Rioufol, Seung-Jung Park, Hyoung-Mo Yang, Sérgio B. Baptista, George S. Chrysant, Antonio M. Leone, Colin Berry, Bernard De Bruyne, K. Lance Gould, Richard L. Kirkeeide, Keith G. Oldroyd, Nico H. J. Pijls, William F. Fearon … & Nico H.J. Pijls
OBJECTIVES: We compared the diagnostic performance with adenosine-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) #0.8 of contrast-based FFR (cFFR), resting distal pressure (Pd)/aortic pressure (Pa), and the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). BACKGROUND: FFR objectively identifies lesions that benefit from medical therapy versus revascularization. However, FFR requires maximal vasodilation, usually achieved with adenosine. Radiographic contrast injection causes submaximal coronary hyperemia. Therefore, intracoronary contrast could provide an easy and inexpensive tool for predicting FFR. METHODS: We recruited patients undergoing...

Data from: Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier & William F. Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point...

Data from: Lambda interferon restructures the nasal microbiome and increases susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus superinfection

Paul J. Planet, Dane Parker, Taylor S. Cohen, Hannah Smith, Justinne D. Leon, Chanelle Ryan, Tobin J. Hammer, Noah Fierer, Emily I. Chen & Alice S. Prince
Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza virus respiratory infection is due to bacterial coinfection with pathogens that colonize the upper respiratory tract such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. A major component of the immune response to influenza virus is the production of type I and III interferons. Here we show that the immune response to infection with influenza virus causes an increase and restructuring of the upper respiratory microbiota...

Data from: Prescription of antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety: a cross-sectional survey in the private sector in Uganda

Anthony K. Mbonye, Esther Buregyeya, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Sian E. Clarke, Sham Lal, Kristian S. Hansen, Pascal Magnussen & Philip LaRussa
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess antibiotic prescription practices at registered drug shops with a focus on upper respiratory tract infections among children in order to provide data for policy discussions aimed at improving quality of care and patient safety in the private health sector in Uganda. Methods: A survey was conducted within 57 parishes from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, Uganda. Data was captured on the following variables:...

Data from: Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation

Karen B. Barnard-Kubow, Nina So & Laura F. Galloway
Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI...

Data from: Reproductive skew drives patterns of sexual dimorphism in sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps

Solomon Tin Chi Chak, J. Emmett Duffy & Dustin R. Rubenstein
Sexual dimorphism is typically a result of strong sexual selection on male traits used in male–male competition and subsequent female choice. However, in social species where reproduction is monopolized by one or a few individuals in a group, selection on secondary sexual characteristics may be strong in both sexes. Indeed, sexual dimorphism is reduced in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates and eusocial insects with totipotent workers, presumably because of increased selection on female traits. Here, we...

Data from: Characterization of a novel fusion gene EML4-NTRK3 in a case of recurrent congenital fibrosarcoma

Sarah Tannenbaum-Dvir, Julia L. Glade Bender, Alanna J. Church, Katherine A. Janeway, Marian H. Harris, Mahesh M. Mansukhani, Peter L. Nagy, Stuart J. Andrews, Vundavalli V. Murty, Angela Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Eileen P. Connolly, Andrew L. Kung & Filemon S. Dela Cruz
We describe the clinical course of a recurrent case of congenital fibrosarcoma diagnosed in a 9-mo-old boy with a history of hemimelia. Following complete surgical resection of the primary tumor, the patient subsequently presented with bulky bilateral pulmonary metastases 6 mo following surgery. Molecular characterization of the tumor revealed the absence of the prototypical ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. However, tumor characterization incorporating cytogenetic, array comparative genomic hybridization, and RNA sequencing analyses, revealed a somatic t(2;15)(2p21;15q25) translocation resulting...

Data from: Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits

Jesse R. Lasky, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Punna Ramu, Santosh Deshpande, C. Tom Hash, Jason Bonnette, Thomas E. Juenger, Katie Hyma, Charlotte Acharya, Sharon E. Mitchell, Edward S. Buckler, Zachary Brenton, Stephen Kresovich & Geoffrey P. Morris
Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these could be used to predict phenotypic variation for adaptive traits. We tested this proposition in the global food crop Sorghum bicolor, characterizing 1943 georeferenced landraces at 404,627 SNPs and quantifying allelic associations with bioclimatic and soil...

Data from: New England cod collapse and the climate

Kyle C. Meng, Kimberly L. Oremus & Steven D. Gaines
To improve fishery management, there is an increasing need to understand the long-term consequences of natural and anthropogenic climate variability for ecological systems. New England’s iconic cod populations have been in decline for several decades and have recently reached unprecedented lows. We find that 17% of the overall decline in Gulf of Maine cod biomass since 1980 can be attributed to positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This is a consequence of three...

Data from: The evolution of eggshell cuticle in relation to nesting ecology

Liliana D'Alba, Rafael Maia, Mark E. Hauber & Matthew D. Shawkey
Avian eggs are at risk of microbial infection prior to and during incubation. A large number of defence mechanisms have evolved in response to the severe costs imposed by these infections. The eggshell's cuticle is an important component of antimicrobial defence, and its role in preventing contamination by microorganisms in domestic chickens is well known. Nanometer-scale cuticular spheres that reduce microbial attachment and penetration have recently been identified on eggs of several wild avian species....

Slave Movement -- Nantes Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1711-1791

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Havana, Cuba, 1790-1820

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- English Slave Trade, 1791-1799 (House of Lords Survey)

Herbert S. Klein

Spatial predictors of genomic and phenotypic variation differ in a lowland Middle American bird (Icterus gularis)

Lucas Rocha Moreira, Blanca E. Hernandez-Baños & Brian T. Smith
Spatial patterns of intraspecific variation are shaped by factors such as geographic distance among populations, historical changes in gene flow and interactions with local environments. Although these factors are not mutually exclusive and operate on both genomic and phenotypic variation, it is unclear how they affect these two axes of variation. We address this question by exploring the predictors of genomic and phenotypic divergence in Icterus gularis, a broadly distributed Middle American bird that exhibits...

Data from: Targeted reforestation could reverse declines in connectivity for understory birds in a tropical habitat corridor

Matthew E. Fagan, Ruth S. DeFries, Steven E. Sesnie, J. Pablo Arroyo-Mora & Robin L. Chazdon
Re-establishing connectivity between protected areas isolated by habitat clearing is a key conservation goal in the humid tropics. In northeastern Costa Rica, payments for environmental services (PES) and a government ban on deforestation have subsidized forest protection and reforestation in the San Juan–La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC), resulting in a decline in mature forest loss and the expansion of tree plantations. We use field studies and graph models to assess how conservation efforts have altered...

Slave Movement -- Virginia Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1727-1769

Herbert S. Klein

sj-docx-1-gae-10.1177_25168657221126314 – Supplemental material for Stress Overload and DNA Methylation in African American Women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study

Jolaade Kalinowski, Yunfeng Huang, Martin A Rivas, Veronica Barcelona, Michelle L Wright, Cindy Crusto, Tanya Spruill, Yan V Sun & Jacquelyn Y Taylor
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-gae-10.1177_25168657221126314 for Stress Overload and DNA Methylation in African American Women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study by Jolaade Kalinowski, Yunfeng Huang, Martin A Rivas, Veronica Barcelona, Michelle L Wright, Cindy Crusto, Tanya Spruill, Yan V Sun and Jacquelyn Y Taylor in Epigenetics Insights

sj-docx-1-gae-10.1177_25168657221126314 – Supplemental material for Stress Overload and DNA Methylation in African American Women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study

Jolaade Kalinowski, Yunfeng Huang, Martin A Rivas, Veronica Barcelona, Michelle L Wright, Cindy Crusto, Tanya Spruill, Yan V Sun & Jacquelyn Y Taylor
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-gae-10.1177_25168657221126314 for Stress Overload and DNA Methylation in African American Women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study by Jolaade Kalinowski, Yunfeng Huang, Martin A Rivas, Veronica Barcelona, Michelle L Wright, Cindy Crusto, Tanya Spruill, Yan V Sun and Jacquelyn Y Taylor in Epigenetics Insights

Stress Overload and DNA Methylation in African American Women in the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure Study

Jolaade Kalinowski, Yunfeng Huang, Martin A Rivas, Veronica Barcelona, Michelle L Wright, Cindy Crusto, Tanya Spruill, Yan V Sun & Jacquelyn Y Taylor
Introduction:Experiencing psychosocial stress is associated with poor health outcomes such as hypertension and obesity, which are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. African American women experience disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease including exposure to high levels of psychosocial stress. We hypothesized that psychosocial stress, such as perceived stress overload, may influence epigenetic marks, specifically DNA methylation (DNAm), that contribute to increased risk for cardiovascular disease in African American women.Methods:We conducted an epigenome-wide study evaluating the...

sj-docx-1-css-10.1177_24705470221128004 - Supplemental material for Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Kelley M. Swanberg, Leonardo Campos, Chadi G. Abdallah & Christoph Juchem
Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-css-10.1177_24705470221128004 for Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Kelley M. Swanberg, Leonardo Campos, Chadi G. Abdallah and Christoph Juchem in Chronic Stress

A scoping review of the unassisted physical exam conducted over synchronous audio-video telemedicine

Peter Yao, Mahad Adam, Sunday Clark, Hanson Hsu, Michael Stern, Rahul Sharma, Keith Mages, Peter Greenwald & Neel Naik
Abstract Background This scoping review aims to provide a broad overview of the research on the unassisted virtual physical exam performed over synchronous audio-video telemedicine to identify gaps in knowledge and guide future research. Methods Searches for studies on the unassisted virtual physical exam were conducted in 3 databases. We included primary research studies in English on the virtual physical exam conducted via patient-to-provider synchronous, audio-video telemedicine in the absence of assistive technology or personnel....

An investigation of physicians' prescribing behaviors related to antidiabetic agents for Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and associated factors in Taiwan

Xiao Chen, Chih-Yuan Wang & Yu Ko
This study aimed to examine the factors that may influence physicians’ choice of antidiabetic agents. In addition, we investigated physicians’ decision-making process and treatment of T2DM patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Finally, we wanted to determine whether physicians knew the latest recommendations for T2DM treatment. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey using an online self-administered questionnaire to collect data from physicians in Taiwan. We enrolled licensed physicians who worked in hospitals or...

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