Data from: Nusinersen in later-onset spinal muscular atrophy: long-term results from the phase 1/2 studiesBasil T. Darras, Claudia A. Chiriboga, Susan T. Iannaccone, Kathryn J. Swoboda, Jacqueline Montes, Laurence Mignon, Shuting Xia, C. Frank Bennett, Kathie M. Bishop, Jeremy M. Shefner, Allison M. Green, Peng Sun, Ishir Bhan, Sarah Gheuens, Eugene Schneider, Wildon Farwell & Darryl C. De Vivo
Objective: Report results of intrathecal nusinersen in children with later-onset spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods: Analyses included children from the phase 1b/2a study (ISIS-396443-CS2; NCT01703988) who first received nusinersen during that study and were eligible to continue treatment in the extension study (ISIS-396443-CS12; NCT02052791). The phase 1b/2a study was a 253-day, ascending dose (3, 6, 9, 12 mg), multiple-dose, open-label, multicenter study that enrolled children with SMA aged 2 to 15 years. The extension study...
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The intensity and spatial extent of tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) often shapes the risk posed by landfalling storms. Here we provide a comprehensive climatology of landfalling TCP characteristics as a function of tropical cyclone strength, using daily precipitation station data and Atlantic US landfalling tropical cyclone tracks from 1900-2017. We analyze the intensity and spatial extent of ≥ 1 mm/day TCP (Z1) and ≥ 50 mm/day TCP (Z50). We show that the highest median intensity...
Data from: Effects of restoration on tree communities and carbon storage in rainforest fragments of the Western Ghats, IndiaAnand M. Osuri, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Mrinalini Siddhartha, Divya Mudappa & T. R. Shankar Raman
Ecological restoration is a leading strategy for reversing biodiversity losses and enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration in degraded tropical forests. There have been few comprehensive assessments of recovery following restoration in fragmented forest landscapes, and the efficacy of active versus passive (i.e., natural regeneration) restoration remains unclear. We examined 11 indicators of forest structure, tree diversity and composition (adult and sapling), and aboveground carbon storage in 25 pairs of actively restored (AR; 7–15 yr after weed...
Data from: Pathobiological features favoring the intercontinental dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza virusXueying Li, Bing Xu & Jeffrey Shaman
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a continued threat to global health and economy. Unlike other highly pathogenic AIV, novel H5N8 disseminated very quickly from Korea to other areas in Asia, Europe, and even North America following its first outbreak in 2014. However, the pathobiological features of the virus that favored its global translocation remain unknown. In this study, we used a compartmental model to examine the avian epidemiological characteristics that would support the geographic spread...
Data from: Differences in flowering time maintain species boundaries in a continental radiation of ViburnumElizabeth L. Spriggs, Caroline Schlutius, Deren A. Eaton, Brian Park, Patrick W. Sweeney, Erika J. Edwards & Michael J. Donoghue
Premise of the study: We take an integrative approach in assessing how introgression and Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the diversification of the Viburnum lentago clade, a group of five inter-fertile species with broad areas of sympatry. We specifically tested whether flowering time plays a role in maintaining species isolation. Methods: RAD-seq data for 103 individuals were used to infer the species relationships and the genetic structure within each species. Flowering times were compared among...
Data from: Ecological transitions in grouping benefits explain the paradox of environmental quality and socialityMark Liu, Shih-Fan Chan, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Syuan-Jyun Sun, Bo-Fei Chen & Sheng-Feng Shen
Both benign and harsh environments promote the evolution of sociality. This paradox—societies occur in environments of such contrasting quality—may be explained by the different types of benefits that individuals receive from grouping: resource defense benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources versus collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group member. Here, we investigate cooperative behavior in the burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis along an elevational gradient where environmental quality (climate and competiton) varies...
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...
Several recent papers have reported strong signals of selection on European polygenic height scores. These analyses used height effect estimates from the GIANT consortium and replication studies. Here, we describe a new analysis based on the the UK Biobank (UKB), a large, independent dataset. We find that the signals of selection using UKB effect estimates are strongly attenuated or absent. We also provide evidence that previous analyses were confounded by population stratification. Therefore, the conclusion...
Although interspecific competition has long been recognized as a major driver of trait divergence and adaptive evolution, relatively little effort has focused on how it influences the evolution of intraspecific cooperation. Here we identify the mechanism by which the perceived pressure of interspecific competition influences the transition from intraspecific conflict to cooperation in a facultative cooperatively breeding species, the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis. We not only found that beetles are more cooperative at carcasses...
Data from: Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trialsLeonard H Van Den Berg, Eric Sorenson, Gary Gronseth, Eric A. Macklin, Jinsy Andrews, Robert H. Baloh, Michael Benatar, James D. Berry, Adriano Chio, Philippe Corcia, Angela Genge, Amelie K. Gubitz, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Christopher J. McDermott, Erik P. Pioro, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Martin R. Turner, Markus Weber, Benjamin Rix Brooks, Robert G. Miller & Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry and regulatory agencies) addressed nine areas of need within ALS research: 1. Pre-clinical studies; 2. Biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; 3. Outcome measures; 4. Disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions;...
Data from: Repeatable, continuous and real-time estimates of coupled nitrogenase activity and carbon exchange at the whole-plant scaleThomas A. Bytnerowicz, Elizabeth Min, Kevin L. Griffin & Duncan N.L. Menge
1. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) by higher plants and their bacterial symbionts is a globally important input of nitrogen. Our understanding of the mechanisms that control SNF and the timescales over which they operate has been constrained by limitations of the existing methods for measuring SNF. One method, Acetylene Reduction Assays by Cavity-ring down laser Absorption Spectroscopy (ARACAS), seems promising, as it is highly sensitive and gives rapid, continuous, repeatable and real-time measurements of nitrogenase...
Data from: Allometric scaling laws linking biomass and rooting depth vary across ontogeny and functional groups in tropical dry forest lianas and treesChris M. Smith-Martin, Xiangtao Xu, David Medvigy, Stefan Schnitzer & Jennifer Powers
There are two theories about how allocation of metabolic products occurs. The allometric biomass partitioning theory (APT) suggests that all plants follow common allometric scaling rules. The optimal partitioning theory (OPT) predicts that plants allocate more biomass to the organ capturing the most limiting resource. We used whole-plant harvests of mature and juvenile tropical deciduous trees, evergreen trees, and lianas and model simulations to address the following knowledge gaps: 1) Do mature lianas comply with...
Data from: High-order thalamic inputs to primary somatosensory cortex are stronger and longer lasting than cortical inputsWanying Zhang & Randy M. Bruno
Layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) are sparsely active, spontaneously and during sensory stimulation. Long-range inputs from higher areas may gate L2/3 activity. We investigated their in vivo impact by expressing channelrhodopsin in three main sources of feedback to rat S1: primary motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, and secondary somatosensory thalamic nucleus (the posterior medial nucleus, POm). Inputs from cortical areas were relatively weak. POm, however, more robustly depolarized L2/3...
Data from: Biodiversity and thermal ecological function: the influence of freshwater algal diversity on local thermal environmentsAnouch Missirian, Eyal G. Frank, Jess T. Gersony, Jason C.Y. Wong & Shahid Naeem
The influence of temperature on diversity and ecosystem functioning is well studied; the converse however, i.e. how biodiversity influences temperature, much less so. We manipulated freshwater algal species diversity in microbial microcosms to uncover how diversity influenced primary production, which is well documented in biodiversity research. We then also explored how visible-spectrum absorbance and the local thermal environment responded to biodiversity change. Variations in the local thermal environment, that is, in the temperature of the...
Massachusetts General Hospital2
University of Minnesota2
Delft University of Technology2
Spanish National Research Council2
Institut de l'Information Scientifique et Technique2
United States Geological Survey2
University of Maryland, College Park2
German National Library of Science and Technology2