72 Works

Data from: Parallel and nonparallel ecological, morphological and genetic divergence in lake-stream stickleback from a single catchment

Mark Ravinet, Paulo A. Prodöhl & Chris Harrod
Parallel phenotypic evolution in similar environments has been well studied in evolutionary biology, however comparatively little is known about influence of determinism and historical contingency on the nature, extent and generality of this divergence. Taking advantage of a novel system containing multiple lake-stream stickleback populations, we examined the extent of ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between three-spined stickleback present in parapatric environments. Consistent with other lake-stream studies we found a shift towards a deeper body...

Data from: Plant controls on Late Quaternary whole ecosystem structure and function

Elizabeth S. Jeffers, Nicki J. Whitehouse, Adrian Lister, Gill Plunkett, Phil Barratt, Emma Smyth, Philip Lamb, Michael W. Dee, Stephen J. Brooks, Katherine J. Willis, Cynthia A. Froyd, Jenny E. Watson & Michael B. Bonsall
Plants and animals influence biomass production and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems; however their relative importance remains unclear. We assessed the extent to which mega-herbivore species controlled plant community composition and nutrient cycling, relative to other factors during and after the Late Quaternary extinction event in Britain and Ireland, when two-thirds of the region’s mega-herbivore species went extinct. Warmer temperatures, plant-soil and plant-plant interactions, and reduced burning contributed to the expansion of woody plants and...

Declining invasive grey squirrel populations may persist in refugia as native predator recovery reverses squirrel species replacement

Joshua Twining, Ian Montgomery & David Tosh
Invasive species pose one the most serious global threats to biodiversity. Investigations into the interactions of native and non-native species focus on the impacts of single species, despite being embedded in a network of direct and indirect interactions between multiple species and their environments. We developed 1 km2 resolution, single-species and multi-species, occupancy models using quantitative camera trap data collected by citizen scientists at 332 sites in a regional survey comprising the 14,130 km2 of...

Data from: An annotated draft genome of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

João Pedro Marques, Fernando A. Seixas, Jeffrey M. Good, Liliana Farelo, Colin M. Callahan, W. Ian Montgomery, Neil Reid, Paulo C. Alves, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Hares (genus Lepus) provide clear examples of repeated and often massive introgressive hybridization and striking local adaptations. Genomic studies on this group have so far relied on comparisons to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reference genome. Here, we report the first de novo draft reference genome for a hare species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and evaluate the efficacy of whole-genome re-sequencing analyses using the new reference versus using the rabbit reference genome. The genome...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK 2016

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock, S. Oakley, R. Griffiths, R. McDonald, T. Caruso & M. Ilardi
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

The influence of statistical significance and spin on readers’ perception of clinical trial abstracts: a randomized trial

Sofyan Jankowski, Isabelle Boutron & Mike Clarke
Objectives: To assess the influence of a) the reported p-value being above or below 0.05 and b) the presence of spin on readers’ interpretation of the results presented in the abstract for a hypothetical trial. Setting: Health and research students or professionals from universities and health institutions in France and in the UK. Participants: 404 participants blinded to the study hypothesis were randomized to four groups using a 1.1.1.1 ratio, 297 completed the study. Interventions:...

Scavenging beetles control the temporal response of soil communities to carrion decomposition

Tancredi Caruso, Marco Ilardi, Sheena Cotter, Edith Hammer & Gillian Riddell
1. Carrion is a frequent but overlooked source of nutrients to the soil. The decomposition of carrion is accelerated by invertebrate scavengers but the impact of the scavengers on below-ground biota and its functions is scarcely known. 2. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides on the soil community of a temperate broadleaved forest. We assembled microcosms from soil collected from an oak woodland and treated them...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) larger mobile macrofaunal abundance, biomass and species richness from fyke netting in mudflat habitats

L.L. Bach & M. Emmerson
The dataset details larger mobile fish and macrofaunal abundance across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013, sampled using fyke nets. The data provide a quantitative measure of larger mobile invertebrate and fish species present in fyke nets caught over two executive tidal cycles at three sites in Essex, South East England and three more sites in Morecambe Bay, North West England. At each site, 22 sampling quadrats were placed on the...

How do children and adolescents experience healthcare professionals? Scoping review and interpretive synthesis

Gail Davison
Objective Explore children’s and adolescents’ (CADs’) lived experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs). Eligibility criteria Research articles containing direct first-person quotations by CADs (aged 0-18 years inclusive) describing how they experienced HCPs. Scoping review methodology provided a six-step framework to, first, identify and organise existing evidence. Interpretive phenomenology provided methodological principles for, second, an interpretive synthesis of the life-worlds of CADs receiving healthcare, as represented by verbatim accounts of their experiences. Five key databases (Ovid MEDLINE,...

How Epistemic Justice Can Inform Gender Equality in a Technological University

Yvonne Galligan & Sarah Clavero

Data from: Puma energetics: laboratory oxygen consumption and GPS information from free-ranging individuals

Terrie Williams, Nikki Marks, Christopher Wilmers, Caleb Bryce, Barry Nickel, Lisa Wolfe, David Scantlebury & Carolyn Dunford
Abstract Background Under current scenarios of climate change and habitat loss, many wild animals, especially large predators, are moving into novel energetically challenging environments. Consequently, changes in terrain associated with such moves may heighten energetic costs and effect the decline of populations in new localities. Methods To examine locomotor costs of a carnivorous mammal moving in mountainous habitats, the oxygen consumption of captive pumas (Puma concolor) was measured during treadmill locomotion on level and incline...

Data from: Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate

Erin P. Walsh, Gareth Arnott & Hansjoerg P. Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating...

Data from: Prediction and attenuation of seasonal spillover of parasites between wild and domestic ungulates in an arid mixed-use system

Josephine G. Walker, Kate E. Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A. Van Wyk & Eric R. Morgan
1.Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission. 2.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then...

Data from: Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

Riho Gross, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah J. Helyar, Timo Arula & Henn Ojaveer
Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and...

Data from: The direction aftereffect is a global motion phenomenon

William Curran, Lee Beattie, Delfina Bilello, Laura A. Coulter, Jade A. Currie & Jessica M. Pimentel Leon
Prior experience influences visual perception. For example, extended viewing of a moving stimulus results in the misperception of a subsequent stimulus’s motion direction – the direction aftereffect (DAE). There has been an on-going debate regarding the locus of the neural mechanisms underlying the DAE. We know the mechanisms are cortical, but there is uncertainty about where in the visual cortex they are located – at relatively early local motion processing stages, or at later global...

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Building an ecologically-founded disease risk prioritization framework for migratory species based on contact with livestock

Munib Khanyari, Sarah Robinson, Eric Morgan, Tony Brown, Navinder Singh, Albert Salemgareyev, Steffen Zuther, Richard Kock & E Milner-Gulland
1. Shared use of rangelands by livestock and wildlife can lead to disease transmission. To align agricultural livelihoods with wildlife conservation, a multi-pronged and interdisciplinary approach for disease management is needed, particularly in data-limited situations with migratory hosts. Migratory wildlife and livestock can range over vast areas, and opportunities for disease control interventions are limited. Predictive frameworks are needed which can allow for identification of potential sites and timings of interventions. 2. We developed an...

Data from: Influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios on trophic interaction strengths

Ross N. Cuthbert, Ryan J. Wasserman, Tatenda Dalu, Horst Kaiser, Olaf L. F. Weyl, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Arnaud Sentis, Mike W. McCoy & Mhairi E. Alexander
1. Predation is a pervasive force that structures food webs and directly influences ecosystem functioning. The relative body sizes of predators and prey may be an important determinant of interaction strengths. However, studies quantifying the combined influence of intra- and interspecific variation in predator-prey body size ratios are lacking. 2. We use a comparative functional response approach to examine interaction strengths between three size classes of invasive bluegill and largemouth bass towards three scaled size...

Sea freshening may drive the ecological impacts of emerging and existing invasive alien species dataset

James Dickey, Ross Cuthbert, Gregor Steffen, Jaimie Dick & Elizabeta Briski
Aim: The spread of invasive non-native species (INNS) will pose major threats to global biodiversity over the coming decades. However, predicting how key effects of climate change will influence the abilities of INNS to establish and exert ecological impact is a major challenge. One overlooked aspect of global change is the expected freshening of certain marine systems, which may interact with INNS and lead to drastic effects on community structure and stability. Location: Baltic Sea,...

Data from: Temporal variability of a single population can determine the vulnerability of communities to perturbations

Robert J. Mrowicki, Nessa E. O'Connor & Ian Donohue
Many aspects of global change affect the variability of species population densities, in terms of both the magnitude and pattern of density fluctuations. However, we have limited empirical understanding of the consequences of altered temporal variability of populations, independent of changes in their mean densities, for the structure and stability of natural communities and the responses of ecosystems to additional stressors. We used a field experiment to test the effects of altered temporal variability of...

Data from: Give the machine a hand: a Boolean time-based decision-tree template for rapidly finding animal behaviours in multi-sensor data

Rory P. Wilson, Mark D. Holton, Agustina Di Virgilio, Hannah Williams, Emily L. C. Shepard, Sergio Lambertucci, Flavio Quintana, Juan E Sala, Bharathan Balaji, Eun Sun Lee, Mani Srivastava, D. Michael Scantlebury & Carlos M. Duarte
1. The development of multi-sensor animal-attached tags, recording data at high frequencies, has enormous potential in allowing us to define animal behaviour. 2. The high volumes of data, are pushing us towards machine-learning as a powerful option for distilling out behaviours. However, with increasing parallel lines of data, systems become more likely to become processor limited and thereby take appreciable amounts of time to resolve behaviours. 3. We suggest a Boolean approach whereby critical changes...

Data from: Unravelling the macro-evolutionary ecology of fish-jellyfish associations: life in the ‘gingerbread house’

Donal C. Griffin, Chris Harrod, Jonathan D.R. Houghton & Isabella Capellini
Fish-jellyfish interactions are important factors contributing to fish stock success. Jellyfish can compete with fish for food resources, or feed on fish eggs and larvae, which works to reduce survivorship and recruitment of fish species. However, jellyfish also provide habitat and space for developing larval and juvenile fish which use their hosts as means of protection from predators and feeding opportunities, helping to reduce fish mortality and increase recruitment. Yet, relatively little is known about...

Data from: Cryptic niche switching in a chemosymbiotic gastropod

Chong Chen, Katrin Linse, Katsuyuki Uematsu & Julia D. Sigwart
Life stages of some animals, including amphibians and insects, are so different that they have historically been seen as different species. ‘Metamorphosis’ broadly encompasses major changes in organism bodies and, importantly, concomitant shifts in trophic strategies. Many marine animals have a biphasic lifestyle, with small pelagic larvae undergoing one or more metamorphic transformations before settling into a permanent, adult morphology on the benthos. Post-settlement, the hydrothermal vent gastropod Gigantopelta chessoia experiences a further, cryptic metamorphosis...

Data from: Consensus and confusion in Molluscan trees: evaluating morphological and molecular phylogenies

Julia D. Sigwart & David R. Lindberg
Mollusks are the most morphologically disparate living animal phylum, they have diversified into all habitats, and have a deep fossil record. Monophyly and identity of their eight living classes is undisputed, but relationships between these groups and patterns of their early radiation have remained elusive. Arguments about traditional morphological phylogeny focus on a small number of topological concepts but often without regard to proximity of the individual classes. In contrast, molecular studies have proposed a...

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