72 Works

Data from: Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

Rachel A. Paterson, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Daniel W. Pritchard, Marilyn Ennis, Melanie J. Hatcher & Alison M. Dunn
1. Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. 2. Other inter-specific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. 3. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to...

Data from: Unifying concepts of biological function from molecules to ecosystems

Keith D. Farnsworth, Larissa Albantakis & Tancredi Caruso
The concept of function arises at all levels of biological study and is often loosely and variously defined, especially within ecology. This has led to ambiguity, obscuring the common structure that unites levels of biological organisation, from mol- ecules to ecosystems. Here we build on already successful ideas from molecular biology and complexity theory to create a precise definition of biological function which spans levels of biological organisation and can be quantified in the unifying...

Data from: Quantifying heritable variation in fitness-related traits of wild, farmed and hybrid Atlantic salmon families in a wild river environment

Philip McGinnity, Thomas E. Reed, P. Prodohl, Rosaleen Hynes, Tom Cross & Andy Ferguson
Farmed fish are typically genetically different from wild conspecifics. Escapees from fish farms may contribute one-way gene flow from farm to wild gene pools, which can depress population productivity, dilute local adaptations and disrupt coadapted gene complexes. Here, we reanalyse data from two experiments (McGinnity et al., 1997, 2003) where performance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) progeny originating from experimental crosses between farm and wild parents (in three different cohorts) were measured in a natural...

Data from: Competition between co-occurring invasive and native consumers switches between habitats

Nadescha Zwerschke, Henk Van Rein, Chris Harrod, Carl Reddin, Mark C. Emmerson, Dai Roberts, Nessa E. O'Connor & Henk Rein
1. The introduction of a non-native species frequently has adverse direct effects on native species. The underlying mechanisms, however, often remain unclear, in particular where native and invasive species are taxonomically similar. 2. We found evidence of direct competitive interactions between a globally distributed invasive species (the Pacific oyster, Magallana gigas) and its native counterpart (the European oyster, Ostrea edulis). We also discovered that the competitive outcome differed between different habitat types and structures by...

Data from: PTEN controls glandular morphogenesis through a juxtamembrane β-Arrestin1/ARHGAP21 scaffolding complex

Arman Javadi, Ravi K. Deevi, Emma Evergren, Elodie Blondel-Tepaz, George S. Baillie, Mark G.H. Scott, Frederick Charles Campbell & Mark GH Scott
PTEN controls three-dimensional (3D) glandular morphogenesis by coupling juxtamembrane signalling to mitotic spindle machinery. While molecular mechanisms remain unclear, PTEN interacts through its C2 membrane-binding domain with the scaffold protein β-Arrestin1. Because β-Arrestin1 binds and suppresses the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP21, we hypothesize that PTEN controls Cdc42-dependent morphogenic processes through a β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 complex. Here we show that PTEN knockdown (KD) impairs β-Arrestin1 membrane localization, β-Arrestin1-ARHGAP21 interactions, Cdc42 activation, mitotic spindle orientation and 3D glandular morphogenesis....

Children’s mental health and social care in Northern Ireland

Aideen Maguire & Sarah McKenna

Prey and predator density-dependent interactions under different water volumes

Ross Cuthbert, Tatenda Dalu, Ryan Wasserman, Arnaud Sentis, Olaf Weyl, William Froneman, Amanda Callaghan & Jaimie Dick
Predation is a critical ecological process that directly and indirectly mediates population stabilities, as well as ecosystem structure and function. The strength of interactions between predators and prey may be mediated by multiple density-dependences concerning numbers of predators and prey. In temporary wetland ecosystems in particular, fluctuating water volumes may alter predation rates through differing search space and prey encounters rates. Using a functional response approach, we examined the influence of predator and prey densities...

Data from: A bird’s eye view on turbulence: Seabird foraging associations with evolving surface flow features

Lilian Lieber, Roland Langrock & William Alex Michael Nimmo-Smith
Understanding physical mechanisms underlying seabird foraging is fundamental to predict responses to coastal change. For instance, turbulence in the water arising from natural or anthropogenic structures can affect foraging opportunities in tidal seas. Yet, identifying ecologically important localised turbulence features (e.g. upwellings ~10-100 m) is limited by observational scale and this knowledge gap is magnified in volatile predators. Here, using a drone-based approach, we present the tracking of surface-foraging terns (143 trajectories belonging to three...

Upland grassland habitats and agri-environment schemes change soil microarthopod abundance

Amy Arnott
This dataset contains invertebrate and plant survey data described in the paper: "Arnott, A., Riddell, G., Emmerson, M., Caruso, T., Reid, N. (2021) Upland grassland habitats and agri-environment schemes change soil microarthopod abundance. J. Appl. Ecol" This study tested the effects of agri-environment scheme (AES) management of upland grasslands on soil microarthopod communities using a large-scale factorial field experiment across 90 field sites. Invertebrate families were extracted using Tullgren funnels, plant species were identified from...

Data from: Artificial agri-environment scheme ponds do not replicate natural environments despite higher aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate richness and abundance

Marina Reyne, Myles Nolan, Harry McGuiggan, Aureli Aubry, Mark Emmerson, Ferdia Marnell & Neil Reid
1. Farmland ponds are a highly threatened freshwater habitat which has undergone dramatic losses during the last 200 years due to land drainage schemes and agricultural intensification. Agri-environment schemes (AES) incentivise farmers to adopt farming methods to benefit biodiversity, yet there are a paucity of data evaluating the success of artificially created AES ponds as analogues of natural ponds in an attempt to recreate lost environments. 2. We examined variation in environmental parameters and aquatic...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with resistance to bovine tuberculosis

Mairead L. Bermingham, Stephen C. Bishop, John A. Woolliams, Ricardo Pong-Wong, Adrian R. Allen, Stewart H. McBride, Stanley W. J. McDowell, Robin A. Skuce, Jon J. Ryder, David M. Wright & Elizabeth J. Glass
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a re- emerging disease of livestock which is of major economic importance world-wide, as well as being a zoonotic risk. There is significant heritability for host resistance to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cattle. To identify resistance loci for bTB, we undertook a genome-wide association study in female Holstein-Friesian cattle with 592 cases and 559 age-matched controls from case herds. Cases and controls were categorised into distinct phenotypes: skin...

Data from: A sting in the spit: widespread cross-infection of multiple RNA viruses across wild and managed bees

Dino P. McMahon, Matthias A. Fürst, Jesicca Caspar, Panagiotis Theodorou, Mark J. F. Brown & Robert J. Paxton
1.Declining populations of bee pollinators are a cause of concern, with major repercussions for biodiversity loss and food security. RNA viruses associated with honeybees represent a potential threat to other insect pollinators, but the extent of this threat is poorly understood. 2.This study aims to attain a detailed understanding of the current and on going risk of emerging infectious disease (EID) transmission between managed and wild pollinator species across a wide range of RNA viruses....

Data from: New insights on postglacial colonisation in Western Europe: the phylogeography of the Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri)

Emma S. M. Boston, W. Ian Montgomery, Rosaleen Hynes, Paulo A. Prodöhl & P. A. Prodohl
Despite recent advances in the understanding of the interplay between a dynamic physical environment and phylogeography in Europe, the origins of contemporary Irish biota remain uncertain. Current thinking is that Ireland was colonized post-glacially from southern European refugia, following the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 20 000 years BP. The Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri), one of the few native Irish mammal species, is widely distributed throughout Europe but, with the exception of...

Data from: Perceived duration of brief visual events is mediated by timing mechanisms at the global stages of visual processing

Lee Beattie, William Curran, Christopher P. Benton, Julie M. Harris & Paul B. Hibbard
There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of modality-specific timing mechanisms for encoding sub-second durations. For example, the duration compression effect describes how prior adaptation to a dynamic visual stimulus results in participants underestimating the duration of a sub-second test stimulus when it is presented at the adapted location. There is substantial evidence for the existence of both cortical and pre-cortical visual timing mechanisms; however, little is known about where in...

Data from: The nutritional ecology of maturation in a carnivorous insect

Ekhlas Al Shareefi & Sheena C. Cotter
Herbivores and omnivores, faced with a nutritionally complex diet, have evolved the capacity to balance the intake of specific nutrients. Recent studies have found that carnivores also have this capacity, despite their more nutritionally homogeneous diet. However, unlike herbivores and omnivores who prioritise protein intake when restricted to imbalanced foods, carnivores instead show much stricter regulation of fat intake. These choices to over- or under-consume nutrients when the intake target cannot be achieved are known...

Data from: Landscape effects on extremely fragmented populations of a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis

Emily Davis, Tomás Murray, Una Fitzpatrick, Mark Brown & Robert Paxton
Globally there is concern over the decline of bees, an ecologically important group of pollinating insects. Genetic studies provide insights into population structure that are crucial for conservation management but that would be impossible to obtain by conventional ecological methods. Yet conservation genetic studies of bees have primarily focussed on social species rather than the more species-rich solitary bees. Here we investigate the population structure of Colletes floralis, a rare and threatened solitary mining bee,...

Data from: Molecular and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

Laura Parducci, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Keith D. Bennett, Yoshihisa Suyama, James Haile, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj K. Larsen, Andreas D. Drouzas, Eske Willerslev & Kurt H. Kjaer
Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to...

Data from: Idiosyncratic species effects confound size-based predictions of responses to climate change

Marion Twomey, Eva Brodte, Ute Jacob, Ulrich Brose, Tasman P. Crowe & Mark C. Emmerson
Understanding and predicting the consequences of warming for complex ecosystems and indeed individual species remains a major ecological challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of increased seawater temperatures on the metabolic and consumption rates of five distinct marine species. The experimental species reflected different trophic positions within a typical benthic East Atlantic food web, and included a herbivorous gastropod, a scavenging decapod, a predatory echinoderm, a decapod and a benthic-feeding fish. We examined the metabolism–body...

Data from: Microplastics disrupt hermit crab shell selection

Andrew Crump, Charlotte Mullens, Emily Bethell, Eoghan Cunningham & Gareth Arnott
Microplastics (plastics < 5 mm) are a potential threat to marine biodiversity. However, the effects of microplastic pollution on animal behaviour and cognition are poorly understood. We used shell selection in common European hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) as a model to test whether microplastic exposure impacts the essential survival behaviours of contacting, investigating, and entering an optimal shell. We kept 64 female hermit crabs in tanks containing either polyethylene spheres (n = 35) or no...

Data from: The influence of warming on the biogeographic and phylogenetic dependence of herbivore-plant interactions

Xidong Mu, Meng Xu, Anthony Ricciardi, Jaimie T.A. Dick, Du Luo, Hui Wei, Yinchang Hu & Qiwei Wei
Evolutionary experience and the phylogenetic relationships of plants have both been proposed to influence herbivore-plant interactions and plant invasion success. However, the direction and magnitude of these effects, and how such patterns are altered with increasing temperature, are rarely studied. Through laboratory functional response (FR) experiments, we tested whether the per capita feeding efficiency of an invasive generalist herbivore, the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is dependent on the biogeographic origin and phylogenetic relatedness of...

The Old World in the New: Theories of Pre-Columbian Contact in Science and Society, 1860–1920

William Ward
On the 12th of October 1892 when the quadricentennial of Columbus’s discovery of America was commemorated across the globe, not everyone rejoiced and not everyone cared. It was undoubtedly a great occasion, and the cult of Columbus is difficult to overrate, but there were many for whom the famous Genoese was not America’s discoverer. America had been discovered long before 1492. The Norsemen, the Welsh, the Irish, the Chinese, and the Phoenicians were all held...

Mortality amongst young adults with a care history in Northern Ireland

Aideen Maguire

The Impact of Brexit on Cross-Border Trade by the Construction Sector in Ireland: an Exploratory Study

Tara Brooks, Duga Ewuga, Lloyd Scott, Tara Brooks & Duga Ewuga

A global analysis of enemy release and its variation with latitude

Meng Xu, Xidong Mu, Shuang Zhang, Jaimie Dick, Bingtao Zhu, Dangen Gu, Yexin Yang, Du Luo & Yinchang Hu
Aim: The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) posits that exotic species suffer lower enemy damage than natives, and thus promotes their successful invasion. However, the generality of lower damage for exotics remains widely debated. A recent view proposes that enemy release (ER) could systematically change with latitude, potentially helping explain these inconsistencies. Here, we test whether exotic plant species suffer consistently lower herbivore damage relative to natives, and whether ER varies with latitude. Location: Global. Time...

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