72 Works

In utero accumulated steroids predict neonate anti-predator response in a wild mammal

Bawan Amin, Dómhnall Jennings, Adam Smith, Matthew Quinn, Srivats Chari, Amy Haigh, Devorah Matas, Lee Koren & Simone Ciuti
This file contains the raw data and R-scripts used for the analysis published in the research article: "In utero accumulated steroids predict neonate anti‐predator response in a wild mammal" (https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13790). A full and detailed description of the methods can be found in the manuscript, or at request from the author (BA). The R-scripts can be used to follow all the steps taken in the analysis and fully reproduce the effects reported. The file contains data...

Elemental analysis of soil in the Ningbo watershed, China

A. Meharg, C. Meharg, Y. Zhu & G. Li
Elemental analysis of 80 soil samples taken in the Ningbo Watershed, in the Zhangxi catchment, Eastern China. Variables measured include As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, P, Pb, and lead isotope ratios along with concentrations of Zn, Ca and K. Data was collected in March 2016 and analysed at Queens Belfast University. The data was collected and analysed as part of a NERC NSFC funded multi project research programme UK- China Critical Zone Observation Programme.

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Limitations of using surrogates for behaviour classification of accelerometer data: refining methods using random forest models in Caprids

Eleanor Dickinson, Joshua Twining, Rory Wilson, Philip Stephens, Jennie Westander, Nikki Marks & Michael Scantlebury
Animal-attached devices can be used on cryptic species to measure their movement and behaviour, enabling unprecedented insights into fundamental aspects of animal ecology and behaviour. However, direct observations of subjects are often still necessary to translate biologging data accurately into meaningful behaviours. As many elusive species cannot easily be observed in the wild, captive or domestic surrogates are typically used to calibrate data from devices. However, the utility of this approach remains equivocal. Here, we...

Data from: Conservation genetics of Neotropical pollinators revisited: microsatellite analysis suggests that diploid males are rare in orchid bees

Rogério Souza, Marco Del Lama, Marcelo Cervini, Norma Mortari, Thomas Eltz, Yvonne Zimmermann, Carola Bach, Berry Brosi, Sevan Suni, Javier Quezada & Robert Paxton
Allozyme analyses have suggested that Neotropical orchid bee (Euglossini) pollinators are vulnerable because of putative high frequencies of diploid males, a result of loss of sex allele diversity in small hymenopteran populations with single locus complementary sex determination. Our analysis of 1010 males from 27 species of euglossine bees sampled across the Neotropics at 2-11 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed only 5 diploid males at an overall frequency of 0.005 (95% CIs 0.002-0.010); errors through genetic...

Data from: Trade-offs between personal immunity and reproduction in the burying beetle, N. vespilloides

Catherine E. Reavey, Neil D. Warnock, Heiko Vogel & Sheena C. Cotter
We know that parental investment and immune investment are costly processes, but it is unclear which trait will be prioritized when both may be required. Here, we address this question using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, carrion breeders that exhibit biparental care of young. Our results show that immunosuppression occurs during provision of parental care. We measured phenoloxidase (PO) on Days 1–8 of the breeding bout and results show a clear decrease in PO immediately...

Data from: Predator-free space, functional responses and biological invasions

Daniel Barrios-O'Neill, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mark C. Emmerson, Anthony Ricciardi & Hugh J. MacIsaac
Predator-prey interactions are mediated by the structural complexity of habitats, but disentangling the many facets of structure that contribute to this mediation remains elusive. In a world replete with altered landscapes and biological invasions, determining how structure mediates the interactions between predators and novel prey will contribute to our understanding of invasions and predator-prey dynamics in general. Here, using simplified experimental arenas, we manipulate predator-free space, whilst holding surface area and volume constant, to quantify...

Data from: Ecological impacts of invasive alien species along temperature gradients: testing the role of environmental matching

Josephine C. Iacarella, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mhairi E. Alexander & Anthony Ricciardi
Invasive alien species (IAS) can cause substantive ecological impacts, and the role of temperature in mediating these impacts may become increasingly significant in a changing climate. Habitat conditions and physiological optima offer predictive information for IAS impacts in novel environments. Here, using meta-analysis and laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the impacts of IAS in the field are inversely correlated with the difference in their ambient and optimal temperatures. A meta-analysis of 29 studies...

Data from: Effects of seal predation on a modelled marine fish community and consequences for a commercial fishery

Jennifer E. Houle, Francisco De Castro, Michelle A. Cronin, Keith D. Farnsworth, Martha Gosch & David G. Reid
We constructed a size- and trait-based dynamic marine community model of the Celtic Sea/Biologically Sensitive Area, including grey seals Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius 1791) and harbour seals Phoca vitulina vitulina (Linnaeus 1758) to examine potential resource conflict between seals and commercial trawl fisheries. The model incorporates seal diet preference, population size and commercial fishery catch, with survey data to quantify ecological interactions between seals and fisheries. Total annual consumption by seals was an order of magnitude...

Data from: Spatiotemporal scaling of plant species richness and functional diversity in a temperate semi-natural grassland

Hannah J. White, W. Ian Montgomery, Robin J. Pakeman & Jack J. Lennon
The accumulation of biodiversity in space and time has been modelled extensively using the species-area relationship and the species-time relationship, respectively. Recently, these models have been combined into time-area curves in order to investigate spatiotemporal scaling of species richness. This study expands on previous research by applying these spatiotemporal models to functional diversity. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological traits is important due to their crucial role in ecosystem functioning and mediating species responses to environmental...

Data from: Whole-body photoreceptor networks are independent of ‘lenses’ in brittle stars

Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Imran A. Rahman, Julia D. Sigwart & Esther Ullrich-Lüter
Photoreception and vision are fundamental aspects of animal sensory biology and ecology, but important gaps remain in our understanding of these processes in many species. The colour-changing brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii is iconic in vision research, speculatively possessing a unique whole-body visual system that incorporates information from nerve bundles underlying thousands of crystalline ‘microlenses’. The hypothesis that these form a sophisticated compound eye-like system regulated by chromatophore movement has been extensively reiterated, with consequent investigations...

Data from: Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells

Shadia Omar, Rebecca Clarke, Haniah Abdullah, Clare Brady, John Corry, Hanagh Winter, Olivier Touzelet, Ultan F. Power, Fionnuala Lundy, Lorcan P. A. McGarvey & S. Louise Cosby
Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial...

Data from: The effects of spatial scale and isoscape on consumer isotopic niche width

Carl J. Reddin, John H. Bothwell, Nessa E. O'Connor & Chris Harrod
1. The mean and variance of ecological variables are dependent on sampling attributes such as the coverage of environmental heterogeneity (sampling extent) and spatial scale. Trophic niche width is often approximated by bulk tissue stable isotopes of C and N, i.e. the population isotopic niche. However, recent studies suggest that environmental heterogeneity (experienced by individuals) may be more important in defining the isotopic niche width than trophic variability. We hypothesised that isotopic niche width will...

Data from: Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks

Mark Ravinet, Rosaleen Hynes, Russell Poole, Tom F. Cross, Phil McGinnity, Harrod Harrod & Paulo A. Prodöhl
Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback...

Data from: Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments: pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA

Laura Parducci, Minna Väliranta, J. Sakari Salonen, Tiina Ronkainen, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Tiina Eskola, Pertti Sarala & Yoshihisa Suyama
We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to...

Native and invasive squirrels show different behavioural responses to scent of a shared native predator

Joshua Twining, Ian Montgomery, Hansjoerg Kunc, Lilly Price & David Tosh
Invasive species pose a serious threat to native species. In Europe, invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have replaced native red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in locations across Britain, Ireland and Italy. The European pine marten (Martes martes) can reverse the replacement of red squirrels by grey squirrels, but the underlying mechanism of how pine martens suppress grey squirrels is little understood. Research suggests the reversal process is driven by direct predation, but why the native red...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

The Old World in the New: Theories of Pre-Columbian Contact in Science and Society, 1860–1920

William Ward
On the 12th of October 1892 when the quadricentennial of Columbus’s discovery of America was commemorated across the globe, not everyone rejoiced and not everyone cared. It was undoubtedly a great occasion, and the cult of Columbus is difficult to overrate, but there were many for whom the famous Genoese was not America’s discoverer. America had been discovered long before 1492. The Norsemen, the Welsh, the Irish, the Chinese, and the Phoenicians were all held...

Frog nest foams exhibit pharmaceutical foam-like properties

Paul Hoskisson, Sarah Brozio, Erin M O Shaughnessy, Stuart Woods, Ivan Hall-Barrientos, Patrica Martin, Malcolm Kennedy, Dimitrios Lamprou & Paul Hoskisson
Foams have frequently been used as systems for the delivery of cosmetic and therapeutic molecules; however, there is high variability in the foamability and long-term stability of synthetic foams. The development of pharmaceutical foams that exhibit desirable foaming properties, delivering appropriate amounts of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and that have excellent biocompatibility is of great interest. The production of stable foams is rare in the natural world; however, certain species of frogs have adopted...

Relativistic Particle Acceleration in Tangled Magnetic Fields

Stephen O'Sullivan, Brian Reville & Andrew Taylor

The Nonlinear Amplification of Magnetic Fields by Cosmic Rays at Supernova Remnant Shocks

Brian Reville, Peter Duffy & Stephen O'Sullivan

Data from: Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritise the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in Europe

Olaf Booy, Peter A. Robertson, Niall Moore, Jess Ward, Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Richard Shaw, Johan Van Valkenburg, Gabe Wyn, Sandro Bertolino, Olivier Blight, Etienne Branquart, Giuseppe Brundu, Joe Caffrey, Dario Capizzi, Jim Casaer, Olivier De Clerck, Neil Coughlan, Eithne Davis, Jaimie Dick, Franz Essl, Guillaume Fried, Piero Genovesi, Pablo González-Moreno, Frank Hysentruyt … & Aileen C. Mill
Prioritising the management of invasive alien species (IAS) is of global importance and within Europe integral to the EU IAS regulation. To prioritise management effectively the risks posed by IAS need to be assessed, but so too does the feasibility of their management. While risk of IAS to the EU has been assessed, the feasibility of management has not. We assessed the feasibility of eradicating 60 new (not yet established) and 35 emerging (established with...

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