1,105 Works

Dataset for 'Auditory Activity is Diverse and Widespread Throughout the Central Brain of Drosophila'

DIEGO PACHECO PINEDO, Stephan Thiberge, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis & Mala Murthy
Sensory pathways are typically studied starting at receptor neurons and following postsynaptic neurons into the brain. However, this leads to a bias in analysis of activity towards the earliest layers of processing. Here, we present new methods for volumetric neural imaging with precise across-brain registration, to characterize auditory activity throughout the entire central brain of Drosophila and make comparisons across trials, individuals, and sexes. We discover that auditory activity is present in most central brain...

Shakespeare and Company Project Dataset: Lending Library Members, Books, Events

Joshua Kotin, Rebecca Sutton Koeser, Carl Adair, Serena Alagappan, Jean Bauer, Oliver J. Browne, Nick Budak, Harriet Calver, Jin Chow, Ian Davis, Gissoo Doroudian, Currie Engel, Elspeth Green, Benjamin Hicks, Madeleine E. Joelson, Carolyn Kelly, Sara Krolewski, Xinyi Li, Ellie Maag, Cate Mahoney, Jesse D. McCarthy, Mary Naydan, Isabel Ruehl, Sylvie Thode, Camey VanSant … & Clifford E. Wulfman
The Shakespeare and Company Project makes three datasets available to download in CSV and JSON formats. The datasets provide information about lending library members; the books that circulated in the lending library; and lending library events, including borrows, purchases, memberships, and renewals. The datasets may be used individually or in combination site URLs are consistent identifiers across all three. The DOIs for each dataset are as follows: Members (https://doi.org/10.34770/ht30-g395); Books (https://doi.org/10.34770/g467-3w07); Events (https://doi.org/10.34770/2r93-0t85).

«Завещание Сергея Есенина. История одной мистификации

Илья Виницкий
В статье исследуется таинственное «завещание Сергея Есенина», напечатанное в американской воскресной газете в 1926 году и привлекшее к себе сочувственное внимание нескольких есениноведов. Автор устанавливает, что эта публикация представляет собой первую часть целого цикла фантастических мистификаций, начатанных в American Weekly в 1920-40-е годы и посвященных необыкновенным приключениям «этрусской вазы» с прахом Есенина и Айседоры Дункан. Этот цикл атрибутируется автором американскому журналисту-мистификатору Ивану Ивановичу Народному-Сибулю (1869-1953), названному ФБР «худшим мошенником», когда-либо эмигрировавшим в Америку из России....

Agincourt Integrated Family Survey 2004

Anne Case

Agincourt Integrated Family Survey 2002

Anne Case

Fluorescence Reconstruction Microscopy Data: Keratinocyte (10x) Phase to Nuclei (DAPI)

Julienne LaChance & Daniel Cohen
The data provided in this DataSpace consists of sample training data to be used for Fluorescence Reconstruction Microscopy (FRM) testing. We provide a subset of the keratinocyte (10x magnification) dataset used in our paper, in which interested parties may find more complete information about our data collection methods. Matched pairs of phase contrast and fluorescent images are given. The nuclei were stained using Hoechst 33342 and imaged using a standard DAPI filter set.

Inflation and Growth: A New Keynesian Perspective

Robert Amano, Thomas J. Carter & Kevin Moran
The long-run relation between growth and inflation has not yet been studied in the context of nominal price and wage rigidities, despite the fact that these rigidities now figure prominently in workhorse macroeconomic models. We therefore integrate staggered price- and wage-setting into an endogenous growth framework. In this setting, growth and inflation are linked via the incentive to innovate. For standard calibrations, the linkage is strong: as trend inflation shifts from –5 to 5 percent,...

Eco-evolutionary significance of 'loners'

Corina Tarnita, Fernando Rossine, Ricardo Martinez-Garcia, Allyson Sgro & Thomas Gregor
Loners, individuals out-of-sync with a coordinated majority, occur frequently in nature. Are loners incidental byproducts of large-scale coordination attempts or are they part of a mosaic of life-history strategies? Here, we provide empirical evidence of naturally occurring heritable variation in loner behavior in the model social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We propose that Dictyostelium loners—cells that do not join the multicellular life-stage—arise from a dynamic population-partitioning process, the result of each cell making a stochastic, signal-based...

An experimental test of community-based strategies for mitigating human-wildlife conflict around protected areas

Ryan Long, Paola Branco, Jerod Merkle, Robert Pringle, Lucy King, Tosca Tindall & Marc Stalmans
Natural habitats are rapidly being converted to cultivated croplands, and crop-raiding by wildlife threatens both wildlife conservation and human livelihoods worldwide. We combined movement data from GPS-collared elephants with camera-trap data and local reporting systems in a before-after-control-impact design to evaluate community-based strategies for reducing crop raiding outside Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park. All types of experimental fences tested (beehive, chili, beehive and chili combined, and procedural controls) significantly reduced the number of times elephants left...

Multiple dimensions of dietary diversity in large mammalian herbivores

Tyler Kartzinel & Robert Pringle
Theory predicts that trophic specialization (i.e., low dietary diversity) should make consumer populations sensitive to environmental disturbances, yet diagnosing specialists is complicated both by the difficulty of precisely quantifying diet composition and by definitional ambiguity—what makes a diet ‘diverse’? We sought to characterize the relationship between taxonomic dietary diversity (TDD) and phylogenetic dietary diversity (PDD) in a species-rich community of large mammalian herbivores in semi-arid East African savanna. We hypothesized that TDD and PDD would...

Data associated with 'Metformin rescues Parkinson’s disease phenotypes caused by hyperactive mitochondria'

Danielle Mor, Salman Sohrabi, Rachel Kaletsky, William Keyes, Alp Tartici, Vrinda Kalia, Gary Miller & Coleen Murphy
Metabolic dysfunction occurs in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, yet its role in disease etiology remains poorly understood. We recently discovered a potential causal link between the branched-chain amino acid transferase, BCAT-1, and the neurodegenerative movement disorder, Parkinson’s disease (PD). RNAi-mediated knockdown of C. elegans bcat-1 recapitulates PD-like features, including progressive motor deficits and neurodegeneration with age, yet the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. Using transcriptomic, metabolomic, and imaging approaches, we show here that bcat-1 knockdown...

Perspectives about the costs and rewards of dating in and around Nairobi

Wamaitha Kiambuthi
The goal of this research is to explore motivations for engaging or abstaining from sugar dating, from the perspective of college-aged, Kenyan women from various socio-economic backgrounds, as well as their sugaring partners. This qualitative study will explore the way young women meet sugar dating partners, individual and social differentiation of sugar dating from “regular” dating or prostitution, and common sugar dating practices. This research will also explore the magnitude of economic exchange between sugar...

Cardio-metabolic biomarkers measured across a lifestyle gradient

Amanda Lea
The “mismatch” between evolved human physiology and Western lifestyles is thought to explain the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in industrialized societies. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test because few populations concurrently span ancestral and modern lifestyles. To address this gap, we collected interview and biomarker data from individuals of Turkana ancestry who practice subsistence-level, nomadic pastoralism (the ancestral way of life for this group), as well as individuals who no longer...

Data from: Strong effects of lab-to-field environmental transitions on the bacterial intestinal microbiota of Mus musculus are modulated by Trichuris muris infection

Julian Bär, Jacqueline Leung, Christina Hansen, P'ng Loke, Alex Hall, Laura Conour & Andrea Graham
Studies of controlled lab animals and natural populations represent two insightful extremes of microbiota research. We bridged these two approaches by transferring lab-bred female C57BL/6 mice from a conventional mouse facility to an acclimation room and then to an outdoor enclosure, to investigate how the gut microbiota changes with environment. Mice residing under constant conditions served as controls. Using 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples, we found that the shift in temperature and humidity, as...

The temporal dimension of plant-soil microbe interactions: mechanisms promoting feedback between generations

Po-Ju Ke & Jonathan Levine
Soil microbes can influence plant competitive outcomes by stabilizing plant community dynamics or mediating plant competitive hierarchies. Which effect dominates depends on whether microbial effects can extend beyond the focal conditioning individual. While it is well-known that microbial effects can extend to other individuals through space, we lack an explicit theoretical understanding of the factors that regulate their spread to other individuals in subsequent generations. Here, we examine how the commonly-assumed stabilizing effects of host-specific...

Cooperative communication with humans evolved to emerge early in domestic dogs

Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare
While we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans. Under this account, dogs became more flexible in using inherited skills to cooperatively-communicate with a new social partner that was previously feared and expressed these unusual social skills early in development. Here we tested dog (N=44) and wolf (N=37) puppies, 5-18...

Data from: Host-parasite dynamics shaped by temperature and genotype: quantifying the role of underlying vital rates

Marjolein Bruijning, Erlend Fossen, Eelke Jongejans, Héléne Vanvelk, Joost Raeymaekers, Lynn Govaert, Kristien Brans, Sigurd Einum & Luc De Meester
1. Global warming challenges the persistence of local populations, not only through heat-induced stress, but also through indirect biotic changes. We study the interactive effects of temperature, competition and parasitism in the water flea Daphnia magna. 2. We carried out a common garden experiment monitoring the dynamics of Daphnia populations along a temperature gradient. Halfway through the experiment, all populations became infected with the ectoparasite Amoebidium parasiticum, enabling us to study interactive effects of temperature...

Daily ranging and den usage patterns structure fission-fusion dynamics and social associations in spotted hyenas

Eli Strauss, Frants Jensen, Andrew Gersick, Mara Thomas, Kay Holekamp & Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin
Environment structure often shapes social interactions. Spatial attractors that draw multiple individuals may play a particularly important role in dispersed groups, where individuals must first encounter one another to interact. We use GPS data recorded simultaneously from five spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) within a single clan to investigate how communal dens and daily ranging patterns shape fission-fusion dynamics (subgroup splits and merges). We introduce a species-general framework for identifying and characterizing dyadic fission-fusion events and...

An updated life history scheme for marine fishes predicts recruitment variability and sensitivity to exploitation

Colleen Petrik, Fernando González Taboada, Charles Stock & Jorge Sarmiento
Aim: Patterns of population renewal in marine fishes are often irregular and lead to volatile fluctuations in abundance that challenge management and conservation efforts. Here, we examine the relationship between life history strategies and recruitment variability in exploited marine fish species using a macroecological approach. Location: Global ocean. Time period: 1950-2018. Major taxa studied: Bony and cartilaginous fish. Methods: Based on trait data for 244 marine fish species, we objectively extend the established Equilibrium-Periodic-Opportunistic (E-P-O)...

A mechanism for punctuating equilibria during mammalian vocal development

Thiago Varella, Daniel Takahashi, Yisi Zhang & Asif Ghazanfar
Evolution and development are typically characterized as the outcomes of gradual changes, but sometimes such changes are abrupt: States of equilibrium can be punctuated by sudden change. Here, we studied the early vocal development of three different mammals: common marmoset monkeys, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans. Consistent with the notion of punctuated equilibria, we found that all three species undergo at least one sudden transition in the acoustics of their developing vocalizations. This was expected....

Data from: Evaluating staging habitat quality to advance the conservation of a declining migratory shorebird, Red Knot Calidris canutus

Tong Mu, Shangxiao Cai, Hebo Peng, Chris J. Hassell, Adrian Boyle, Zhengwang Zhang, Theunis Piersma & David Wilcove
Identifying where and when population “bottlenecks” occur is critical to the conservation of migratory species, many of which are declining precipitously worldwide. Especially challenging is the evaluation of changes to staging sites. These sites are indispensable links in the migratory cycle but are typically used only briefly. We devised a field-based approach to assess the quality and carrying capacity of a critical staging site in Nanpu, China, for the declining, migratory Red Knot (Calidris canutus...

Data from: Constraints on the evolution of toxin-resistant Na,K-ATPases have limited dependence on sequence divergence

Shabnam Mohammadi, Santiago Herrera-Álvarez, Lu Yang, María Del Pilar Rodríguez-Ordoñez, Karen Zhang, Jay F. Storz, Susanne Dobler, Andrew J. Crawford & Peter Andolfatto
A growing body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that intramolecular epistasis is a major determinant of rates and patterns of protein evolution and imposes a substantial constraint on the evolution of novel protein functions. Here, we examine the role of intramolecular epistasis in the recurrent evolution of resistance to cardiotonic steroids (CTS) across tetrapods, which occurs via specific amino acid substitutions to the α-subunit family of Na,K-ATPases (ATP1A). After identifying a series of recurrent...

Data from: Phylogenetic signal in module composition and species connectivity in compartmentalized host-parasite networks

Boris R. Krasnov, Miguel A. Fortuna, David Mouillot, Irina S. Khokhlova, Georgy I. Shenbrot & Robert Poulin
Across different taxa, networks of mutualistic or antagonistic interactions show consistent architecture. Most networks are modular, with modules being distinct species subsets connected mainly with each other and having few connections to other modules. We investigate the phylogenetic relatedness of species within modules and whether a phylogenetic signal is detectable in the within- and among module connectivity of species using 27 mammal-flea networks from the Palaearctic. In the 24 networks that were modular, closely-related hosts...

Data from: Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease

Georgia Titcomb, Brian F. Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Henson Lauren, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G. Campana, Robert C. Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S. Young & Lauren Henson
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa....

Data from: Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids

Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Roland W. Kays, John P. Pollinger & Robert K. Wayne
Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years...

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