229 Works

Data from: Optimal group size in a highly social mammal

A. Catherine Markham, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
What are the costs and benefits for animals living in groups of different sizes? Balancing the trade-offs between within-group competition (which favors smaller groups) and between-group competition (which favors larger groups) suggests that intermediate-sized groups may be best, yet empirical support for this prediction has largely been lacking. Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have energetically optimal space-use strategies and lower glucocorticoid (stress hormone) concentrations...

Data from: Interbirth intervals in wild baboons: environmental predictors and hormonal correlates

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth A. Archie & Susan C. Alberts
Objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of female reproductive success; understanding how they are regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors can provide insight into sources of variance in female fitness. Materials and Methods: Using 36 years of reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons, we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA), sexual cycling, and pregnancy. We also examined...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Contemporary ecological interactions improve models of past trait evolution

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Marilia P. Gaiarsa & Daniel B. Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant...

Data from: Complex sources of variance in female dominance rank in a nepotistic society

Amanda J. Lea, Niki H. Learn, Marcus J. Theus, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Many mammalian societies are structured by dominance hierarchies, and an individual's position within this hierarchy can influence reproduction, behaviour, physiology and health. In nepotistic hierarchies, which are common in cercopithecine primates and also seen in spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, adult daughters are expected to rank immediately below their mother, and in reverse age order (a phenomenon known as ‘youngest ascendancy’). This pattern is well described, but few studies have systematically examined the frequency or causes...

Data from: Individual recognition through olfactory - auditory matching in lemurs

Ipek G. Kulahci, Christine M. Drea, Daniel I. Rubenstein & Asif A. Ghazanfar
Individual recognition can be facilitated by creating representations of familiar individuals, whereby information from signals in multiple sensory modalities become linked. Many vertebrate species use auditory–visual matching to recognize familiar conspecifics and heterospecifics, but we currently do not know whether representations of familiar individuals incorporate information from other modalities. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are highly visual, but also communicate via scents and vocalizations. To investigate the role of olfactory signals in multisensory recognition, we tested...

Data from: Sources of variance in a female fertility signal: exaggerated estrous swellings in a natural population of baboons

Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Signals of fertility in female animals are of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists, a development that coincides with increasing interest in male mate choice and the potential for female traits to evolve under sexual selection. We characterized variation in size of an exaggerated female fertility signal in baboons and investigated the sources of that variance. The number of sexual cycles that a female had experienced after her most recent pregnancy (“cycles since resumption”) was the...

Data from: Costs of reproduction in a long-lived female primate: injury risk and wound healing

Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Reproduction is a notoriously costly phase of life, exposing individuals to injury, infectious disease, and energetic tradeoffs. The strength of these costs should be influenced by life history strategies, and in long-lived species, females may be selected to mitigate costs of reproduction because life span is such an important component of their reproductive success. Here we report evidence for two costs of reproduction that may influence survival in wild female baboons— injury risk and delayed...

Data from: Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Amanda J. Lea, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting...

Data from: Irrational time allocation in decision-making

Bastiaan Oud, Ian M. Krajbich, Kevin Miller, Jin Cheong, Matthew Botvinick, Ernst Fehr, Jin Hyun Cheong & Ian Krajbich
Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Data from: Introgressive hybridization and natural selection in Darwin's finches

Peter R. Grant & B. Rosemary Grant
Introgressive hybridization, i.e. hybridization with backcrossing, can lead to the fusion of two species, but it can also lead to evolution of a new trajectory through an enhancement of genetic variation in a new or changed ecological environment. On Daphne Major Island in the Galápagos archipelago, ~1–2% of Geospiza fortis finches breed with the resident G. scandens and with the rare immigrant species G. fuliginosa in each breeding season. Previous research has demonstrated morphological convergence...

Data from: Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish

Molly Schumer, Rongfeng Cui, Daniel L. Powell, Gil G. Rosenthal & Peter Andolfatto
A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that...

Data from: Functional groups, species, and light interact with nutrient limitation during tropical rainforest sapling bottleneck

Cleo B. Chou, Lars O. Hedin & Stephen W. Pacala
1. Potential variability in nutrient limitation among tree size classes, functional groups, and species calls for an integrated community- and ecosystem-level perspective of lowland tropical rainforest nutrient limitation. In particular, canopy trees determine ecosystem nutrient conditions, but competitive success for nutrients and light during the sapling bottleneck determines canopy composition. 2. We conducted an in situ multi-nutrient sapling fertilization experiment at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, to determine how functional group identity, species identity,...

Data from: Habitat and social factors shape individual decisions and emergent group structure during baboon collective movement

Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Damien R. Farine, Margaret C. Crofoot & Iain D. Couzin
For group-living animals traveling through heterogeneous landscapes, collective movement can be influenced by both habitat structure and social interactions. Yet research in collective behavior has largely neglected habitat influences on movement. Here we integrate simultaneous, high-resolution, tracking of wild baboons within a troop with a 3-dimensional reconstruction of their habitat to identify key drivers of baboon movement. A previously unexplored social influence – baboons’ preference for locations that other troop members have recently traversed –...

Data from: A theoretical foundation for multi-scale regular vegetation patterns

Corina E. Tarnita, Juan A. Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A. Guyton, Tyler C. Coverdale, Ryan A. Long & Robert M. Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread1 and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals,...

Data from: Conditional fetal and infant killing by male baboons

Matthew N. Zipple, Jackson H. Grady, Jacob B. Gordon, Lydia D. Chow, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...

Data from: Genetics of urban colonization: neutral and adaptive variation in coyotes (Canis latrans) inhabiting the New York metropolitan area

Alexandra L. DeCandia, Carol S. Henger, Amelia Krause, Linda J. Gormezano, Mark Weckel, Christopher Nagy, Jason Munshi-South & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Theory predicts that range expansion results in genetic diversity loss in colonizing populations. Rapid reduction of population size exacerbates negative effects of genetic drift, while sustained isolation decreases neutral variation. Amid this demographic change, natural selection can act to maintain functional diversity. Thus, characterizing neutral and functional variation is critical for disentangling the evolutionary forces that shape genetic variation in newly established populations. Coyotes (Canis latrans) provide an ideal study system for examining the genetic...

Data from: Demographic history influences spatial patterns of genetic diversity in recently expanded coyote (Canis latrans) populations

Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Daniela S. Cosio, Kristin E. Brzeski, Danny Caudill, Kyle Van Why, Michael J. Chamberlain, Joseph W. Hinton & Bridgett VonHoldt
Human-mediated range expansions have increased in recent decades and represent unique opportunities to evaluate genetic outcomes of establishing peripheral populations across broad expansion fronts. Over the past century, coyotes (Canis latrans) have undergone a pervasive range expansion and now inhabit every state in the continental United States. Coyote expansion into eastern North America was facilitated by anthropogenic landscape changes and followed two broad expansion fronts. The northern expansion extended through the Great Lakes region and...

Data from: An assessment of tree availability as a possible cause of population declines in scavenging raptors

Corinne J. Kendall, Daniel I. Rubenstein, Pamela L. Slater & Ara Monadjem
Lack of suitable nesting trees is an increasingly common issue for avian conservation given rampant habitat and tree destruction around the world. In the African savannah, habitat loss and particularly tree damage caused by elephants have been suggested as possible factors in the decline of large bird species. Given the recent declines of vultures and other scavenging raptors, it is critical to understand if nest availability is a limiting factor for these threatened populations. Loss...

Data from: Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo

Matthew D. Potts, Peter S. Ashton, Les S. Kaufman & Joshua B. Plotkin
Understanding the maintenance of high tropical tree species diversity requires disentangling the effects of habitat vs. geographic distance. Using floristic, topographic, and soil nutrient data from 105 0.6-ha plots in mixed dipterocarp forest throughout Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we explore the degree to which floristic patterns are habitat-driven from local to landscape scales. We assess how the floristic influence of geographic distance vs. abiotic factors varies from local to regional scales. We employ several multivariate analytical...

Data from: Cophylogenetic signal is detectable in pollination interactions across ecological scales

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Edgar Fernando Cagua & Daniel B. Stouffer
That evolutionary history can influence the way that species interact is a basic tenet of evolutionary ecology. However, when the role of evolution in determining ecological interactions is investigated, focus typically centers on just one side of the interaction. A cophylogenetic signal, the congruence of evolutionary history across both sides of an ecological interaction, extends these previous explorations and provides a more complete picture of how evolutionary patterns influence the way species interact. To date,...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: Preventing Zika virus infection during pregnancy using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception

Micaela Elvira Martinez
It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be > 9, 200, 000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions....

Data from: A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

Michael Costanzo, Benjamin VanderSluis, Elizabeth N. Koch, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Carles Pons, Guihong Tan, Wen Wang, Matej Usaj, Julia Hanchard, Susan D. Lee, Vicent Pelechano, Erin B. Styles, Maximilian Billmann, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Nydia Van Dyk, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Elena Kuzmin, Justin Nelson, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Tharan Srikumar, Sondra Bahr, Yiqun Chen, Raamesh Deshpande, Christoph F. Kurat, Sheena C. Li … & Charles Boone
INTRODUCTION: Genetic interactions occur when mutations in two or more genes combine to generate an unexpected phenotype. An extreme negative or synthetic lethal genetic interaction occurs when two mutations, neither lethal individually, combine to cause cell death. Conversely, positive genetic interactions occur when two mutations produce a phenotype that is less severe than expected. Genetic interactions identify functional relationships between genes and can be harnessed for biological discovery and therapeutic target identification. They may also...

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