20 Works

Data from: The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success

Jonathan Pruitt, Colin Wright, Carl Keiser, Alexander DeMarco, Matt Grobis, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Matthew M. Grobis, Alex E. DeMarco, Carl N. Keiser, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Colin M. Wright
Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these seed individuals within groups...

Data from: Machine learning for characterization of insect vector feeding

Denis S. Willett, Justin George, Nora S. Willett, Lukasz L. Stelinski & Stephen L. Lapointe
Insects that feed by ingesting plant and animal fluids cause devastating damage to humans, livestock, and agriculture worldwide, primarily by transmitting pathogens of plants and animals. The feeding processes required for successful pathogen transmission by sucking insects can be recorded by monitoring voltage changes across an insect-food source feeding circuit. The output from such monitoring has traditionally been examined manually, a slow and onerous process. We taught a computer program to automatically classify previously described...

Data from: Woody plant biomass and carbon exchange depend on elephant-fire interactions across a productivity gradient in African savanna

Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Robert M. Pringle, Navashni Govender, Lars O. Hedin & Lars. O. Hedin
Elephants and fire are individually well-known disturbance agents within savanna ecosystems, but their interactive role in governing tree-cover dynamics and savanna–forest biome boundaries remains unresolved. Of central importance are the mechanisms by which elephants vs. fire affect tree biomass and cover, and how – over long time periods – both factors interact with rainfall and soils to govern tree biomass and carbon dynamics. Here, we evaluated the response of woody vegetation to 56 years of...

Data from: Incomplete loss of a conserved trait: function, latitudinal cline, and genetic constraints

Anne M. Royer, Colin Kremer, Kola George, Samuel G. Pérez, Douglas W. Schemske & Jeffrey K. Conner
Retention of nonfunctional traits over evolutionary time is puzzling, because the cost of trait production should drive loss. Indeed, several studies have found nonfunctional traits are rapidly eliminated by selection. However, theory suggests that complex genetic interactions and a lack of genetic variance can constrain evolution, including trait loss. In the mustard family Brassicaceae the conserved floral condition includes four long and two short stamens, but we show that short stamens in the highly self-pollinating...

Data from: Determining epistatic selection in admixed populations

Molly Schumer & Yaniv Brandvain
When two diverging species begin hybridizing, selection against hybridization is likely driven not by single substitutions, but by interactions between incompatible mutations. To identify these incompatibilities in natural populations, researchers examine the extent of non-random associations between ancestry at physically unlinked loci in admixed populations. In this approach, which we call “AD scans”, locus-pairs with significantly positive “ancestry disequilibrium” (AD, i.e. locus-pairs that positively covary by ancestry) represent incompatible alleles. Past research has uniformly revealed...

Data from: Immigration of susceptible hosts triggers the evolution of alternative parasite defence strategies

Hélène Chabas, Van Houte Stineke, Molin Hoyland-Kroghsbo Nina, Buckling Angus, Westra R. Edze, Nina Molin Høyland-Kroghsbo, Angus Buckling, Stineke Van Houte & Edze R. Westra
Migration of hosts and parasites can have a profound impact on host–parasite ecological and evolutionary interactions. Using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 and its phage DMS3vir, we here show that immigration of naive hosts into coevolving populations of hosts and parasites can influence the mechanistic basis underlying host defence evolution. Specifically, we found that at high levels of bacterial immigration, bacteria switched from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) to surface modification-mediated defence. This...

Data from: Does primary productivity modulate the indirect effects of large herbivores? A global meta-analysis

Joshua H. Daskin & Robert M. Pringle
1. Indirect effects of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), while much less studied than those of apex predators, are increasingly recognized to exert powerful influences on communities and ecosystems. The strength of these effects is spatiotemporally variable, and several sets of authors have suggested that they are governed in part by primary productivity. However, prior theoretical and field studies have generated conflicting results and predictions, underscoring the need for a synthetic global analysis. 2. We conducted...

Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bands

Valentine Herrmann, Sean M. McMahon, Matteo Detto, James A. Lutz, Stuart J. Davies, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang & Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira
Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four...

Data from: Error-robust modes of the retinal population code

Adrianna R. Loback, Gašper Tkačik, Jason S. Prentice, Mark L. Ioffe, , Olivier Marre & Michael J. Berry
Across the nervous system, certain population spiking patterns are observed far more frequently than others. A hypothesis about this structure is that these collective activity patterns function as population codewords–collective modes–carrying information distinct from that of any single cell. We investigate this phenomenon in recordings of ∼150 retinal ganglion cells, the retina’s output. We develop a novel statistical model that decomposes the population response into modes; it predicts the distribution of spiking activity in the...

Data from: Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids

Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Roland W. Kays, John P. Pollinger & Robert K. Wayne
Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years...

Data from: Infanticide and within-clutch competition select for reproductive synchrony in a cooperative bird

Christina Riehl
Reproduction among members of social animal groups is often highly synchronized, but neither the selective advantages nor the proximate causes of synchrony are fully understood. Here I investigate the evolution of hatching synchrony in the Greater Ani (Crotophaga major), a communally nesting bird in which several unrelated females contribute eggs to a large, shared clutch. Hatching synchrony is variable, ranging from complete synchrony to moderate asynchrony, and is determined by the onset of incubation of...

Data from: Opportunities for biodiversity gains under the world’s largest reforestation programme

Fangyuan Hua, Xiaoyang Wang, Xinlei Zheng, Robert Dorazio, Brendan Fisher, Lin Wang, Jianguo Zhu, Ya Tang, Douglas W. Yu & David S. Wilcove
Reforestation is a critical means of addressing the environmental and social problems of deforestation. China’s Grain-for-Green Program (GFGP) is the world’s largest reforestation scheme. Here we provide the first nationwide assessment of the tree composition of GFGP forests and the first combined ecological and economic study aimed at understanding GFGP’s biodiversity implications. Across China, GFGP forests are overwhelmingly monocultures or compositionally simple mixed forests. Focusing on birds and bees in Sichuan Province, we find that...

Data from: How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

Brenda Larison, Ryan J. Harrigan, Henri A. Thomassen, Daniel I. Rubenstein, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Elizabeth Li & Thomas B. Smith
The adaptive significance of zebra stripes has thus far eluded understanding. Many explanations have been suggested, including social cohesion, thermoregulation, predation evasion and avoidance of biting flies. Identifying the associations between phenotypic and environmental factors is essential for testing these hypotheses and substantiating existing experimental evidence. Plains zebra striping pattern varies regionally, from heavy black and white striping over the entire body in some areas to reduced stripe coverage with thinner and lighter stripes in...

Data from: Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish

Molly Schumer, Rongfeng Cui, Daniel L. Powell, Gil G. Rosenthal & Peter Andolfatto
A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that...

Data from: Habitat and social factors shape individual decisions and emergent group structure during baboon collective movement

Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Damien R. Farine, Margaret C. Crofoot & Iain D. Couzin
For group-living animals traveling through heterogeneous landscapes, collective movement can be influenced by both habitat structure and social interactions. Yet research in collective behavior has largely neglected habitat influences on movement. Here we integrate simultaneous, high-resolution, tracking of wild baboons within a troop with a 3-dimensional reconstruction of their habitat to identify key drivers of baboon movement. A previously unexplored social influence – baboons’ preference for locations that other troop members have recently traversed –...

Data from: A theoretical foundation for multi-scale regular vegetation patterns

Corina E. Tarnita, Juan A. Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A. Guyton, Tyler C. Coverdale, Ryan A. Long & Robert M. Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread1 and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals,...

Data from: Conditional fetal and infant killing by male baboons

Matthew N. Zipple, Jackson H. Grady, Jacob B. Gordon, Lydia D. Chow, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: Preventing Zika virus infection during pregnancy using a seasonal window of opportunity for conception

Micaela Elvira Martinez
It has come to light that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can result in trans-placental transmission to the fetus along with fetal death, congenital microcephaly and/or Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. There are projected to be > 9, 200, 000 births annually in countries with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In response to the ZIKV threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) is strategically targeting prevention of infection in pregnant women and funding contraception in epidemic regions....

Data from: A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function

Michael Costanzo, Benjamin VanderSluis, Elizabeth N. Koch, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Carles Pons, Guihong Tan, Wen Wang, Matej Usaj, Julia Hanchard, Susan D. Lee, Vicent Pelechano, Erin B. Styles, Maximilian Billmann, Jolanda Van Leeuwen, Nydia Van Dyk, Zhen-Yuan Lin, Elena Kuzmin, Justin Nelson, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Tharan Srikumar, Sondra Bahr, Yiqun Chen, Raamesh Deshpande, Christoph F. Kurat, Sheena C. Li … & Charles Boone
INTRODUCTION: Genetic interactions occur when mutations in two or more genes combine to generate an unexpected phenotype. An extreme negative or synthetic lethal genetic interaction occurs when two mutations, neither lethal individually, combine to cause cell death. Conversely, positive genetic interactions occur when two mutations produce a phenotype that is less severe than expected. Genetic interactions identify functional relationships between genes and can be harnessed for biological discovery and therapeutic target identification. They may also...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • Princeton University
    20
  • University of California Los Angeles
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Florida
    2
  • Institut de la Vision
    1
  • College of Charleston
    1
  • National Museum
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • University of Notre Dame
    1
  • National Dong Hwa University
    1