32 Works

Data from: Gene flow, ancient polymorphism, and ecological adaptation shape the genomic landscape of divergence among Darwin's finches

Fan Han, Sangeet Lamichhaney, B. Rosemary Grant, Peter R. Grant, Leif Andersson & Matthew T. Webster
Genomic comparisons of closely related species have identified “islands” of locally elevated sequence divergence. Genomic islands may contain functional variants involved in local adaptation or reproductive isolation and may therefore play an important role in the speciation process. However, genomic islands can also arise through evolutionary processes unrelated to speciation, and examination of their properties can illuminate how new species evolve. Here, we performed scans for regions of high relative divergence (FST) in 12 species...

Data from: The effect of atomoxetine on random and directed exploration in humans

Christopher M. Warren, Robert C. Wilson, Nic J. Van Der Wee, Eric J. Giltay, Martijn S. Van Noorden, Jonathan D. Cohen & Sander Nieuwenhuis
The adaptive regulation of the trade-off between pursuing a known reward (exploitation) and sampling lesser-known options in search of something better (exploration) is critical for optimal performance. Theory and recent empirical work suggest that humans use at least two strategies for solving this dilemma: a directed strategy in which choices are explicitly biased toward information seeking, and a random strategy in which decision noise leads to exploration by chance. Here we examined the hypothesis that...

Data from: Climatic variation modulates the indirect effects of large herbivores on small-mammal habitat use

Ryan A. Long, Alois Wambua, Jacob R. Goheen, Todd M. Palmer & Robert M. Pringle
Large mammalian herbivores (LMH) strongly shape the composition and architecture of plant communities. A growing literature shows that negative direct effects of LMH on vegetation frequently propagate to suppress the abundance of smaller consumers. Indirect effects of LMH on the behaviour of these consumers, however, have received comparatively little attention despite their potential ecological significance. We sought to understand (i) how LMH indirectly shape small-mammal habitat use by altering the density and distribution of understorey...

Data from: Evolution of mammalian migrations for refuge, breeding, and food

Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, William D. Pearse & Allison K. Shaw
Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize...

Data from: Epigenetic memory via concordant DNA methylation is inversely correlated to developmental potential of mammalian cells

Minseung Choi, Diane P. Genereux, Jamie Goodson, Haneen Al-Azzawi, Shannon Q. Allain, Noah Simon, Stan Palasek, Carol B. Ware, Chris Cavanaugh, Daniel G. Miller, Winslow C. Johnson, Kevin D. Sinclair, Reinhard Stöger & Charles D. Laird
In storing and transmitting epigenetic information, organisms must balance the need to maintain information about past conditions with the capacity to respond to information in their current and future environments. Some of this information is encoded by DNA methylation, which can be transmitted with variable fidelity from parent to daughter strand. High fidelity confers strong pattern matching between the strands of individual DNA molecules and thus pattern stability over rounds of DNA replication; lower fidelity...

Data from: Continent-level drivers of African pyrodiversity

Gareth P. Hempson, Catherine L. Parr, Sally Archibald, T. Michael Anderson, Colin J. Courtney Mustaphi, Andrew P. Dobson, Jason E. Donaldson, Thomas A. Morrison, James Probert & Colin M. Beale
Pyrodiversity, which describes fire variability over space and time, is believed to increase habitat heterogeneity and thereby promote biodiversity. However, to date there is no standardised metric for quantifying pyrodiversity, and so broad geographic patterns and drivers of pyrodiversity remain unexplored. We present the first generalizable method to quantify pyrodiversity, and use it to address the fundamental questions of what drives pyrodiversity, which fire attributes constrain pyrodiversity under different conditions, and whether pyrodiversity is spatial...

The Theological Framework of American Codification

Kellen Funk
Histories of the American debates over codifying the common law uncritically treat nineteenthcentury codifiers as the forerunners of modern statutory supremacy. What these accounts miss is the pervasive religious rhetoric and theology underlying the codification debates. American codifiers universally adopted a liberal Protestant approach to the perspicuity of texts and the unmediated authority of individual interpreters that was common to their time (features that distinguished American codification from similar efforts in England and Europe). They...

Data from: Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models

William R. L. Anderegg, Stephen Pacala, John S. Sperry, Brendan Choat, Daniel J. Chmura, Thomas Kolb, Frederick Meinzer, Pilar Pita, Víctor Resco De Dios & Brett T. Wolfe
Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy...

Data from: The within-host dynamics of infection in trans-generationally primed flour beetles

Ann T. Tate, Peter Andolfatto, Jeffery P. Demuth & Andrea L. Graham
Many taxa exhibit plastic immune responses initiated after primary microbial exposure that provide increased protection against disease-induced mortality and the fitness costs of infection. In several arthropod species, this protection can even be passed from parents to offspring through a phenomenon called trans-generational immune priming. Here, we first demonstrate that trans-generational priming is a repeatable phenomenon in flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) primed and infected with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We then quantify the within-host dynamics of...

Data from: Robust extraction of quantitative structural information from high-variance histological images of livers from necropsied Soay sheep

Quentin Caudron, Romain Garnier, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Christina Hansen, Bryan T. Grenfell, Tawfik Aboellail & Andrea L. Graham
Quantitative information is essential to the empirical analysis of biological systems. In many such systems, spatial relations between anatomical structures is of interest, making imaging a valuable data acquisition tool. However, image data can be difficult to analyse quantitatively. Many image processing algorithms are highly sensitive to variations in the image, limiting their current application to fields where sample and image quality may be very high. Here, we develop robust image processing algorithms for extracting...

Data from: Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease

Georgia Titcomb, Brian F. Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Henson Lauren, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G. Campana, Robert C. Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S. Young & Lauren Henson
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa....

Data from: Responses of interspecific associations in mixed-species bird flocks to selective logging

Binod Borah, Suhel Quader & Umesh Srinivasan
1. Non-trophic interactions (or, inter-species associations) play a prominent role in determining community structure and function. Mixed-species bird flocks are networks of non-trophic associations that confer foraging and anti-predator benefits to participant species. Yet, the responses of these interspecific associations to anthropogenic environmental change are poorly understood. 2. Selective logging is pervasive in the tropics, and can affect associations in mixed-species bird flocks by altering resource availability and/or predation risk, or through the altered abundances...

Data from: Functional groups, species, and light interact with nutrient limitation during tropical rainforest sapling bottleneck

Cleo B. Chou, Lars O. Hedin & Stephen W. Pacala
1. Potential variability in nutrient limitation among tree size classes, functional groups, and species calls for an integrated community- and ecosystem-level perspective of lowland tropical rainforest nutrient limitation. In particular, canopy trees determine ecosystem nutrient conditions, but competitive success for nutrients and light during the sapling bottleneck determines canopy composition. 2. We conducted an in situ multi-nutrient sapling fertilization experiment at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, to determine how functional group identity, species identity,...

Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions

Mark Thornton & Diana Tamir
OSF data and code repository for Thornton, M. A., and Tamir, D. I. (2017). Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(23), 5982-5987.

Data from: An assessment of tree availability as a possible cause of population declines in scavenging raptors

Corinne J. Kendall, Daniel I. Rubenstein, Pamela L. Slater & Ara Monadjem
Lack of suitable nesting trees is an increasingly common issue for avian conservation given rampant habitat and tree destruction around the world. In the African savannah, habitat loss and particularly tree damage caused by elephants have been suggested as possible factors in the decline of large bird species. Given the recent declines of vultures and other scavenging raptors, it is critical to understand if nest availability is a limiting factor for these threatened populations. Loss...

Data from: Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo

Matthew D. Potts, Peter S. Ashton, Les S. Kaufman & Joshua B. Plotkin
Understanding the maintenance of high tropical tree species diversity requires disentangling the effects of habitat vs. geographic distance. Using floristic, topographic, and soil nutrient data from 105 0.6-ha plots in mixed dipterocarp forest throughout Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, we explore the degree to which floristic patterns are habitat-driven from local to landscape scales. We assess how the floristic influence of geographic distance vs. abiotic factors varies from local to regional scales. We employ several multivariate analytical...

Data from: Demographic history influences spatial patterns of genetic diversity in recently expanded coyote (Canis latrans) populations

Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Daniela S. Cosio, Kristin E. Brzeski, Danny Caudill, Kyle Van Why, Michael J. Chamberlain, Joseph W. Hinton & Bridgett VonHoldt
Human-mediated range expansions have increased in recent decades and represent unique opportunities to evaluate genetic outcomes of establishing peripheral populations across broad expansion fronts. Over the past century, coyotes (Canis latrans) have undergone a pervasive range expansion and now inhabit every state in the continental United States. Coyote expansion into eastern North America was facilitated by anthropogenic landscape changes and followed two broad expansion fronts. The northern expansion extended through the Great Lakes region and...

Data from: Cophylogenetic signal is detectable in pollination interactions across ecological scales

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Edgar Fernando Cagua & Daniel B. Stouffer
That evolutionary history can influence the way that species interact is a basic tenet of evolutionary ecology. However, when the role of evolution in determining ecological interactions is investigated, focus typically centers on just one side of the interaction. A cophylogenetic signal, the congruence of evolutionary history across both sides of an ecological interaction, extends these previous explorations and provides a more complete picture of how evolutionary patterns influence the way species interact. To date,...

Lewin at work_Preregistration plan

Sherry Wu & Elizabeth Paluck

The Contact Hypothesis Reevaluated

Seth Green, Elizabeth Paluck, Don Green & Jason Chin
This repository accompanies "The Contact Hypothesis Revisited", forthcoming in Behavioural Public Policy. Our datasets, statistical analyses, and plotting code are available on Code Ocean.

Media Use and Experiences

Diana Tamir, Emma Templeton, Adrian Ward & jamil zaki

Data from: Sexual dimorphism and retinal mosaic diversification following the evolution of a violet receptor in butterflies

Kyle J. McCulloch, Furong Yuan, Ying Zhen, Matthew L. Aardema, Gilbert Smith, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Peter Andolfatto & Adriana D. Briscoe
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK)...

Data from: Experimental and statistical reevaluation provides no evidence for Drosophila courtship song rhythms

David L. Stern, Jan Clemens, Philip Coen, Adam J. Calhoun, John B. Hogenesch, Ben J. Arthur & Mala Murthy
From 1980 to 1992, a series of influential papers reported on the discovery, genetics, and evolution of a periodic cycling of the interval between Drosophila male courtship song pulses. The molecular mechanisms underlying this periodicity were never described. To reinitiate investigation of this phenomenon, we previously performed automated segmentation of songs but failed to detect the proposed rhythm [Arthur BJ, et al. (2013) BMC Biol 11:11; Stern DL (2014) BMC Biol 12:38]. Kyriacou et al....

Many Labs 2: Investigating Variation in Replicability Across Sample and Setting

Richard Klein, Michelangelo Vianello, Fred Hasselman, Byron Adams, Reginald Adams, Sinan Alper, Diego Vega, Mark Aveyard, Jordan Axt, Mayowa Babalola, Štěpán Bahník, Mihaly Berkics, Michael Bernstein, Daniel Berry, Olga Bialobrzeska, Konrad Bocian, Mark Brandt, Robert Busching, Huajian Cai, Fanny Cambier, Katarzyna Cantarero, Cheryl Carmichael, Zeynep Cemalcilar, Jesse Chandler, Jen-Ho Chang … & Brian Nosek
We employ an expanded version of the Many Labs paradigm to investigate 28 new effects and further examine the findings from Many Labs 1.

A Nationally-Representative Test of the Plagiarism Fallacy

Anne Fast, Kristina Olson & Gregory Mandel
An examination of the lay public’s conception of intellectual property laws, including how they should regulate and why they exist.

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • Princeton University
  • University of Florida
  • University of Pretoria
  • Harvard University
  • University of Canterbury
  • Trent University
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • University of Washington
  • Utah State University
  • The University of Texas at Austin