41 Works

An experimental test of community-based strategies for mitigating human-wildlife conflict around protected areas

Ryan Long, Paola Branco, Jerod Merkle, Robert Pringle, Lucy King, Tosca Tindall & Marc Stalmans
Natural habitats are rapidly being converted to cultivated croplands, and crop-raiding by wildlife threatens both wildlife conservation and human livelihoods worldwide. We combined movement data from GPS-collared elephants with camera-trap data and local reporting systems in a before-after-control-impact design to evaluate community-based strategies for reducing crop raiding outside Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park. All types of experimental fences tested (beehive, chili, beehive and chili combined, and procedural controls) significantly reduced the number of times elephants left...

Data from: Cascading impacts of large-carnivore extirpation in an African ecosystem

Justine L. Atkins, Ryan A. Long, Johan Pansu, Joshua H. Daskin, Arjun B. Potter, Marc E. Stalmans, Corina E. Tarnita & Robert M. Pringle
The world’s largest carnivores are declining and now occupy mere fractions of their historical ranges. Theory predicts that when apex predators disappear, large herbivores should become less fearful, occupy new habitats, and modify those habitats by eating new food plants. Yet experimental support for this prediction has been difficult to obtain in large-mammal systems. Following the extirpation of leopards and African wild dogs from Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park, forest-dwelling antelopes (bushbuck, Tragelaphus sylvaticus) expanded into...

Predict and redirect: Prediction errors support children’s word learning

Tracy Reuter, Arielle Borovsky & Casey Lew-Williams
According to prediction-based learning theories, erroneous predictions support learning. However, empirical evidence for a relation between prediction error and children's language learning is currently lacking. Here we investigated whether and how prediction errors influence children’s learning of novel words. We hypothesized that word learning would vary as a function of two factors: the extent to which children generate predictions, and the extent to which children redirect attention in response to errors. Children were tested in...

Six dimensions describe action understanding: the ACT-FASTaxonomy

Mark Thornton & Diana Tamir
Data and code repository for "Six Dimensions describe action understanding: the ACT-FASTaxonomy" preprint here: https://psyarxiv.com/gt6bw See wiki for data dictionary.

Learning the affective value of people: more than affect-based mechanisms

chiara ferrari, DongWon Oh, Brandon Labbree & Alexander Todorov
The projects aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of affective learning, with particular interest in clarifying whether learning about people tap on similar processes as learning about places.

Data from: Disentangling serology to elucidate henipa‐ and filovirus transmission in Madagascar fruit bats

Cara E. Brook, Hafaliana C. Ranaivoson, Christopher C. Broder, Andrew A. Cunningham, Jean-Michel Heraud, Alison J. Peel, Louise Gibson, James L. N. Wood, C. Jessica Metcalf & Andrew P. Dobson
Bats are reservoirs for emerging human pathogens, including Hendra and Nipah henipaviruses and Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. These viruses demonstrate predictable patterns in seasonality and age structure across multiple systems; previous work suggests that they may circulate in Madagascar's endemic fruit bats, which are widely consumed as human food. We aimed to (a) document the extent of henipa‐ and filovirus exposure among Malagasy fruit bats, (b) explore seasonality in seroprevalence and serostatus in these bat...

Research Data Management: Can Librarians Really Help?

Yuan Li, Willow Dressel & Denise Hersey
As national government agencies continue to mandate specific data management requirements and the need for research data management (RDM) grows, many libraries are developing RDM services to help with the research mission of their institution. Research libraries’ mission and expertise have always included a variety of research services. What can the library’s role be in RDM services? This paper describes the possible roles that libraries and librarians can play throughout the data life cycle. The...

Vaccine driven virulence evolution: Consequences of unbalanced reductions in mortality and transmission and implications for pertussis vaccines

Ian Miller & C. Jessica Metcalf
Many vaccines have heterogenous effects across individuals. Additionally, some vaccines do not prevent infection, but reduce disease-associated mortality and transmission. Both of these factors will alter selection pressures on pathogens, and thus shape the evolution of pathogen virulence. We use a mathematical modeling framework to show that 1. the balance of how vaccines reduce transmission vs. mortality, and 2. individual variability in protection conferred, both shape the evolution of pathogen virulence. Epidemiological (burden of disease)...

Data from: Dispersal increases the resilience of tropical savanna and forest distributions

Nikunj Goel, Vishwesha Guttal, Simon Levin & Carla Staver
Global change may induce changes in savanna and forest distributions, but the dynamics of these changes remain unclear. Classical biome theory suggests that climate is predictive of biome distributions, such that shifts will be continuous and reversible. This view, however, cannot explain the overlap in the climatic ranges of tropical biomes, which some argue may result from fire-vegetation feedbacks, maintaining savanna and forest as bistable states. Under this view, biome shifts are argued to be...

Data from: Predator-induced collapse of niche structure and coexistence on islands

Robert M. Pringle, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Todd M. Palmer, Timothy J. Thurman, Kena Fox-Dobbs, Charles C. Y. Xu, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Tyler C. Coverdale, Joshua H. Daskin, Dominic A. Evangelista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, , Johanna E. Wegener, Jason J. Kolbe, Thomas W. Schoener, David A. Spiller, Jonathan B. Losos & Rowan D. H. Barrett
Biological invasions represent both a pressing environmental challenge and an opportunity to investigate fundamental ecological processes, such as the role of top predators in regulating species diversity and food-web structure. In whole-ecosystem manipulations of small Caribbean islands where brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) were the native top predator, we experimentally staged invasions by competitors (green anoles, A. smaragdinus) and/or novel top predators (curly-tailed lizards, Leiocephalus carinatus). We show that curly-tails destabilized coexistence of competing prey...

Data from: Determinants of elephant foraging behavior in a coupled human-natural system: is brown the new green?

Paola S. Branco, Jerod A. Merkle, Robert M. Pringle, Johan Pansu, Arjun B. Potter, Alana Reynolds, Marc Stalmans & Ryan A. Long
1. Crop raiding by wildlife poses major threats to both wildlife conservation and human wellbeing in agro-ecosystems worldwide. These threats are particularly acute in many parts of Africa, where crop raiders include globally threatened megafauna such as elephants, and where smallholder agriculture is a primary source of human livelihood. One framework for understanding herbivore feeding behavior, the forage-maturation hypothesis, predicts that herbivores should align their movements with intermediate forage biomass (i.e., peak green-up); this phenomenon...

PoLaR Annotation Guidelines

Byron Ahn, Nanette Veilleux, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel & Alejna Brugos
Guidelines for the PoLaR framework of annotating prosodic features of human speech

911 Nurse Triage Line Randomized Controlled Trial

Chrysanthi Hatzimasoura, Rebecca Johnson, Robert Holman, Kevin Wilson, Ryan Moore & David Yokum
About a quarter of the District’s 911 medical responses are to events that don’t require emergency services and can be treated in primary and urgent care clinics. These events often end up crowding the emergency room and can increase ambulance response times. To address this problem, nurses were placed directly in the 911 call center. The goal is to make sure all callers in need of an ambulance received one, and those who don’t, can...

Bilingual infants control their languages as they listen

Krista Byers-Heinlein, Elizabeth Morin-Lessard & Casey Lew-Williams
Infants growing up in bilingual homes learn two languages simultaneously without apparent confusion or delay. However, the mechanisms that support this remarkable achievement remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that infants use language control mechanisms to preferentially activate the currently-heard language during listening. In a naturalistic eye-tracking procedure, bilingual infants were more accurate at recognizing objects labeled in same-language sentences (e.g., “Find the dog!”) than in switched-language sentences (“Find the chien!”). Measurements of infants’ pupil size...

Materials

Tom Hardwicke, John Ioannidis, Joshua Wallach, Robert Thibault, Mallory Kidwell & Jessica Kosie
This is a pdf version of the article coding form. Note that in practice we actually used a Google Form which had some dynamic functionality (e.g., only showing certain parts of the form based on previous answers). Because we cannot ensure preservation of the Google Form version, we are sharing the pdf version here.

Data from: Forest-type specialization strongly predicts avian responses to tropical agriculture

Jacob B. Socolar & David S. Wilcove
Species’ traits influence how populations respond to land-use change. However, even in well-characterized groups such as birds, widely studied traits explain only a modest proportion of the variance in response across species. Here, we show that associations with particular forest types strongly predict the sensitivity of forest-dwelling Amazonian birds to agriculture. Incorporating these fine-scale habitat associations into models of population response dramatically improves predictive performance and markedly outperforms the functional traits that commonly appear in...

Data from: High-molecular-weight polymers from dietary fiber drive aggregation of particulates in the murine small intestine

Asher Preska Steinberg, Sujit S. Datta, Thomas Naragon, Justin C. Rolando, Said R. Bogatyrev & Rustem F. Ismagilov
The lumen of the small intestine (SI) is filled with particulates: microbes, therapeutic particles, and food granules. The structure of this particulate suspension could impact uptake of drugs and nutrients and the function of microorganisms; however, little is understood about how this suspension is re-structured as it transits the gut. Here, we demonstrate that particles spontaneously aggregate in SI luminal fluid ex vivo. We find that mucins and immunoglobulins are not required for aggregation. Instead,...

Spurious Pitch Movements in American English Polar Questions

Byron Ahn & Z.L. Zhou

A systematic review and meta-analysis of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration

Roni Porat, Ana Gantman, John-Henry Pezzuto, Seth Green & Elizabeth Paluck
Sexual violence is prevalent worldwide. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1 in 3 women have experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. Thus, sexual violence is considered a significant health problem affecting millions of people every day (WHO, 2013; CDC, 2016). To combat sexual violence, public health practitioners and scholars address three types of prevention strategies: 1. Primary prevention strategies that refer to “approaches that aim to prevent violence before...

BITSS State of Social Science

David Birke, Garret Christensen, Elizabeth Paluck, Rebecca Littman, Edward Miguel, Zenan Wang, Nicholas Swanson, Joel Ferguson & John-Henry Pezzuto
A representative survey of open science attitudes, norms, and behaviors in economics, political science, psychology, and sociology.

Look at that: Spatial deixis reveals experience-related differences in prediction

Tracy Reuter & Casey Lew-Williams
Prediction-based theories posit that interlocutors use prediction to process language efficiently and to coordinate dialogue. The present study evaluated whether listeners can use spatial deixis (i.e., this, that, these, and those) to predict the plurality and proximity of a speaker’s upcoming referent. In two eye-tracking experiments with varying referential complexity (N = 168), native English-speaking adults, native English-learning 5-year-olds, and non-native English-learning adults viewed images while listening to sentences with or without informative deictic determiners,...

Dust and Starlight Maps for Galaxies in the KINGFISH Sample

B.T. Draine, G. Aniano, L.K. Hunt, K. Sandstrom, D. Calzetti, R.C. Kennicutt, D.A. Dale, M. Galametz, K.D. Gordon, A.K. Leroy, J.-D.T. Smith, H. Roussel, M. Sauvage, F. Walter, L. Armus, A.D. Bolatto, M. Boquien, A. Crocker, I. De Looze, J. Donovan Meyer, G. Helou, J. Hinz, B.D. Johnson, J. Koda, A. Miller … & C.W. Engelbracht
Dust and starlight have been modeled for the KINGFISH project galaxies. For each pixel in each galaxy, we estimate: (1) dust surface density; (2) q_PAH, the dust mass fraction in PAHs; (3) distribution of starlight intensities heating the dust; (4) luminosity emitted by the dust; and (5) dust luminosity from regions with high starlight intensity.

Data from: Covariation of diet and gut microbiome in African megafauna

Tyler R. Kartzinel, Julianna C. Hsing, Paul M. Musili, Bianca R. P. Brown & Robert M. Pringle
A major challenge in biology is to understand how phylogeny, diet, and environment shape the mammalian gut microbiome. Yet most studies of non-human microbiomes have relied on relatively coarse dietary categorizations and have focused either on individual wild populations or on captive animals that are sheltered from environmental pressures, which may obscure the effects of dietary and environmental variation on microbiome composition in diverse natural communities. We analyzed plant and bacterial DNA in fecal samples...

Data from: Vocal state change through laryngeal development

Yisi S. Zhang, Daniel Y. Takahashi, Diana A. Liao, Asif A. Ghazanfar & Coen P. H. Elemans
Across vertebrates, progressive changes in vocal behavior during postnatal development are typically attributed solely to developing neural circuits. How the changing body influences vocal development remains unknown. Here we show that state changes in the contact vocalizations of infant marmoset monkeys, which transition from noisy, low frequency cries to tonal, higher pitched vocalizations in adults, are caused partially by laryngeal development. Combining analyses of natural vocalizations, motorized excised larynx experiments, tensile material tests and high-speed...

Fruit syndromes in Viburnum: correlated evolution of color, nutritional content, and morphology in bird-dispersed fleshy fruits

Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong, Chong Lee, Wendy Clement & Michael Donoghue
Premise A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    41

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21
  • Text
    20

Affiliations

  • Princeton University
    41
  • University of Idaho
    3
  • Yale University
    3
  • University of Rhode Island
    2
  • University of Wyoming
    2
  • Brown University
    2
  • Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Fiji National University
    1
  • University of Groningen
    1