12 Works

Global Soybean Trade – The Geopolitics of a Bean

Marcello De Maria, Elizabeth Robinson, Joseph Rajabu Kangile, Reuben MJ Kadigi, Ilda Dreoni, Matheus Couto, Niko Howai, Jurgen Peci & Sicily Fiennes
This report, which is the result of collaborative effort within the Trade Hub project, explores the multiplicity of issues associated with the so-called ‘soybean miracle’, both from a global and a local perspective. With a comprehensive review of the available literature and data, and with country-specific summaries for Tanzania, Brazil and China, this study retraces the historical moments that contributed to make soybean a ‘global flexible crop’, increasingly appreciated and demanded for its versatility all...

Data from: When viruses don’t go viral: the importance of host phylogeographic structure in the spatial spread of arenaviruses

Sophie Gryseels, Stuart Baird, Rhodes Makundi, Benny Borremans, Herwig Leirs, Joelle Gouy De Bellocq & Stuart J. E. Baird
Many emerging infections are RNA virus spillovers from animal reservoirs. Reservoir identification is necessary for predicting the geographic extent of infection risk, but rarely are taxonomic levels below the animal species considered as reservoir, and only key circumstances in nature and methodology allow intrinsic virus-host associations to be distinguished from simple geographic (co-)isolation. We sampled and genetically characterized in detail a contact zone of two subtaxa of the rodent Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania. We find...

Data from: Anthrax outbreaks in the humans-livestock and wildlife interface areas of northern Tanzania: a retrospective review 2006 - 2016

Elibariki Reuben Mwakapeje, Sol Hoegset, Robert Fyumagwa, Hezron E Nonga, Robinson Mdegela & Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Anthrax outbreaks in Tanzania have been reported from the human, livestock and wildlife sectors over several years, and is among the notifiable diseases. Despite frequent anthrax outbreaks, there is no comprehensive dataset indicating the magnitude and distribution of the disease in susceptible species. This study is a retrospective review of anthrax outbreaks from the human, livestock, and wildlife surveillance systems from 2006 to 2016. The objectives were to identify hotspot districts, describe anthrax epidemiology...

Data from: Litter type and termites regulate root decomposition across contrasting savanna land-uses

Stuart W. Smith, James D. M. Speed, John Bukombe, Shombe N. Hassan, Richard D. Lyamuya, Philipo Jacob Mtweve, Anders Sundsdal & Bente J. Graae
Decomposition is a vital ecosystem process, increasingly modified by human activity. Theoretical frameworks and empirical studies that aim to understand the interplay between human land-use, macro-fauna and decomposition processes have primarily focused on leaf and wood litter. For a whole-plant understanding of how land-use and macro-fauna influence decomposition, investigating root litter is required. Using litterbags, we quantified rates of root decomposition across contrasting tropical savanna land-uses, namely wildlife and fire-dominated protected areas and livestock pastureland...

Data from: Density-dependence and persistence of Morogoro arenavirus transmission in a fluctuating population of its reservoir host

Joachim Mariën, Benny Borremans, Christophe Verhaeren, Lucinda Kirkpatrick, Sophie Gryseels, Joëlle Goüy De Bellocq, Stephan Günther, Christopher A. Sabuni, Apia W. Massawe, Jonas Reijniers & Herwig Leirs
Background A key aim in wildlife disease ecology is to understand how host and parasite characteristics influence parasite transmission and persistence. Variation in host population density can have strong impacts on transmission and outbreaks, and theory predicts particular transmission-density patterns depending on how parasites are transmitted between individuals. Here, we present the results of a study on the dynamics of Morogoro arenavirus in a population of multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis). This widespread African rodent, which...

Data from: Genetic distinction between contiguous urban and rural multimammate mice in Tanzania despite gene flow

Sophie Gryseels, Joëlle Goüy De Bellocq, Rhodes Makundi, Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Vladimír Mazoch, Radim Šumbera, , Herwig Leirs & Stuart J. E. Baird
Special conditions are required for genetic differentiation to arise at a local geographical scale in the face of gene flow. The Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, is the most widely distributed and abundant rodent in sub-Saharan Africa. A notorious agricultural pest and a natural host for many zoonotic diseases, it can live in close proximity to man, and appears to compete with other rodents for the synanthropic niche. We surveyed its population genetic structure across...

Data from: Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephant

Clinton W. Epps, Samuel K. Wasser, Jonah L. Keim, Benezeth M. Mutayoba & Justin S. Brashares
There is widespread concern about impacts of land-use change on connectivity among animal and plant populations, but those impacts are difficult to quantify. Moreover, lack of knowledge regarding ecosystems before fragmentation may obscure appropriate conservation targets. We use occurrence and population genetic data to contrast connectivity for a long-lived mega-herbivore over historical and contemporary time frames. We test whether (i) historical gene flow is predicted by persistent landscape features rather than human settlement, (ii) contemporary...

Data from: Prediction of cooking time for soaked and unsoaked dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using hyperspectral imaging technology

Fernando A. Mendoza, Jason A. Wiesinger, Renfu Lu, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla, Phillip N. Miklas, James D. Kelly & Karen A. Cichy
The cooking time of dry beans varies widely by genotype and is also influenced by the growing environment, storage conditions and cooking method. Thus, high throughput phenotyping methods to assess cooking time would be useful to breeders interested in developing cultivars with desired cooking time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of hyperspectral imaging technology for predicting dry bean cooking time. Fourteen dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with a wide...

Data from: Nonlinear scaling of foraging contacts with rodent population density

Benny Borremans, Jonas Reijniers, Nelika K. Hughes, Stephanie S. Godfrey, Sophie Gryseels, Rhodes H. Makundi & Herwig Leirs
Density-dependent shifts in population processes like territoriality, reproduction, dispersal, and parasite transmission are driven by changes in contacts between individuals. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about how contacts change with density, and thus the mechanisms driving density-dependent processes. A simple linear contact-density function is often assumed, but this is not based on a sound basis of empirical data. We addressed this question using a replicated, semi-natural experiment in which we measured contacts at feeding...

Data from: Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa District, Tanzania

Julius Edward Ntwenya, Joyce Kinabo, John Msuya, Peter Mamiro & Zahara Saidi Majili
Introduction: Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Methodology: Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February–May) and post harvest season (September–October) in the...

More widespread alien tree species do not have larger impacts on regeneration of native tree species in a tropical forest reserve

Samson Kiswaga, John Richard Mbwambo, Deo Shirima, Ahmed Mndolwa, Urs Schaffner & René Eschen
There is insufficient information regarding the factors affecting the environmental impacts of alien species. In particular, little is known about whether there is any relationship between the invasiveness (establishment and spread) of an introduced species and its per-capita impact. We experimentally assessed the relationship between the extent of spread of up to 29 alien plant species and their impact on recruitment of native tree species in Amani Botanical Garden, Tanzania. We also studied the effects...

Praomys delectorum capture-mark-recapture dataset from fieldwork on the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania.

Olaoluwa John Ademola
Praomys delectorum occurs abundantly in both disturbed and intact forests in the Ukaguru Mountains within the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM), Morogoro, Tanzania. While previous studies have reported that anthropogenic disturbance such as grazing, wood cutting and harvesting has a positive effect on the population density of P. delectorum, the impact of habitat disturbance on its demographic traits is still unknown. We performed a capture-mark-recapture study in both disturbed and intact forest from June 2018 to...

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