451 Works

Data from: Species-specific responses to island connectivity cycles: refined models for testing phylogeographic concordance across a Mediterranean Pleistocene Aggregate Island complex

Anna Papadopoulou & L. Lacey Knowles
The contribution of Pleistocene sea level changes to diversification patterns in archipelagos around the world, and specifically whether the repeated cycles of island connectivity and isolation acted as a ‘species pump’ is debated. The debate has been perpetuated in part because of the type of evidence used to evaluate the species-pump hypothesis. Specifically, existing tests of the ‘Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex’ (PAIC) model of diversification interpret the lack of concordant divergence times among multiple codistributed...

Data from: Fine with heat, problems with water: microclimate alters water loss in a thermally adapted insular lizard

Anat Belasen, Kinsey Brock, Binbin Li, Dimitra Chremou, Efstratios Valakos, Panayiotis Pafilis, Barry Sinervo & Johannes Foufopoulos
Global change, including habitat isolation and climate change, has both short- and long-term impacts on wildlife populations. For example, genetic drift and inbreeding result in genetic impoverishment in small, isolated populations, while species undergo range shifts or adaptive phenotypic change in response to shifts in environmental temperatures. In this study, we utilize a model system in which Holocene landscape changes have occurred to examine long-term effects of population isolation. To examine how isolation may constrain...

Data from: A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea

Adam Kuester, Ariana Wilson, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting...

Data from: Parasite transmission in a natural multihost-multiparasite community

Stuart K. Auld, Catherine L. Searle & Meghan A. Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia),...

Data from: Foliar damage beyond species distributions is partly explained by distance dependent interactions with natural enemies

Daniel S. W. Katz & Inés Ibáñez
Plant distributions are expected to shift in response to climate change, and range expansion dynamics will be shaped by the performance of individuals at the colonizing front. These plants will encounter new biotic communities beyond their range edges, and the net outcome of these encounters could profoundly affect colonization success. However, little is known about how biotic interactions vary across range edges and this has hindered efforts to predict changes in species distributions in response...

Data from: Bayesian model selection with BAMM: effects of the model prior on the inferred number of diversification shifts

Jonathan S. Mitchell & Daniel L. Rabosky
1. Understanding variation in rates of speciation and extinction -- both among lineages and through time -- is critical to the testing of many hypotheses about macroevolutionary processes. BAMM is a flexible Bayesian framework for inferring the number and location of shifts in macroevolutionary rate across phylogenetic trees and has been widely used in empirical studies. BAMM requires that researchers specify a prior probability distribution on the number of diversification rate shifts before conducting an...

Data from: Assessing the effects of a sequestered germline on interdomain lateral gene transfer in Metazoa

Lindy M Jensen, Jessica R Grant, , Laura A. Katz & Lindy Jensen
A sequestered germline in Metazoa has been argued to be an obstacle to lateral gene transfer (LGT), though few studies have specifically assessed this claim. Here we test the hypothesis that the origin of a sequestered germline reduced LGT events in Bilateria (i.e. triploblast lineages) as compared to early-diverging Metazoa (i.e. Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Porifera, and Placozoa). We analyze single-gene phylogenies generated with over 900 species, sampled from among Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota to identify well-supported...

A Paleocene (Danian) marine osteoglossid (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) from the Nuussuaq Basin of Greenland, with a brief review of Palaeogene marine bonytongue fishes

Alessio Capobianco, Ethan Foreman & Matt Friedman
The early Palaeogene represents a key interval in the evolution of modern marine fish faunas. Together with the first appearances of many familiar fish lineages characteristic of contemporary marine environments, early Palaeogene marine deposits worldwide feature the occurrence of osteoglossid bonytongues. Their presence in marine rocks is surprising, as these fishes are strictly associated with freshwater environments in modern settings and other parts of the fossil record. Despite its possible relevance to faunal recovery after...

Data from: Flexible gaze-following in rhesus monkeys

Rosemary Bettle & Alexandra G. Rosati
Humans are characterized by complex social cognitive abilities that emerge early in development. Comparative studies of nonhuman primates can illuminate the evolutionary history of these social capacities. We examined the cognitive skills that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) use to follow gaze, a foundational skill in human social development. While rhesus monkeys can make inferences about others’ gaze when competing, it is unclear how they think about gaze information in other contexts. In study 1, monkeys...

A new species of croton (Euphorbiaceae) from a Madagascan lineage discovered in coastal Kenya

Veronicah Ngumbau, Mwadime Nyange, Neng Wei, Benjamin Van Ee, Paul Berry, Itambo Malombe, Guang-Wan Hu & Qing-Feng Wang
Croton kinondoensis, a new species from Kenya, is described and illustrated here with photographs. It is found in the sacred Kaya Kinondo Forest, one of the last remaining coastal forests patches in Kenya. Its morphology and systematic position based on ITS and trnL-F DNA sequence data clearly place it within the Adenophorus Group of Croton, a clade of ca. 15 species otherwise known only from Madagascar and the Comoros Archipelago. Its closest affinities appear to...

Belowground competition can influence the evolution of root traits

Sara Colom & Regina Baucom
Although root traits play a critical role in mediating plant-plant interactions and resource acquisition from the soil environment, research examining if and how belowground competition can influence the evolution of root traits remains largely unexplored. Here we examine the potential that root traits may evolve as a target of selection from interspecific competition using Ipomoea purpurea and I. hederacea, two closely related morning glory species that commonly co-occur in the United States as a model...

Data from: Stasis of functionally versatile specialists

Miriam L. Zelditch, Jingchun Li & Donald L. Swiderski
A classic hypothesis posits that lineages exhibiting long-term stasis are broadly adapted generalists that remain well-adapted despite environmental change. However, lacking constraints that steepen adaptive peaks and stabilize the optimum, generalists’ phenotypes might drift around a broad adaptive plateau. We propose that stasis would be likely for morphological specialists that behave as ecological generalists much of the time because specialists’ functional constraints stabilize the optimum, but those with a broad niche can, like generalists, persist...

Data from: A phylogenomic framework for pelagiarian fishes (Acanthomorpha: Percomorpha) highlights mosaic radiation in the open ocean

Matthew Friedman, Kara Feilich, Hermione Beckett, Michael Alfaro, Brant Faircloth, David Černý, Masaki Miya, Thomas Near & Richard Harrington
The fish clade Pelagiaria, which includes tunas as its most famous members, evolved remarkable morphological and ecological variety in a setting not generally considered conducive to diversification: the open ocean. Relationships within Pelagiaria have proven elusive due to short internodes subtending major lineages suggestive of rapid early divergences. Using a novel sequence dataset of over 1000 ultraconserved DNA elements (UCEs) for 94 of the 286 species of Pelagiaria (more than 70% of genera), we provide...

Data from: Environmental filtering structures fungal endophyte communities in tree bark

Peter Pellitier, Donald Zak & Sydney Salley
The factors that control the assembly and composition of endophyte communities across plant hosts remains poorly understood. This is especially true for endophyte communities inhabiting inner tree bark, one of the least studied components of the plant microbiome. Here, we test the hypothesis that bark of different tree species acts as an environmental filter structuring endophyte communities, as well as the alternative hypothesis, that bark acts as a passive reservoir that accumulates a diverse assemblage...

Comparable space use by lions between hunting concessions and national parks in West Africa

Kirby Mills, Yahou Harissou, Isaac Gnoumou, Yaye Abdel-Nasser, Benoit Doamba & Nyeema Harris
Spatially varied resources and threats govern the persistence of African lions across dynamic protected areas. An important precursor to effective conservation for lions requires assessing tradeoffs in space use due to heterogeneity in habitat, resources, and human presence between national parks and hunting areas, the dominant land-use classifications across their range. We conducted the largest camera survey in West Africa, encompassing 3 national parks and 11 hunting concessions in Burkina Faso and Niger, equating to...

Data from: Nocturnal flight-calling behaviour predicts vulnerability to artificial light in migratory birds

Benjamin M. Winger, Brian C. Weeks, Andrew Farnsworth, Andrew W. Jones, Mary Hennen & David E. Willard
Understanding interactions between biota and the built environment is increasingly important as human modification of the landscape expands in extent and intensity. For migratory birds, collisions with lighted structures are a major cause of mortality, but the mechanisms behind these collisions are poorly understood. Using 40 years of collision records of passerine birds, we investigated the importance of species’ behavioral ecologies in predicting rates of building collisions during nocturnal migration through Chicago, IL and Cleveland,...

Data from: Heterochrony in chimpanzee and bonobo spatial memory development

Alexandra G. Rosati
Objectives: The emergence of human-unique cognitive abilities has been linked to our species' extended juvenile period. Comparisons of cognitive development across species can provide new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping cognition. This study examined the development of different components of spatial memory, cognitive mechanisms that support complex foraging, by comparing two species with similar life history that vary in wild ecology: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Materials and methods: Spatial memory development...

Data from: Differential changes in bone strength of two inbred mouse strains following administration of a sclerostin-neutralizing antibody during growth

Noah J. Mathis, Emily N. Adaniya, Lauren M. Smith, Alexander G. Robling, Karl J. Jepsen & Stephen H. Schlecht
Administration of sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment has been shown to elicit an anabolic bone response in growing and adult mice. Prior work characterized the response of individual mouse strains but did not establish whether the impact of Scl-Ab on whole bone strength would vary across different inbred mouse strains. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that two inbred mouse strains (A/J and C57BL/6J (B6)) will show different whole bone strength outcomes following sclerostin-neutralizing antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment...

Data from: Priority effects within coinfected hosts can drive unexpected population-scale patterns of parasite prevalence

Patrick A. Clay, Michael H. Cortez, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Organisms are frequently coinfected by multiple parasite strains and species, and interactions between parasites within hosts are known to influence parasite prevalence and diversity, as well as epidemic timing. Importantly, interactions between coinfecting parasites can be affected by the order in which they infect hosts (i.e. within-host priority effects). In this study, we use a single-host, two-pathogen, SI model with environmental transmission to explore how within-host priority effects scale up to alter host population-scale infection...

Data from: Phylogeny, ancestors, and anagenesis in the hominin fossil record

Caroline Parins-Fukuchi, Elliot Greiner, Laura M. MacLatchy & Daniel C. Fisher
Probabilistic approaches to phylogenetic inference have recently gained traction in paleontological studies. Because they directly model processes of evolutionary change, probabilistic methods facilitate a deeper assessment of variability in evolutionary patterns by weighing evidence for competing models. Although phylogenetic methods used in paleontological studies have generally assumed that evolution proceeds by splitting cladogenesis, extensions to previous models help explore the potential for morphological and temporal data to provide differential support for contrasting modes of evolutionary...

Data from: Toxins or medicines? Phytoplankton diets mediate host and parasite fitness in a freshwater system

Kristel F. Sanchez, Naomi Huntley, Meghan A. Duffy & Mark D. Hunter
Diets must satisfy the everyday metabolic requirements of organisms and can also serve as medicines to combat disease. Currently, the medicinal role of diets is much better understood in terrestrial than in aquatic ecosystems. This is surprising because phytoplankton species synthesize secondary metabolites with known antimicrobial properties. Here, we investigated the medicinal properties of phytoplankton (including toxin-producing cyanobacteria) against parasites of the dominant freshwater herbivore, Daphnia. We fed Daphnia dentifera on green algae and toxic...

Data from: Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections

Thomas S. Jenkinson, David Rodriguez, Rebecca A. Clemons, Lucas A. Michelotti, Kelly R. Zamudio, Luís Felipe Toledo, Joyce E. Longcore & Timothy Y. James
Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographic invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. We experimentally investigated the in vivo competitive differences between two divergent lineages of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). These Bd...

Evolution in alternating environments with tunable inter-landscape correlations

Jeff Maltas
Natural populations are often exposed to temporally varying environments. Evolutionary dynamics in varying environments have been extensively studied, though understanding the effects of varying selection pressures remains challenging. Here we investigate how cycling between a pair of statistically related fitness landscapes affects the evolved fitness of an asexually reproducing population. We construct pairs of fitness landscapes that share global fitness features but are correlated with one another in a tunable way, resulting in landscape pairs...

Data from: Body temperature, heart rate, and activity patterns of two boreal homeotherms in winter: homeostasis, allostasis, and ecological coexistence

Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane, Andrew McAdam & Murray Humphries
Organisms survive environmental variation by combining homeostatic regulation of critical states with allostatic variation of other traits, and species differences in these responses can contribute to coexistence in temporally-variable environments. In this paper, we simultaneously record variation in three functional traits – body temperature (Tb), heart rate, and activity - in relation to three forms of environmental variation – air temperature (Ta), photoperiod, and experimentally-manipulated resource levels – in free-ranging snowshoe hares and North American...

Data from: Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees

Alexandra Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depend on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable investment, whereas younger males have more one-sided relationships. Older males are more likely to be alone, but they also...

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