451 Works

Testing which axes of species differentiation underlie covariance of phylogeographic similarity among montane sedge species

Richard Hodel, Rob Massatti, Sasha Bishop & L. Lacey Knowles
Co-distributed species may exhibit similar phylogeographic patterns due to shared environmental factors or discordant patterns attributed to the influence of species-specific traits. Although either concordant or discordant patterns could occur due to chance, stark differences in key traits (e.g., dispersal ability) may readily explain differences between species. Multiple species’ attributes may affect genetic patterns, and it is difficult to isolate the contribution of each. Here we compare the relative importance of two attributes, range size...

Tit for Tat and Beyond: The Legendary Work of Anatol Rapoport

Shirli Kopelman

Mapping Marronage

Annete Joseph-Gabriel

Amborella pangenome bam files

Ricky Hu, Armin Patrick Armin Patrick Schebe, Brent Verpaalen, Philipp Bayer, Soodeh Tirnaz, Richard G.J. Hodel, Jacqueline Batley, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis & David Edwards

The U.S. Academic Research Enterprise (US-ARE): Possible Paths from the Pandemic

Jason Owen-Smith
This white paper uses recent public data to identify what we can know systematically about how the COVID-19 pandemic is currently affecting the large, research-intensive universities that represent the core of the US-ARE. It uses those, admittedly preliminary and partial, findings to extrapolate about possible long-term effects of decisions that academic leaders, state and federal policy makers are taking right now. The descriptive story presented here isn't determinative, but it suggests that the pandemic poses...

Dataset from: Predation as an explanation for a latitudinal gradient in arm number among featherstars

James Saulsbury & Tomasz Baumiller
Aim: The role of biotic interactions in generating broad patterns in organismal phenotypes is a central question in macroecology. We investigate global patterns in feeding morphology among featherstars, a globally widespread group of suspension-feeding echinoderms whose evolutionary history has been demonstrably shaped by predators. Location: World's oceans. Major taxon studied: Crinoidea. Methods: We tested for global patterns in the featherstar suspension feeding apparatus, a filter made up of five to 200 arms which is the...

High-resolution mapping of the period landscape reveals polymorphism in cell cycle frequency tuning

Zhengda Li, Shiyuan Wang, Meng Sun, Minjun Jin, Daniel Khain & Qiong Yang
Biological oscillators adapt to environmental changes with widely tunable frequencies, a property theoretical studies attributed to positive feedbacks. However, no experiments have tested this theory. Here, we created synthetic cells to independently tune the frequency and feedback strength of a cell-cycle oscillator, enabling continuous mapping of period landscape in response to network perturbations. We found that although inhibiting positive feedback of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1) reduces the tunability, the reduction is not as significant as theoretically...

Open Data Toolkit Based on Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Access Principles

Rachel Woodbrook
This is the slide presentation from the 2019 LYRASIS Leaders Summit documenting the University of Michigan Catalyst Fund project - Open Data Toolkit Based on Diversity, Equity, Inclusion and Access Principles.

2011 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

2018 Update to “An impact assessment of Great Lakes aquatic nonidigenous species”

Rochelle A. Sturtevant, El Lower, Nicholas Boucher, Peter Alsip, Kylan Hopper, Susannah Iott, Doran M. Mason, Ashley Elgin & Felix A. Martinez
NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL ; 161b

Genetic mechanisms and correlational selection structure trait variation in a coral snake mimic

John David Curlis, Alison Davis Rabosky, Iris Holmes, Timothy Renney & Christian Cox
Covariation among traits shapes both phenotypic evolution and ecological interactions across space and time. However, rampant geographic variation in the strength and direction of such correlations can be particularly difficult to explain through generalized mechanisms. By integrating population genomics, surveys of natural history collections, and spatially-explicit analyses, we tested multiple drivers of trait correlations in a coral snake mimic that exhibits remarkable polymorphism in mimetic and non-mimetic color traits. We found that although such traits...

The oldest Devonian circumpolar ray-finned fish?

Rodrigo Figueroa, Luiz Carlos Weinschütz & Matthew Friedman
Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse group of living fishes, but have a sparse early fossil record restricted to low palaeolatitudes. Here we report a new actinopterygian from the Paraná Basin of Brazil, an area that occupied a circumpolar position in the Palaeozoic. Available geological evidence supports a Middle Devonian or older age for this taxon, which shares features of the mandibular symphysis with the latest Devonian Tegeolepis. A phylogenetic analysis resolves these two...

The effects of the Medicare NCS reimbursement policy: utilization, payments, and patient access

Evan Reynolds, Kevin Kerber, Chloe Hill, Lindsey De Lott, Brandon Magliocco, Gregory Esper & Brian Callaghan
Objective: To determine whether the 2013 nerve conduction study (NCS) reimbursement reduction changed Medicare utilization, payments, and patient access to Medicare physicians, we performed a retrospective analysis of Medicare data (2012-2016 fee-for-service data from the CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File). Methods: Individual billable services were identified by Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System CPT and G codes. Medicare utilization and payments were stratified by specialty and type of service (electrodiagnostic tests, including NCS...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Effect of data source on estimates of regional bird richness in northeastern United States

Roi Ankori-Karlinsky, Ronen Kadmon, Michael Kalyuzhny, Katherine F. Barnes, Andrew M. Wilson, Curtis Flather, Rosalind Renfrew, Joan Walsh & Edna Guk
Standardized data on large-scale and long-term patterns of species richness are critical for understanding the consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes in the environment. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is one of the largest and most widely used sources of such data, but so far, little is known about the degree to which BBS data provide accurate estimates of regional richness. Here we test this question by comparing estimates of regional richness based...

Unraveling the roles of genotype and environment in the expression of plant defense phenotypes

Abigail Potts & Mark Hunter
1. Phenotypic variability results from interactions between genotype and environment and is a major driver of ecological and evolutionary interactions. Measuring the relative contributions of genetic variation, the environment, and their interaction to phenotypic variation remains a fundamental goal of evolutionary ecology. 2. In this study, we assess the question: How do genetic variation and local environmental conditions interact to influence phenotype within a single population? We explored this question using seed from a single...

Did the Renewable Fuel Standard Shift Market Expectations of the Price of Ethanol?

Christiane Baumeister, Reinhard Ellwanger & Lutz Kilian
It is commonly believed that the response of the price of corn ethanol (and hence of the price of corn) to shifts in biofuel policies operates in part through market expectations and shifts in storage demand, yet to date it has proved difficult to measure these expectations and to empirically evaluate this view. We utilize a recently proposed methodology to estimate the market’s expectations of the prices of ethanol, unfinished motor gasoline and crude oil...

Shared morphological consequences of global warming in North American migratory birds

Brian Weeks, David Willard, Marketa Zimova, Aspen Ellis, Max Witynski, Mary Hennen & Ben Winger
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four‐decade specimen series of 70 716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40‐year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length – an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology...

Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic diversity and alpine specialization across the alpine flora of the American mountain range system

Hector Fox Figueroa, Hannah E. Marx, Maria Beatriz De Souza Cortez, Charles J. Grady, Nicholas Engle-Wrye, Jim Beach, Aimee Stewart, Ryan A. Folk, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis & Stephen A. Smith
Although mountainous habitats contribute substantially to global biodiversity, comparatively little is known about biogeographic patterns of distributions of alpine species across multiple mountain ranges. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the distributions and phylogenetic affinities of alpine seed plant lineages across North, Central, and South American mountain systems. Using a comprehensive dataset that characterized the elevational niches of American seed plants in a continuously valued way, we were able to quantitatively investigate how the...

Lack of phenological shift leads to increased camouflage mismatch in mountain hares

Marketa Zimova
Understanding whether organisms will be able to adapt to human-induced stressors currently endangering their existence is an urgent priority. Globally, multiple species moult from a dark summer to white winter coat to maintain camouflage against snowy landscapes. Decreasing snow cover duration due to climate change is increasing mismatch in seasonal camouflage. To directly test for adaptive responses to recent changes in snow cover, we repeated historical (1950s) field studies of moult phenology in mountain hares...

Data and code from: Spring phenological escape is critical for the survival of temperate tree seedlings

Benjamin Lee & Ines Ibanez
Understory plants in deciduous forests often rely on access to ephemeral light availability before the canopy closes in spring and after the canopy reopens in fall, a strategy commonly referred to as phenological escape. Although there is evidence for a relationship between understory plant phenology and demographic performance, a mechanistic link is still missing. In this study, we bridged this gap by estimating annual carbon assimilation as a function of foliar phenology and photosynthetic capacity...

Amborella pangenome and supplementary tables v4

, Ricky Hu, Armin Patrick Scheben, Brent Verpaalen, Soodeh Tirnaz, Jacqueline Batley, Douglas E. Soltis, Dave Edwards & Richard G.J. Hodel

Data from: Sex difference in prevalence of depression after stroke

Liming Dong, Brisa N. Sanchez, Lesli E. Skolarus, Eric Stulberg, Lewis B. Morgenstern & Lynda D. Lisabeth
Objective: This study investigated the sex difference in prevalence of depression at 90 days after first-ever stroke. Methods: Patients with first-ever stroke (n = 786) were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2011–2016). Poststroke depressive symptoms were assessed by the 8-itemPatient Health Questionnaire, and prestroke depression status (history and medication use) was self-reported. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between sex and depression after stroke, and effect modification...

Public health and economic benefits of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in a peri-urban system

Chinmay Sonawane, Gidey Yirga & Neil Carter
Species that depend on anthropogenic waste for food can remove pathogens that pose health risks to humans and livestock, thereby saving lives and money. Quantifying these benefits is rare, yet can lead to innovative conservation solutions. To assess these benefits, we examined the feeding ecology and population size of peri-urban spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. We integrated these field data into a disease transmission model to predict: a) the number of anthrax and...

Social effects on annual fitness in red squirrels

Andrew McAdam, Quinn Webber, Ben Dantzer, Jeff Lane & Stan Boutin
When resources are limited, mean fitness is constrained and competition can cause genes and phenotypes to enhance an individual’s own fitness while reducing the fitness of their competitors. Negative social effects on fitness have the potential to constrain adaptation, but the interplay between ecological opportunity and social constraints on adaptation remains poorly studied in nature. Here, we tested for evidence of phenotypic social effects on annual fitness (survival and reproductive success) in a long-term study...

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