451 Works

Data from: Relationships of diversity, disparity and their evolutionary rates in squirrels (Sciuridae)

Miriam L. Zelditch, Jingchun Li, Lucy A. P. Tran & Donald L. Swiderski
Several theories predict that rapidly diversifying clades will also rapidly diverge phenotypically; yet, there are also reasons for suspecting that diversification and divergence might not be correlated. In the widely distributed squirrel clade (Sciuridae), we test for correlations between per-lineage speciation rates, species richness, disparity and a time-invariant measure of disparity that allows for comparing rates when evolutionary modes differ, as they do in squirrels. We find that species richness and speciation rates are not...

Data from: Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitat

Andrew M. Kramer, Gust Annis, Marion E. Wittmann, William L. Chadderton, Edward S. Rutherford, David M. Lodge, Lacey Mason, Dmitry Beletsky, Catherine Riseng & John M. Drake
Efficient management and prevention of species invasions requires accurate prediction of where species of concern can arrive and persist. Species distribution models provide one way to identify potentially suitable habitat by developing the relationship between climate variables and species occurrence data. However, these models when applied to freshwater invasions are complicated by two factors. The first is that the range expansions that typically occur as part of the invasion process violate standard species distribution model...

Data from: Not all weeds are created equal: a database approach uncovers differences in the sexual system of native and introduced weeds

Megan L. Van Etten, Jeffrey K. Conner, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that...

Data from: History cleans up messes: the impact of time in driving divergence and introgression in a tropical suture zone

Sonal Singhal & Ke Bi
Contact zones provide an excellent arena in which to address questions about how genomic divergence evolves during lineage divergence. They allow us to both infer patterns of genomic divergence in allopatric populations isolated from introgression and to characterize patterns of introgression after lineages meet. Thusly motivated, we analyze genome-wide introgression data from four contact zones in three genera of lizards endemic to the Australian Wet Tropics. These contact zones all formed between morphologically cryptic lineage-pairs...

Data from: Widespread paleopolyploidy, gene tree conflict, and recalcitrant relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales

Joseph F. Walker, Ya Yang, Moore J. Michael, Jessica Mikenas, Alfonso Timoneda, Samuel Frasier Brockington, Stephen Andrew Smith & Michael J. Moore
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare...

Data from: Genetic diversity is largely unpredictable but scales with museum occurrences in a species-rich clade of Australian lizards

Sonal Singhal, Huateng Huang, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, Iris Holmes & Daniel L. Rabosky
Genetic diversity is a fundamental characteristic of species and is affected by many factors, including mutation rate, population size, life history and demography. To better understand the processes that influence levels of genetic diversity across taxa, we collected genome-wide restriction-associated DNA data from more than 500 individuals spanning 76 nominal species of Australian scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus. To avoid potential biases associated with variation in taxonomic practice across the group, we used coalescent-based...

Data from: A nutrient mediates intraspecific competition between rodent malaria parasites in vivo

Nina Wale, Derek G. Sim & Andrew F. Read
Hosts are often infected with multiple strains of a single parasite species. Within-host competition between parasite strains can be intense and has implications for the evolution of traits that impact patient health, such as drug resistance and virulence. Yet the mechanistic basis of within-host competition is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a parasite nutrient, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), mediates competition between a drug resistant and drug susceptible strain of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. We...

Data from: Experimental small-scale flower patches increase species density but not abundance of small urban bees

Maria-Carolina M. Simao, Jill Matthijs & Ivette Perfecto
1. Large flower plantings are often used to combat negative effects of habitat loss on pollinators, but whether these floral additions are effective at smaller scales remains unclear, particularly in urban settings. 2. To test the effectiveness of small-scale floral additions on enhancing urban bee populations, as well as their impact from one year to the next, different quantities of potted sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima) flowers were placed across sites in Ann Arbor, Michigan for...

Data from: Spinosity, regeneration, and targeting among Paleozoic crinoids and their predators

Valerie J.P. Syverson, Carlton E. Brett, Forest J. Gahn & Tomasz K. Baumiller
Evolving interactions between predators and prey constitute one of the major adaptive influences on marine animals during the Paleozoic. Crinoids and fish constitute a predator-prey system that may date back to at least the Silurian, as suggested by patterns of crinoid regeneration and spinosity in concert with changes in the predatory fauna. Here we present data on the frequency of breakage and regeneration in the spines of the Middle Devonian camerate Gennaeocrinus and Late Paleozoic...

Data from: Structure of FlgK reveals the divergence of the bacterial hook-filament junction of Campylobacter

Paula V. Bulieris, Nausad H. Shaikh, Peter L. Freddolino & Fadel A. Samatey
Evolution of a nano-machine consisting of multiple parts, each with a specific function, is a complex process. A change in one part should eventually result in changes in other parts, if the overall function is to be conserved. In bacterial flagella, the filament and the hook have distinct functions and their respective proteins, FliC and FlgE, have different three-dimensional structures. The filament functions as a helical propeller and the hook as a flexible universal joint....

Data from: Small montane cloud forest fragments are important for conserving tree diversity in the Ecuadorian Andes

Sarah Jane Wilson & Jeanine M. Rhemtulla
Montane tropical cloud forests, with their complex topography, biodiversity, high numbers of endemic species, and rapid rates of clearing are a top global conservation priority. However, species distributions at local and landscape scales in cloud forests are still poorly understood, in part because few regions have been surveyed. Empirical work has focused on species distributions along elevation gradients, but spatial variation among forests at the same elevation is less commonly investigated. In this study, the...

Data from: Haplotype-phased synthetic long reads from short-read sequencing

James A. Stapleton, Jeongwoon Kim, John P. Hamilton, Ming Wu, Luiz C. Irber, Rohan Maddamsetti, Bryan Briney, Linsey Newton, Dennis R. Burton, C. Titus Brown, Christina Chan, C. Robin Buell & Timothy A. Whitehead
Next-generation DNA sequencing has revolutionized the study of biology. However, the short read lengths of the dominant instruments complicate assembly of complex genomes and haplotype phasing of mixtures of similar sequences. Here we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the sequences of individual nucleic acid molecules up to 11.6 kilobases in length from short (150-bp) reads. We show that our method can construct 99.97%-accurate synthetic reads from bacterial, plant, and animal genomic samples, full-length mRNA sequences...

Data from: Challenges in the estimation of extinction from molecular phylogenies: a response to Beaulieu and O'Meara

Daniel L. Rabosky
Time-calibrated phylogenies that contain only living species have been widely used to study the dynamics of speciation and extinction. Concerns about the reliability of phylogenetic extinction estimates were raised by Rabosky (2010), where I suggested that unaccommodated heterogeneity in speciation rate could lead to positively biased extinction estimates. In a recent article, Beaulieu and O'Meara (2015) correctly point out several technical errors in the execution of my 2010 study and concluded that phylogenetic extinction estimates...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

Luz Boyero, Richard Pearson, Cang Hui, Mark Gessner, Javier Perez, Markos Alexandrou, Manuel Graça, Bradley Cardinale, Ricardo Albariño, M. Arunachalam, Leon Barmuta, Andrew Boulton, Andreas Bruder, Marcos Callisto, Eric Chauvet, Russell Death, David Dudgeon, Andrea Encalada, Veronica Ferreira, Ricardo Figueroa, Alex Flecker, , Julie Helson, Tomoya Iwata, Tajang Jinggut … & Catherine Yule
Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, have high rates of carbon dioxide evasion and they contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and...

Data from: An R package and online resource for macroevolutionary studies using the ray-finned fish tree of life

Jonathan Chang, Daniel L. Rabosky, Stephen A. Smith & Michael E. Alfaro
1. Comprehensive, time-scaled phylogenies provide a critical resource for many questions in ecology, evolution, and biodiversity. Methodological advances have increased the breadth of taxonomic coverage in phylogenetic data; however, accessing and reusing these data remain challenging. 2. We introduce the Fish Tree of Life website and associated R package fishtree to provide convenient access to sequences, phylogenies, fossil calibrations, and diversification rate estimates for the most diverse group of vertebrate organisms, the ray-finned fishes. The...

Data from: Male-mediated prenatal loss: functions and mechanisms

Matthew Zipple, Eila K. Roberts, Susan C. Alberts & Jacinta C. Beehner
Sexually selected infanticide has been the subject of intense empirical and theoretical study for decades; a related phenomenon, male-mediated prenatal loss, has received much less attention in evolutionary studies. Male-mediated prenatal loss occurs when inseminated or pregnant females terminate reproductive effort following exposure to a non-sire male, either through implantation failure or pregnancy termination. Male-mediated prenatal loss encompasses two sub-phenomena: sexually selected feticide and the Bruce effect. In this review, we lay out a framework...

Data from: Can longitudinal generalized estimating equation models distinguish network influence and homophily? an agent-based modeling approach to measurement characteristics

Kori Sauser Zachrison, Theodore J. Iwashyna, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Meghan Hutchins & Joyce M. Lee
Background: Connected individuals (or nodes) in a network are more likely to be similar than two randomly selected nodes due to homophily and/or network influence. Distinguishing between these two influences is an important goal in network analysis, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses of longitudinal dyadic network data are an attractive approach. It is not known to what extent such regressions can accurately extract underlying data generating processes. Therefore our primary objective is to determine...

Data from: Divergence of thermal physiological traits in terrestrial breeding frogs along a tropical elevational gradient

Rudolf Von May, Alessandro Catenazzi, Ammon Corl, Roy Santa-Cruz, Ana Carolina Carnaval & Craig Moritz
Critical thermal limits are thought to be correlated with the elevational distribution of species living in tropical montane regions, but with upper limits being relatively invariant compared to lower limits. To test this hypothesis, we examined the variation of thermal physiological traits in a group of terrestrial breeding frogs (Craugastoridae) distributed along a tropical elevational gradient. We measured the critical thermal maximum (CTmax; n = 22 species) and critical thermal minimum (CTmin; n = 14...

Data from: Stream nitrogen concentration, but not plant N-fixing capacity, modulates litter diversity effects on decomposition

Alan M. Tonin, Luz Boyero, Silvia Monroy, Ana Basaguren, Javier Perez, Richard G. Pearson, Bradley J. Cardinale, & Jesus Pozo
1. We are facing major biodiversity loss and there is evidence that such loss can alter ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of plant diversity on decomposition – a key component of the global carbon cycle – are still unclear. A recent study suggested that a plant trait – their nitrogen (N)-fixing capacity – could mediate effects of litter diversity on decomposition by means of a microbial transfer of N from N-fixers to non-fixers. 2. We...

Data from: Minimum sample sizes for population genomics: an empirical study from an Amazonian plant species

Alison G. Nazareno, Jordan B. Bemmels, Christopher W. Dick & Lúcia G. Lohmann
High throughput DNA sequencing facilitates the analysis of large portions of the genome in non-model organisms, ensuring high accuracy of population genetic parameters. However, empirical studies evaluating the appropriate sample size for these kinds of studies are still scarce. In this study, we use double digest restriction associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to recover thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two physically isolated populations of Amphirrhox longifolia (Violaceae), a non-model plant species for which no...

Data from: Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts

Leiling Tao, Kevin M. Hoang, Mark D. Hunter & Jacobus C. De Roode
The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to...

Data from: Inordinate spinescence: taxonomic revision and microtomography of the Pheidole cervicornis species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

Eli M. Sarnat, Georg Fischer & Evan P. Economo
The ant genus Pheidole—for all of its hyperdiversity and global ubiquity—is remarkably conservative with regard to morphological disparity. A striking exception to this constrained morphology is the spinescent morphotype, which has evolved multiple times across distantly related lineages of Indoaustralian Pheidole. The Pheidole cervicornis group contains perhaps the most extraordinary spinescent forms of all Pheidole. Here we present a taxonomic revision of the P. cervicornis group, and use microtomographic scanning technology to investigate the internal...

Data from: Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes

Michael C. Grundler & D. L. Rabosky
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia—the oxyuranine elapids—exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly...

Data from: Extensive trans-specific polymorphism at the mating type locus of the root decay fungus Heterobasidion

Linda T. A. Van Diepen, Åke Olson, Ihrmark Katarina, Jan Stenlid & Timothy Y. James
Incompatibility systems in which individuals bearing identical alleles reject each other favor the maintenance of a diversity of alleles. Mushroom mating type loci (MAT) encode for dozens or hundreds of incompatibility alleles whose loss from the population is greatly restricted through negative frequency selection, leading to a system of alleles with highly divergent sequences. Here we use DNA sequences of homeodomain (HD) encoding genes the MAT locus of five closely related species of the root...

Data from: Shared decision-making as a cost-containment strategy: US physician reactions from a cross-sectional survey

Jon C. Tilburt, Matthew K. Wynia, Victor M. Montori, Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir, Jason S. Egginton, Robert D. Sheeler, Mark Liebow, Katherine M. Humeniuk & Susan Dorr Goold
Objective: To assess US physicians’ attitudes towards using shared decision-making (SDM) to achieve cost containment. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: US medical practice. Participants: 3897 physicians were randomly selected from the AMA Physician Masterfile. Of these, 2556 completed the survey. Main outcome measures: Level of enthusiasm for “Promoting better conversations with patients as a means of lowering healthcare costs”; degree of agreement with “Decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in my practice”...

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