74 Works

Data from: Intraguild dynamics of understudied carnivores in a human-altered landscape

Tara Easter, Paola Bouley & Neil Carter
Mesocarnivores constitute a diverse and often abundant group of species, which are increasingly occupying higher trophic levels within multi-use landscapes. Yet, we know relatively little about their interactions with each other, especially in human-altered areas. Using camera trap data collected in a forestry concession in the Greater Gorongosa ecosystem of central Mozambique, we examined the spatiotemporal relationships and potential for intraguild competition among three understudied African carnivores: African civets (Civettictis civetta), bushy-tailed mongooses (Bdeogale crassicauda),...

Common barriers, but temporal dissonance: genomic tests suggest ecological and paleo-landscape sieves structure a coastal riverine fish community

Andrea Thomaz & L. Lacey Knowles
Assessments of spatial and temporal congruency across taxa from genetic data provide insights into the extent to which similar processes structure communities. However, for coastal regions that are affected continuously by cyclical sea-level changes over the Pleistocene, congruent interspecific response will not only depend upon co-distributions, but also on similar dispersal histories among taxa. Here, we use SNPs to test for concordant genetic structure among four co-distributed taxa of freshwater fishes (Teleostei: Characidae) along the...

Data from: Belowground competition favors character convergence but not character displacement in root traits

Sara Colom & Regina Baucom
1. Character displacement can play a major role in species ecology and evolution, however, research testing whether character displacement can influence the evolution of root traits in plant systems remains scarce in the literature. Here we investigated the potential that character displacement may influence the evolution of root traits using two closely related morning glory species, Ipomoea purpurea and I. hederacea. 2. We performed a field experiment where we grew the common morning glory, I....

Dataset of Constraining fossil fuel CO2 emissions from urban area using OCO-2 observations of total column CO2

X. Ye, T. Lauvaux, E.A. Kort, T. Oda, S. Feng, J.C. Lin, E.G. Yang & D. Wu
Satellite observations of the total column dry-air CO2 (XCO2) are expected to support the quantification and monitoring of fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions from urban areas. We evaluate the utility of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) XCO2 retrievals to optimize whole-city emissions, using a Bayesian inversion system and high-resolution transport modeling. The uncertainties of constrained emissions related to transport model, satellite measurements, and local biospheric fluxes are quantified. For the first two uncertainty sources,...

LTREB: Drivers of temperate forest carbon storage from canopy closure through successional time

Luke Nave
This document details plans for the management and dissemination of scientific materials produced and synthesized as part of the project: “LTREB: Drivers of temperate forest carbon storage from canopy closure through successional time.”

Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent

Clinton Francis, Masayuki Senzaki, Jesse Barber, Jenny Phillips, Neil Carter, Caren Cooper, Mark Ditmer, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher McClure, Daniel Mennitt, Luke Tyrrell, Jelena Vukomanovic & Ashley Wilson
Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night-lighting across our planet is of increasing conservation concern Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here, we leverage a large citizen science dataset paired with high-resolution noise and light data from across the contiguous United States to assess...

Paleobiogeography, paleoecology, diversity, and speciation patterns in the Eublastoidea (Blastozoa: Echinodermata)

Jennifer Bauer
Understanding the distribution of taxa in space and time is key to understanding diversity dynamics. The fossil record provides an avenue to assess these patterns on vast timescales and through major global changes. The Eublastoidea were a conservatively plated Paleozoic echinoderm clade that range from the middle Silurian to the end Permian. The geographic distribution of the eublastoids, as a whole, has been qualitatively assessed but has historically lacked a quantitative analysis. This is the...

Data from: Uneven missing data skews phylogenomic relationships within the lories and lorikeets

Brian Smith, , Brett W. Benz & Michael J. Andersen
Inlcuded is the supplementary data for Smith, B. T., Mauck, W. M., Benz, B., & Andersen, M. J. (2018). Uneven missing data skews phylogenomic relationships within the lories and lorikeets. BioRxiv, 398297. The resolution of the Tree of Life has accelerated with advances in DNA sequencing technology. To achieve dense taxon sampling, it is often necessary to obtain DNA from historical museum specimens to supplement modern genetic samples. However, DNA from historical material is generally...

Data from: Macroevolutionary integration of phenotypes within and across ant worker castes

Nicholas R. Friedman, Beatrice Bennet, Georg Fischer, Eli Sarnat, Jen-Pan Huang, Lacey Knowles & Evan Economo
Phenotypic traits are often integrated into evolutionary modules: sets of organismal parts that evolve together. In social insect colonies the concepts of integration and modularity apply to sets of traits both within and among functionally and phenotypically differentiated castes. On macroevolutionary timescales, patterns of integration and modularity within and across castes can be clues to the selective and ecological factors shaping their evolution and diversification. We develop a set of hypotheses describing contrasting patterns of...

PRISM-HD: Patient-Reported Impact of Symptoms in Huntington Disease

Alistair M Glidden, Elizabeth A Luebbe, Molly J Elson, Steven B Goldenthal, Christopher W Snyder, Christine E Zizzi, E Ray Dorsey & Chad R Heatwole
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and relative importance of symptoms experienced by adults with Huntington disease (HD) and to identify factors associated with a higher disease burden. METHODS: We performed 40 qualitative interviews (n = 20 with HD, n = 20 caregivers) and analyzed 2,082 quotes regarding the symptomatic burden of HD. We subsequently performed a cross-sectional study with 389 participants (n = 156 with HD [60 of whom were prodromal], n = 233 caregivers)...

A consensus phylogenomic approach highlights paleopolyploid and rapid radiation in the history of Ericales

Drew A. Larson, Joseph F. Walker, Oscar M. Vargas & Stephen A. Smith
Premise of study: Large genomic datasets offer the promise of resolving historically recalcitrant species relationships. However, different methodologies can yield conflicting results, especially when clades have experienced ancient, rapid diversification. Here, we analyzed the ancient radiation of Ericales and explored sources of uncertainty related to species tree inference, conflicting gene tree signal, and the inferred placement of gene and genome duplications. Methods: We used a hierarchical clustering approach, with tree-based homology and orthology detection, to...

Paraphyletic species no more – genomic data resolve a Pleistocene radiation and validate morphological species of the Melanoplus scudderi complex (Insecta: Orthoptera)

Jen-Pan Huang, JoVonn G. Hill, Joaquín Ortego & L. Lacey Knowles
Rapid speciation events, with taxa generated over a short time period, are among the most investigated biological phenomena. However, molecular systematics often reveals contradictory results compared with morphological/phenotypical diagnoses of species under scenarios of recent and rapid diversification. In this study, we used molecular data from an average of over 29,000 loci per sample from RADseq to reconstruct the diversification history and delimit the species boundary in a short-winged grasshopper species complex (Melanoplus Scudderi group),...

Interspecific variation and elevated CO2 influence the relationship between plant chemical resistance and regrowth tolerance

Leslie Decker & Mark D. Hunter
To understand how comprehensive plant defense phenotypes will respond to global change, we investigated the legacy effects of elevated CO2 on the relationships between chemical resistance (constitutive and induced via mechanical damage) and regrowth tolerance in four milkweed species (Asclepias). We quantified potential resistance and tolerance tradeoffs at the physiological level following simulated clipping/mowing, which are relevant to milkweed ecology and conservation. We examined the legacy effects of elevated CO2 on four hypothesized tradeoffs between:...

Rapid and repeated divergence of animal chemical signals in an island introduction experiment

Colin Donihue, Anthony Herrel, José Martín, Johannes Foufopoulos, Panayiotis Pafilis & Simon Baeckens
Studies of animal communication have documented myriad rapid, context-dependent changes in visual and acoustic signal design. In contrast, relatively little is known about the capacity of vertebrate chemical signals to rapidly respond, either plastically or deterministically, to changes in context. Four years following an experimental introduction of lizards to replicate experimental islets, we aimed to determine if chemical signal design of the experimental populations differed from that of the source population. In 2014, we translocated...

Human walking in the real world: interactions between terrain type, gait parameters, and energy expenditure

Daniel Kowalsky, John Rebula, Lauro Ojeda, Peter Adamczyk & Art Kuo
Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot’s trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such...

Data for: Light availability influences the intensity of nectar robbery and its effects on reproduction in a tropical shrub via multiple pathways

Gordon Fitch & John H. Vandermeer
The multiple exogenous pathways by which light availability affects plant reproduction – e.g. via influence on attraction of mutualists and antagonists – remain surprisingly understudied. The light environment experienced by a parent can also have transgenerational effects on offspring via these same pathways. Methods: We evaluated a) the influence of light availability on floral traits in Odontonema cuspidatum , b) the relative importance of the pathways by which light influences nectar robbery and reproductive output,...

A targeted phylogenetic approach helps explain New World functional diversity patterns of two eudicot lineages

Hector Figueroa & Stephen Smith
Aim: Large-scale functional diversity studies typically examine isolated traits, often without phylogenetic context. Here, we integrate data from five life-history traits with phylogeny and occurrence records to assess: (1) correlated latitudinal gradients of trait combinations; (2) which traits show phylogenetic conservatism; (3) quantitative, clade-specific differences in trait syndromes, illustrating the phylogenetic scale of observable variation in ecological strategies. Location: The Americas Taxon: Ericales (Asterids) and Fabales (Rosids) Methods: We used publicly-available trait data sets on...

Disentangling sources of gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets: testing ancient hybridizations in Amaranthaceae s.l.

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Gudrun Kadereit, Delphine Tefarikis, Michael Moore, Stephen Smith, Samuel Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Won Yim, John Cushman & Ya Yang
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a combination of multiple approaches can help tease apart alternative sources of conflict. Here, using a phylotranscriptomic analysis in combination with reference genomes, we...

Trade-offs in above and belowground biomass allocation influencing seedling growth in a tropical forest

Maria Natalia Umaña, Min Cao, Luxiang Lin, Nathan Swenson & Caicai Zhang
1. Plants allocate biomass to different organs in response to resource variation for maximizing performance, yet we lack a framework that adequately integrates plant responses to the simultaneous variation in above and belowground resources. Although traditionally, the optimal partition theory (OPT) has explained patterns of biomass allocation in response to a single limiting resource, it is well known that in natural communities multiple resources limit growth. We study trade-offs involved in plant biomass allocation patterns...

Artificial night light helps account for observer bias in citizen science monitoring of an expanding large mammal population

Mark Ditmer, Fabiola Iannarilli, Andrew Tri, David Garshelis & Neil Carter
1. The integration of citizen scientists into ecological research is transforming how, where, and when data are collected, and expanding the potential scales of ecological studies. Citizen-science projects can provide numerous benefits for participants, while educating and connecting professionals with lay audiences, potentially increasing acceptance of conservation and management actions. However, for all the benefits, collection of citizen-science data is often biased towards areas that are easily accessible (e.g. developments and roadways), and thus data...

Framing the Dialogue: A New, Collaborative Approach to the Hazing Dilemma

Malinda M. Matney & Simone Himbeault Taylor

Great smoky mountain ant community composition

Nathan J. Sanders, Jean-Philippe Lessard & Robert R. Dunn
Disentangling the drivers of diversity gradients can be challenging. The Measurement of Biodiversity (MoB) framework decomposes scale-dependent changes in species diversity into three components of community structure: the species abundance distribution (SAD), the total community abundance, and the within-species spatial aggregation. Here we extend MoB from categorical treatment comparisons to quantify variation along continuous geographic or environmental gradients. Our approach requires sites along a gradient, each consisting of georeferenced plots of abundance-based species composition data....

Longitudinal white-matter abnormalities in sports-related concussion: a diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

Yu-Chien Wu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Nahla Elsaid, Zikai Lin, Qiuting Wen, Sourajit Mustafi, Larry Riggen, Kevin Koch, Andrew Nencka, Timothy Meier, Andrew Mayer, Yang Wang, Christopher Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen LaConte, Stefan Duma, Steven Broglio, Andrew Saykin, Michael McCrea & Thomas McAllister
Objective To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white-matter after sports-related concussion (SRC), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC. Methods Collegiate athletes (n=219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at four time points: 24-48-hours post-injury, asymptomatic state, seven days following return-to-play, and six-months post-injury. Tract-based spatial statistics were...

Redescription of the cranial skeleton of the Early Devonian (Emsian) sarcopterygian Durialepis edentatus Otto, 2007 (Dipnomorpha; Porolepiformes)

Sam Giles, Jorge Mondéjar-Fernández & Matt Friedman
Porolepiforms represent a clade of Devonian stem lungfishes, divided into the cosmine-bearing and likely paraphyletic ‘Porolepidae’ (e.g., Porolepis, Heimenia) and the cosmine-free and stratigraphically younger Holoptychiidae (e.g., Holoptychius, Glyptolepis, Laccognathus). Data on the dermoskeleton are available for both groups, but are more limited for ‘porolepids’. Here we present new information on the ‘porolepid’ Durialepis edentatus from the Emsian (Early Devonian) of Germany based on micro-CT scanning. The material comprises an articulated skull of a single...

Tree phenology and abiotic variables 1998-2017 at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda

Kevin Potts, David Watts, Kevin Langergraber & John Mitani
Fruit production in tropical forests varies considerably in space and time, with important implications for frugivorous consumers. Characterizing temporal variation in forest productivity is thus critical for understanding adaptations of tropical forest frugivores, yet long-term phenology data from the tropics, in particular from African forests, are still scarce. Similarly, as the abiotic factors driving phenology in the tropics are predicted to change with a warming climate, studies documenting the relationship between climatic variables and fruit...

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  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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