74 Works

Antibiotic interactions shape short-term evolution of resistance in Enterococcus faecalis

Ziah Dean, Jeff Maltas & Kevin Wood
Antibiotic combinations are increasingly used to combat bacterial infections. Multidrug therapies are a particularly important treatment option for E. faecalis, an opportunistic pathogen that contributes to high-inoculum infections such as infective endocarditis. While numerous synergistic drug combinations for E. faecalis have been identified, much less is known about how different combinations impact the rate of resistance evolution. In this work, we use high-throughput laboratory evolution experiments to quantify adaptation in growth rate and drug resistance...

Data from: Evaluating community effects of a keystone ant, Azteca sericeasur, on Inga micheliana leaf litter decomposition in a shaded coffee agro-ecosystem

Lauren Schmitt & Bolivar Aponte-Rolon
Our research examined the effect of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone arboreal ant, on the decomposition of leaf litter of the shade tree, Inga micheliana, in coffee agro-ecosystems. This interaction is important in understanding the spatial heterogeneity in decomposition. We hypothesized that A. sericeasur could affect leaf litter decomposition by excluding other ants, which could release decomposers, like collembolans, from predation pressure. Determining the relative strengths of these interactions can illuminate the importance of A. sericeasur...

Diversification history of clown tree frogs in Neotropical rainforests (Anura, Hylidae, Dendropsophus leucophyllatus group)

Renata Pirani, Pedro Peloso, Joyce Prado, Érico Polo, Lacey Knowles, Santiago Ron, Miguel Rodrigues, Marcelo Sturaro & Fernanda Werneck
General consensus emphasizes that no single biological process can explain the patterns of species’ distributions and diversification in the Neotropics. Instead, the interplay of several processes across space and time must be taken into account. Here we investigated the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of tree frogs in the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group (Amphibia: Hylidae), which is distributed across Amazonia and the Atlantic rainforests. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and double digest restriction-site associated DNA...

Data from: Co-evolving wing spots and mating displays are genetically separable traits in Drosophila

Jonathan H. Massey & Patricia Wittkopp
The evolution of sexual traits often involves correlated changes in morphology and behavior. For example, in Drosophila, divergent mating displays are often accompanied by divergent pigment patterns. To better understand how such traits co-evolve, we investigated the genetic basis of correlated divergence in wing pigmentation and mating display between the sibling species Drosophila elegans and D. gunungcola. Drosophila elegans males have an area of black pigment on their wings known as a wing spot and...

Historical biogeography of Vochysiaceae reveals an unexpected perspective of plant evolution in the Neotropics

Deise Josely Pereira Goncalves, Gustavo H. Shimizu, Edgardo M. Ortiz, Robert K. Jansen & Beryl B. Simpson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Despite the fast pace of exploration of the patterns and processes influencing Neotropical plant hyperdiversity, taxa explored are mostly from large groups that are widely distributed, morphologically diverse or economically important. Vochysiaceae is an example of an undersampled taxon, providing an excellent system for investigating Neotropical biogeography. We present a phylogenomic-based hypothesis of species relationships in Vochysiaceae to investigate its evolutionary history through space and time. METHODS: We inferred a phylogeny...

Logical inferences from visual and auditory information in ruffed lemurs and sifakas

Francesca De Petrillo & Alexandra Rosati
Inference by exclusion, or the ability to select a correct course of action by systematically excluding other potential alternatives, is a form of logical inference that allow individuals to solve problems without complete information. Current comparative research shows that several bird, mammal, and primate species can find hidden food through inference by exclusion. Yet there is also wide variation in how successful different species are, as well kinds of sensory information they can use to...

Data from: Comparing the indirect effects between exploiters in predator-prey and host-pathogen systems

Michael H. Cortez & Meghan Duffy
DataS1 These files are Maple and Matlab scripts for analyzing the predator-prey and host-pathogen models in "Comparing the indirect effects between exploiters in predator-prey and host-pathogen systems" and generating the figures in that study.

Data from: What makes a fang? phylogenetic and ecological controls on tooth evolution in rear-fanged snakes

Erin Westeen, Andrew Durso, Michael Grundler, Daniel Rabosky & Alison Davis Rabosky
Background: Fangs are a putative key innovation that revolutionized prey capture and feeding in snakes, and – along with their associated venom phenotypes – have made snakes perhaps the most medically-significant vertebrate animals. Several snake clades are known for their forward-positioned fangs, and these clades (Elapidae; Viperidae) contain the majority of snakes that are traditionally considered venomous. However, many other snakes are "rear-fanged": they possess potentially venom-delivering teeth situated at the rear end of the...

Data from: Social bonds do not mediate the relationship between early adversity and adult glucocorticoids in wild baboons

Stacy Rosenbaum, Shuxi Zeng, Fernando Campos, Laurence Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Susan Alberts, Fan Li & Elizabeth Archie
In humans and other animals, harsh conditions in early life can have profound effects on adult physiology, including the stress response. This relationship may be mediated by a lack of supportive relationships in adulthood. That is, early life adversity may inhibit the formation of supportive social ties, and weak social support is itself often linked to dysregulated stress responses. Here we use prospective, longitudinal data from wild baboons in Kenya to test the links between...

Genomic insights into the origin of trans-Mediterranean disjunct distributions: The case of the saltmarsh band-winged grasshopper (Mioscirtus wagneri)

Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J. Cordero, L. Lacey Knowles & Joaquín Ortego
Aim: Two main biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the Mediterranean-Turanian disjunct distributions exhibited by numerous steppe-dwelling organisms, namely (i) dispersal during the Messinian salinity crisis (∼5.96-5.33 Ma) followed by range fragmentation and vicariance, and (ii) Pleistocene colonization and recent processes of population subdivision (<2 Ma). Despite the two hypotheses postulate the role of climatic alterations and changes in landmass configuration on determining such disjunct distributions, estimates of the timing of lineage diversification have...

Museum epigenomics: characterizing cytosine methylation in historic museum specimens

Tricia Rubi, L. Lacey Knowles & Ben Dantzer
Museum genomics has transformed the field of collections-based research, opening up a range of new research directions for paleontological specimens as well as natural history specimens collected over the past few centuries. Recent work demonstrates that it is possible to characterize epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation in well preserved ancient tissues. This approach has not yet been tested in traditionally prepared natural history specimens such as dried bones and skins, the most common specimen...

Mapping Marronage

Annete Joseph-Gabriel

Amborella pangenome bam files

Ricky Hu, Armin Patrick Armin Patrick Schebe, Brent Verpaalen, Philipp Bayer, Soodeh Tirnaz, Richard G.J. Hodel, Jacqueline Batley, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis & David Edwards

The U.S. Academic Research Enterprise (US-ARE): Possible Paths from the Pandemic

Jason Owen-Smith
This white paper uses recent public data to identify what we can know systematically about how the COVID-19 pandemic is currently affecting the large, research-intensive universities that represent the core of the US-ARE. It uses those, admittedly preliminary and partial, findings to extrapolate about possible long-term effects of decisions that academic leaders, state and federal policy makers are taking right now. The descriptive story presented here isn't determinative, but it suggests that the pandemic poses...

Data from: Sex difference in prevalence of depression after stroke

Liming Dong, Brisa N. Sanchez, Lesli E. Skolarus, Eric Stulberg, Lewis B. Morgenstern & Lynda D. Lisabeth
Objective: This study investigated the sex difference in prevalence of depression at 90 days after first-ever stroke. Methods: Patients with first-ever stroke (n = 786) were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2011–2016). Poststroke depressive symptoms were assessed by the 8-itemPatient Health Questionnaire, and prestroke depression status (history and medication use) was self-reported. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between sex and depression after stroke, and effect modification...

Comparable space use by lions between hunting concessions and national parks in West Africa

Kirby Mills, Yahou Harissou, Isaac Gnoumou, Yaye Abdel-Nasser, Benoit Doamba & Nyeema Harris
Spatially varied resources and threats govern the persistence of African lions across dynamic protected areas. An important precursor to effective conservation for lions requires assessing tradeoffs in space use due to heterogeneity in habitat, resources, and human presence between national parks and hunting areas, the dominant land-use classifications across their range. We conducted the largest camera survey in West Africa, encompassing 3 national parks and 11 hunting concessions in Burkina Faso and Niger, equating to...

Data from: Stasis of functionally versatile specialists

Miriam L. Zelditch, Jingchun Li & Donald L. Swiderski
A classic hypothesis posits that lineages exhibiting long-term stasis are broadly adapted generalists that remain well-adapted despite environmental change. However, lacking constraints that steepen adaptive peaks and stabilize the optimum, generalists’ phenotypes might drift around a broad adaptive plateau. We propose that stasis would be likely for morphological specialists that behave as ecological generalists much of the time because specialists’ functional constraints stabilize the optimum, but those with a broad niche can, like generalists, persist...

Data from: Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees

Alexandra Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depend on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable investment, whereas younger males have more one-sided relationships. Older males are more likely to be alone, but they also...

Evolution in alternating environments with tunable inter-landscape correlations

Jeff Maltas
Natural populations are often exposed to temporally varying environments. Evolutionary dynamics in varying environments have been extensively studied, though understanding the effects of varying selection pressures remains challenging. Here we investigate how cycling between a pair of statistically related fitness landscapes affects the evolved fitness of an asexually reproducing population. We construct pairs of fitness landscapes that share global fitness features but are correlated with one another in a tunable way, resulting in landscape pairs...

Data from: Body temperature, heart rate, and activity patterns of two boreal homeotherms in winter: homeostasis, allostasis, and ecological coexistence

Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane, Andrew McAdam & Murray Humphries
Organisms survive environmental variation by combining homeostatic regulation of critical states with allostatic variation of other traits, and species differences in these responses can contribute to coexistence in temporally-variable environments. In this paper, we simultaneously record variation in three functional traits – body temperature (Tb), heart rate, and activity - in relation to three forms of environmental variation – air temperature (Ta), photoperiod, and experimentally-manipulated resource levels – in free-ranging snowshoe hares and North American...

The effects of the Medicare NCS reimbursement policy: utilization, payments, and patient access

Evan Reynolds, Kevin Kerber, Chloe Hill, Lindsey De Lott, Brandon Magliocco, Gregory Esper & Brian Callaghan
Objective: To determine whether the 2013 nerve conduction study (NCS) reimbursement reduction changed Medicare utilization, payments, and patient access to Medicare physicians, we performed a retrospective analysis of Medicare data (2012-2016 fee-for-service data from the CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File). Methods: Individual billable services were identified by Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System CPT and G codes. Medicare utilization and payments were stratified by specialty and type of service (electrodiagnostic tests, including NCS...

Public health and economic benefits of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in a peri-urban system

Chinmay Sonawane, Gidey Yirga & Neil Carter
Species that depend on anthropogenic waste for food can remove pathogens that pose health risks to humans and livestock, thereby saving lives and money. Quantifying these benefits is rare, yet can lead to innovative conservation solutions. To assess these benefits, we examined the feeding ecology and population size of peri-urban spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. We integrated these field data into a disease transmission model to predict: a) the number of anthrax and...

Dataset from: Predation as an explanation for a latitudinal gradient in arm number among featherstars

James Saulsbury & Tomasz Baumiller
Aim: The role of biotic interactions in generating broad patterns in organismal phenotypes is a central question in macroecology. We investigate global patterns in feeding morphology among featherstars, a globally widespread group of suspension-feeding echinoderms whose evolutionary history has been demonstrably shaped by predators. Location: World's oceans. Major taxon studied: Crinoidea. Methods: We tested for global patterns in the featherstar suspension feeding apparatus, a filter made up of five to 200 arms which is the...

Testing which axes of species differentiation underlie covariance of phylogeographic similarity among montane sedge species

Richard Hodel, Rob Massatti, Sasha Bishop & L. Lacey Knowles
Co-distributed species may exhibit similar phylogeographic patterns due to shared environmental factors or discordant patterns attributed to the influence of species-specific traits. Although either concordant or discordant patterns could occur due to chance, stark differences in key traits (e.g., dispersal ability) may readily explain differences between species. Multiple species’ attributes may affect genetic patterns, and it is difficult to isolate the contribution of each. Here we compare the relative importance of two attributes, range size...

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