59 Works

Alternative Trading Systems: Does One Shoe Fit All?

Nicolas Audet, Toni Gravelle & Jing Yang
This paper examines the factors that lead liquidity-motivated investors to choose the type of market structure they prefer. We assume that investors can choose between a dealership and a limit-order-book market. This study builds a theoretical model for both the dealership and order-book markets and develops a numerical method to solve the Nash equiibrium strategies of heterogeneous market participants. We find that a dealership market would be preferred by investors in an environment where customer...

Data from: A test for rate-coupling of trophic and cranial evolutionary dynamics in New World bats

Jeff Shi, Erin Westeen & Daniel Rabosky
Data supporting article Shi et al. 2021, Evolution: https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.14188 Morphological evolution is often assumed to be causally related to underlying patterns of ecological trait evolution. However, few studies have directly tested whether evolutionary dynamics of and major shifts in ecological resource use are coupled with morphological shifts that may facilitate trophic innovation. Using diet and multivariate cranial (microCT) data, we tested whether rates of trophic and cranial evolution are coupled in the radiation of New...

A Data-driven Approach to Crosslinguistic Structural Biases

Alex Kramer & Zoey Liu

Migration distance is a fundamental axis of the slow-fast continuum of life history in boreal birds

Benjamin Winger & Teresa Pegan
Seasonal migration is intrinsically connected to the balance of survival and reproduction, but whether migratory behavior influences species’ position on the slow-fast continuum of life history is poorly understood. We found that boreal-breeding birds that migrate long distances exhibit higher annual adult survival and lower annual reproductive investment relative to co-distributed boreal species that migrate shorter distances to winter closer to their breeding grounds. Our study uses “vital rates” data on reproductive output and survivorship...

Supplement to: Sex and race differences in the risk of ischemic stroke associated with fasting blood glucose in REGARDS

Tracy Madsen, D. Leann Long, April P. Carson, George Howard, Dawn O. Kleindorfer, Karen L. Furie, JoAnn E. Manson, Simin Liu & Virginia J. Howard
Background: To investigate sex and race differences in the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and risk of ischemic stroke (IS). Methods: This prospective longitudinal cohort study included adults age ≥45 years at baseline in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study, followed for a median of 11.4 years. The exposure was baseline FBG (mg/dL); suspected IS events were ascertained by phone every 6 months and were physician-adjudicated. Cox proportional hazards were...

Is the Discretionary Income Effect of Oil Price Shocks a Hoax?

Christiane Baumeister, Lutz Kilian & Xiaoqing Zhou
The transmission of oil price shocks has been a question of central interest in macroeconomics since the 1970s. There has been renewed interest in this question after the large and persistent fall in the real price of oil in 2014–16. In the context of this debate, Ramey (2017) makes the striking claim that the existing literature on the transmission of oil price shocks is fundamentally confused about the question of how to quantify the effect...

Genotypic variation in an ecologically important parasite is associated with host species, lake, and spore size

Clara Shaw, Rebecca Bilich, Bruce O'Brien, Carla Cáceres, Spencer Hall, Timothy James & Meghan Duffy
Genetic variation in parasites has important consequences for host-parasite interactions. Prior studies of the ecologically important parasite Metschnikowia bicuspidata have suggested low genetic variation in the species. Here, we collected M. bicuspidata from two host species (Daphnia dentifera and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and two regions (Michigan and Indiana, USA). Within a lake, outbreaks tended to occur in one host species but not the other. Using microsatellite markers, we identified six parasite genotypes grouped within three distinct...

Data for Concordance-based approaches in phylogenomics

Joseph Walker, Stephen Smith, Edwige Moyroud & Richard Hodel
Gene tree conflict is common and finding methods to analyze and alleviate the negative effects that conflict has on species tree analysis is a crucial part of phylogenomics. This study aims to expand the discussion of inferring species trees and molecular branch lengths when conflict is present. Conflict is typically examined in two ways: inferring its prevalence, and inferring the influence of the individual genes (how strongly one gene supports any given topology compared to...

Individual recognition and individual identity signals in Polistes fuscatus wasps vary geographically

Elizabeth Tibbetts, Michelle Fearon, Meagan Simons, L. Lacey Knowles, Christian Cely Ortiz & Giorgia Auteri
Geographic variation in animal phenotypes is common, yet we know surprisingly little about how communication varies across populations. Instead, most communication research focuses on one or a few populations and assumes recognition behavior is consistent across a species’ range. Here, we show that individual identity signals and individual recognition vary across the geographic range of Polistes fuscatus wasps. P. fuscatus in MI and NY have variable facial patterns that signal individual identity and are used...

Works and Days as a Transittional Text

Ruth Scodel

Living in the concrete jungle: carnivore spatial ecology in urban parks

Siria Gámez & Nyeema C. Harris
People and wildlife are living in an increasingly urban world, replete with unprecedented human densities, sprawling built environments, and altered landscapes. Such anthropogenic pressures can affect multiple processes within an ecological community, from spatial patterns to interspecific interactions. We tested two competing hypotheses, human shields versus human competitors, to characterize how humans affect the carnivore community using multi-species occupancy models. From 2017-2020, we conducted the first camera survey of city parks in Detroit, Michigan, and...

Comparison of adult census size and effective population size support the need for continued protection of two Solomon Island endemics

Sarah A. Cowles, Brian C. Weeks, Lindsey Perrin, Nancy Chen & J. Albert C. Uy
Because a population’s ability to respond to rapid change is dictated by standing genetic variation, we can better predict a population’s long-term viability by estimating and then comparing adult census size (N) and effective population size (Ne). However, most studies only measure N or Ne, which can be misleading. Using a combination of field and genomic sequence data, we here estimate and compare N and Ne in two range-restricted endemics of the Solomon Islands. Two...

Too Many Cooks Spoil the Broth: Toward a Theory for How the Tragedy of the Anticommons Emerges in Organizations

Matthew McCarter, Shirli Kopelman, Thomas Turk & Candace Ybarra

Data from: New forms of structure in ecosystems revealed with the Kuramoto model

John Vandermeer
This is the general Mathematica code for the article, "New forms of structure in ecosystems revealed with the Kuramoto model" by Vandermeer, Hajian-Forooshani, Medina and Perfecto. All results presented in the article can be obtained by running the code with appropriate parameter settings.

Habitat structure mediates vulnerability to climate change through its effects on thermoregulatory behavior

Lauren Neel, Michael Logan, Daniel Nicholson, Christina Miller, Albert Chung, Inbar Maayan, Zach Degon, Madeline DuBois, John David Curlis, Q Taylor, Kaitlin Keegan, Owen McMillan, Jonathan Losos & Christian Cox
Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are thermal specialists, having evolved in aseasonal thermal environments. However, even within the tropics, habitat structure can influence opportunities for behavioral thermoregulation. Open (and edge) habitats likely promote more effective thermoregulation due to the high spatial heterogeneity of the thermal landscape, while forests are thermally homogenous and may constrain opportunities for behavioral buffering of environmental temperatures. Nevertheless, the ways in which behavior...

Tuiteamos o pongamos un tuit? Investigating the Social Constraints of Loanword Integration in Spanish Social Media

Ian Stewart, Diyi Yang & Jacob Eisenstein

Real-Time Forecasts of the Real Price of Oil

Christiane Baumeister & Lutz Kilian
We construct a monthly real-time data set consisting of vintages for 1991.1-2010.12 that is suitable for generating forecasts of the real price of oil from a variety of models. We document that revisions of the data typically represent news, and we introduce backcasting and nowcasting techniques to fill gaps in the real-time data. We show that real-time forecasts of the real price of oil can be more accurate than the no-change forecast at horizons up...

Behavioural plasticity in a native species is related to foraging resilience in the presence of an aggressive invader

Marian Wong, Melinda Keiller, Laura Lopez & Kai Paijmans
Competition between invasive and native species can result in exploitation of resources by the invader, reducing foraging rates of natives. However, it is increasingly recognised that multiple factors can enhance the resilience of native species competing for limiting resources with invaders. Although extensively studied in terrestrial species, little research has focused on behavioural plasticity in the aquatic realm and how this influences native species resilience. Here we examined the role of behavioural plasticity in interactions...

Phylogenetic conflicts, combinability, and deep phylogenomics in plants

Stephen Smith, Joseph Walker, Joseph Brown & Nathanael Hale
Studies have demonstrated that pervasive gene tree conflict underlies several important phylogenetic relationships where different species tree methods produce conflicting results. Here, we present a means of dissecting the phylogenetic signal for alternative resolutions within a dataset in order to resolve recalcitrant relationships and, importantly, identify what the dataset is unable to resolve. These procedures extend upon methods for isolating conflict and concordance involving specific candidate relationships and can be used to identify systematic error...

Density, parasitism, and sexual reproduction are strongly correlated in lake Daphnia populations

Meghan A. Duffy, Camden D. Gowler, Mary A. Rogalski, Clara L. Shaw & Katherine K. Hunsberger
Many organisms can reproduce both asexually and sexually. For cyclical parthenogens, periods of asexual reproduction are punctuated by bouts of sexual reproduction, and the shift from asexual to sexual reproduction has large impacts on fitness and population dynamics. We studied populations of Daphnia dentifera to determine the amount of investment in sexual reproduction as well as the factors associated with variation in investment in sex. To do so, we tracked host density, infections by nine...

Detection histories for Lycalopex griseus, Lycalopex culpaeus, Leopardus guigna, and Canis familiaris and habitat destruction covariate data for Los Lagos Chile (2019)

Rumaan Malhotra, Jaime Jiménez & Nyeema Harris
In an increasingly anthropogenic world, species face multiple interacting threats. Habitat fragmentation and domestic dogs are two perturbations threatening terrestrial mammals globally. Our aim was to determine if (1) the spatial use of domestic dogs increases with habitat destruction and (2) whether domestic dogs and habitat destruction drive the spatial use of native carnivores in a heavily degraded agricultural landscape in the central valley/Andean foothills transition of Los Lagos, Chile. We implemented a camera trap...

Rare missense functional variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage

Jaeyoon Chung, Graham Hamilton, Minsup Kim, Sandro Marini, Bailey Montgomery, Jonathan Henry, Art Cho, Devin Brown, Bradford Worrall, James Meschia, Scott Silliman, Magdy Selim, David Tirschwell, Chelsea Kidwell, Brett Kissela, Steven Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan, Joshua Goldstein, Carl Langefeld, Kristiina Rannikmae, Catherine Sudlow, Neshika Samarasekera, Mark Rodrigues, Rustam Salman, James Prendergast … & Christopher Anderson
Objective To test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH. Methods We performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,300 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed...

Inbreeding depression in artificial selection lines of Ipomoea purpurea

Megan Van Etten, Anah Soble & Regina Baucom
Inbreeding depression is a central parameter underlying mating system variation in nature and one that can be altered by environmental stress. Although a variety of systems show that inbreeding depression tends to increase under stressful conditions, we have very little understanding across most organisms how the level of inbreeding depression may change as a result of adaptation to stressors. In this work we examined the potential that inbreeding depression varied among lineages of Ipomoea purpurea...

Balancing selection and drift in a polymorphic salamander metapopulation

Sean Giery, Marketa Zimova, Dana Drake & Mark Urban
Understanding how genetic variation is maintained in a metapopulation is a longstanding problem in evolutionary biology. Historical resurveys of polymorphisms have offered efficient insights about evolutionary mechanisms, but are often conducted on single, large populations, neglecting the more comprehensive view afforded by considering all populations in a metapopulation. Here, we resurveyed a metapopulation of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to understand the evolutionary drivers of frequency variation in an egg mass colour polymorphism. We found that...

Stage-structured ontogeny in resource populations generates non-additive stabilizing and de-stabilizing forces in populations and communities

Paul Glaum & John Vandermeer
Demographic heterogeneity influences how populations respond to density dependent intraspecific competition and trophic interactions. Distinct stages across an organism’s development, or ontogeny, are an important example of demographic heterogeneity. In consumer populations, ontogenetic stage structure has been shown to produce categorical differences in population dynamics, community dynamics, and even species coexistence compared to models lacking explicit ontogeny. The study of consumer-resource interactions must also consider the ontogenetic stage structure of the resource itself, particularly plants,...

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