47 Works

Hemotological and morphometric measurements from geladas

Kenneth L. Chiou, Mareike C. Janiak, India A. Schneider-Crease, Sharmi Sen, Ferehiwot Ayele, Idrissa S. Chuma, Sascha Knauf, Alemayehu Lemma, Anthony V. Signore, Anthony M. D’Ippolito, Belayneh Abebe, Abebaw Azanaw Haile, Fanuel Kebede, Peter J. Fashing, Nga Nguyen, Colleen McCann, Marlys L. Houck, Jeffrey D. Wall, Andrew S. Burrell, Christina M. Bergey, Jeffrey Rogers, Jane E. Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J. Jolly, Amanda D. Melin, Jay F. Storz … & Noah Snyder-Mackler
Primates have adapted to numerous environments and lifestyles but very few species are native to high elevations. Here, we investigated high-altitude adaptations in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey endemic to the Ethiopian Plateau. We examined genome-wide variation in conjunction with measurements of haematological and morphological traits. Our new gelada reference genome is highly intact and assembled at chromosome-length levels. Unexpectedly, we identified a chromosomal polymorphism in geladas that could potentially contribute to reproductive barriers...

Morphological adaptations linked to flight efficiency and aerial lifestyle determine natal dispersal distance in birds

Brian Weeks, Bruce OBrien, Jonathan Chu, Santiago Claramunt, Catherine Sheard & Joseph Tobias
Natal dispersal—the movement from birthplace to breeding location—is often considered the most significant dispersal event in an animal’s lifetime. Natal dispersal distances may be shaped by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and remain poorly quantified in most groups, highlighting the need for indices that capture variation in dispersal among species. In birds, it is hypothesized that dispersal distance can be predicted by flight efficiency, which can be estimated using wing morphology. However, the...

A Permian fish reveals widespread distribution of neopterygian-like jaw suspension

Thodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles & Matt Friedmann
The actinopterygian crown group (comprising all living ray-finned fishes) originated by the end of the Carboniferous. However, most late Paleozoic taxa are stem actinopterygians, and broadly resemble stratigraphically older taxa. The early Permian †Brachydegma caelatum is notable for its three-dimensional preservation and past phylogenetic interpretations as a nested member of the neopterygian crown. Here, we use computed microtomography to redescribe †Brachydegma, uncovering an unanticipated combination of primitive (e.g., aortic canal; immobile maxilla) and derived (e.g.,...

Scan files, 3D reconstructions, data spreadsheet and supplementary files for Heterochrony and parallel evolution of echinoderm, hemichordate and cephalochordate internal bars

Nidia Álvarez Armada, Christopher Cameron, Jennifer Bauer & Imran Rahman
Deuterostomes comprise three phyla with radically different body plans. Phylogenetic bracketing of the living deuterostome clades suggests the latest common ancestor of echinoderms, hemichordates and chordates was a bilaterally symmetrical worm with pharyngeal openings, with these characters lost in echinoderms. Early fossil echinoderms with pharyngeal openings have been described, but their interpretation is highly controversial. Here, we critically evaluate the evidence for pharyngeal structures (gill bars) in the extinct stylophoran echinoderms Lagynocystis pyramidalis and Jaekelocarpus...

Predator-based selection and the impact of edge sympatry on components of coral snake mimicry

Lauren Wilson, George Lonsdale, John David Curlis, Elizabeth Hunter & Christian L. Cox
Mimicry is a vivid example of how predator-driven selection can impact phenotypic diversity, which itself can be influenced by the presence (sympatry) or absence (allopatry) of a dangerous model. However, the impact of sympatry and allopatry on predation on mimicry systems at fine spatial scales (e.g., edge sympatry, allopatry) is not well understood. We used a clay model study in a montane tropical site in Honduras to test the impact of edge sympatry on 1)...

Synaptic mechanisms of top-down control in the non-lemniscal inferior colliculus

Hannah Oberle, Alexander Ford, Deepak Dileepkumar, Jordyn Czarny & Pierre Apostolides
Corticofugal projections to evolutionarily ancient, sub-cortical structures are ubiquitous across mammalian sensory systems. These “descending” pathways enable the neocortex to control ascending sensory representations in a predictive or feedback manner, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we combine optogenetic approaches with in vivo and in vitro patch-clamp electrophysiology to study the projection from mouse auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus (IC), a major descending auditory pathway that controls IC neuron feature selectivity,...

Histological and life history data for small-bodied mammals from: Multituberculate mammals show evidence of a life history strategy similar to that of placentals, not marsupials

Lucas Weaver, Henry Fulghum, David Grossnickle, William Brightly, Zoe Kulik, Gregory Wilson Mantilla & Megan Whitney
The remarkable evolutionary success of placental mammals has been partly attributed to their reproductive strategy of prolonged gestation and birthing of relatively precocial, quickly weaned neonates. Although this strategy was conventionally considered derived relative to that of marsupials with highly altricial neonates and long lactation periods, mounting evidence has challenged this view. Until now, the fossil record has been relatively silent on this debate, but here we find that proportions of different bone tissue microstructures...

Decay by ectomycorrhizal fungi couples soil organic matter to nitrogen availability

William A. Argiroff, Donald R. Zak, Peter T. Pellitier, Rima A. Upchurch & Julia P. Belke
Interactions between soil nitrogen (N) availability, fungal community composition, and soil organic matter (SOM) regulate soil carbon (C) dynamics in many forest ecosystems, but context dependency in these relationships has precluded general predictive theory. We found that ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi with peroxidases decreased with increasing inorganic N availability across a natural inorganic N gradient in northern temperate forests, whereas ligninolytic fungal saprotrophs exhibited no response. Lignin-derived SOM and soil C were negatively correlated with ECM...

Plasticity in female timing may explain earlier breeding in a North American songbird

Abigail Kimmitt, Daniel Becker, Sara Diller, Nicole Gerlach, Kimberly Rosvall & Ellen Ketterson
Many species have shifted their breeding phenology in response to climate change. Identifying the magnitude of phenological shifts and whether climate-mediated selection drives these shifts is key for determining species’ resilience to climate change. Birds are a strong model for studying phenological shifts due to numerous long-term research studies; however, generalities pertaining to drivers of phenological shifts will emerge only as we add study species that differ in life history and geography. We investigated 32...

Radical Humility Forum

Gretel Van Weiren, Todd Shaw, Beronda Montgomery, Nimot Ogunfemi, Morgan Shipley, Paulina Camacho Valencia, Rebekah Modrak, Jamie Vander Broek, Ruth Nicole Brown & Christian B. Miller

Data for: An aggressive non-consumptive effect mediates pest control and multi-predator interactions in a coffee agroecosystem

Jonathan Morris
Natural pest control is an alternative to pesticide use in agriculture, which may help to curb insect declines and promote crop production. Non-consumptive interactions in natural pest control, which historically have received far less attention than consumptive interactions, may have distinct impacts on pest damage suppression and may also mediate positive multi-predator interactions. Additionally, when non-consumptive effects are driven by natural enemy aggression, variation in alternative resources for enemies may impact the strength of pest...

Pollinator visitation to Na-enriched plants

Nathan Sanders & Carrie Finkelstein
Plants have evolved a variety of approaches to attract pollinators, including enriching their nectar with essential nutrients. Because sodium is an essential nutrient for pollinators, and sodium concentration in nectar can vary both within and among species, we explored whether experimentally enriching floral nectar with sodium in five plant species would influence pollinator visitation and diversity. We found that the number of visits by pollinators increased on plants with sodium-enriched nectar, regardless of plant species,...

Facemasks: Perceptions and use in an ED population during COVID-19

Vidya Eswaran, Anna Marie Chang, R Gentry Wilkerson, Kelli O'Laughlin, Brian Chinnock, Stephanie Eucker, Brigitte Baumann, Nancy Anaya, Daniel Miller, Adrianne Haggins, Jesus Torres, Erik Anderson, Stephen Lim, Martina Caldwell, Ali Raja & Robert Rodriguez
Study Objective: Facemask use is associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Most surveys assessing perceptions and practices of mask use miss the most vulnerable racial, ethnic, and socio-economic populations. These same populations have suffered disproportionate impacts from the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs, access, and practices of mask wearing across 15 urban emergency department (ED) populations. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of ED patients from...

Practical guide to using Kendall’s τ in the context of forecasting critical transitions

Amin Ghadami, Shiyang Chen & Bogdan I. Epureanu
Recent studies demonstrate that trends in indicators extracted from measured time series can indicate approaching to an impending transition. Kendall’s τ coefficient is often used to study the trend of statistics related to the critical slowing down phenomenon and other methods to forecast critical transitions. Because statistics are estimated from time series, the values of Kendall’sτare affected by parameters such as window size, sample rate and length of the time series, resulting in challenges and...

Data from: The evolution of cognitive control in lemurs

Alexandra Rosati, Francesca De Petrillo, Parvathy Nair & Averill Cantwell
Cognitive control, or executive function, is a key feature of human cognition, allowing individuals to plan, acquire new information, or adopt new strategies when the circumstances change. Yet it is unclear which factors promote the evolution of more sophisticated executive function abilities like those possessed by humans. Examining cognitive control in non-human primates, our closest relatives, can help to identify these evolutionary processes. Here we developed a novel battery to experimentally measure multiple aspects of...

Groundwork for Ground Works

Veronica Stanich
As early groundwork for Ground Works, a2ru invited submissions of interdisciplinary projects--especially those crossing science, engineering, art, and design--to its 2015 conference. Six of those projects were selected, presented, and given guided critique sessions that were meant to establish an understanding of the review of such projects. This process, and all six projects, played a seminal role in shaping the platform and helping to define the a2ru transdisciplinary space. keywords: Process, transdisciplinary, arts-integrative, science, engineering,...

TCCON data from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (US), 2007, Release GGG2020.R0

P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, Y. Yavin, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, N. T. Allen, G. Keppel-Aleks & C.M. Roehl
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers that record direct solar absorption spectra of the atmosphere in the near-infrared. From these spectra, accurate and precise column-averaged abundances of atmospheric constituents including CO2, CH4, N2O, HF, CO, H2O, and HDO, are retrieved. This is the GGG2020 data release of observations from the TCCON station at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA

Last Word on Reviewing “Choreografish” for Ground Works

Veronica Stanish
I’m the beginning and the end of the circle; I get the last word. I asked Lise, Sydney, and Eric to write about their experience with Ground Works review because I sensed that it had been so positive and gratifying; now, reading their abounding positive commentary, I squirm with both delight and chagrin. Delight, because Ground Works is so young, and so many risks have been taken but not all of them have proven fruitful...

Reviewing “Choreografish” for Ground Works

Veronica Stanich
When Ground Works Advisor Cheryl Ball suggested that peer review doesn’t need to be a solitary, purely evaluative process, we got excited about the possibility of a conversation among reviewers. Literally, a conversation--in real time, in which reviewers armed with a few preliminary opinions about the work get together and talk about it, preferably with cocktails. We imagined that they might even extend or expand the conversation to include the work’s creators, fostering a back-and-forth...

Impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on terrestrial leeches in

Swapna Nelaballi, Benjamin J. Finkel, Andrew B. Bernard, Gene R. Estrada, Endro Setiawan, Tatang Mitra Setia, Tri Wahyu Susanto, Raden Rhanda, Surya N/A, Jakaria N/A, Dika Andika, Sylvain Lemoine, Sarah M. Jaffe, Elizabeth J. Barrow, Živa Justinek, Heiko U. Wittmer & Andrew J. Marshall
Haemadipsid leeches are ubiquitous inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical forests in the Indo-Pacific region. They are increasingly used as indicator taxa for biomonitoring, yet very little is known about their basic ecology. For example, to date no study has assessed the occurrence and distribution of haemadipsid leeches across naturally occurring gradients within intact habitats. We analysed a long-term data set (2012-2020) on the closely related tiger (Haemadipsa picta) and brown (Haemadipsa spp.) leech species to...

MaxEnt Learners are biased Against Giving Probability to Harmonically Bounded Candidates

Charlie O'Hara

Financial Intermediaries and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from a High-Frequency Identification

Pablo Ottonello & Wenting Song
We provide empirical evidence of the causal effects of changes in financial intermediaries’ net worth on the aggregate economy. Our strategy identifies financial shocks as high-frequency changes in the market value of intermediaries’ net worth in a narrow window around their earnings announcements, based on US tick-by-tick data. Using these shocks, we estimate that news of a 1% decline in intermediaries’ net worth leads to a 0.2% to 0.4% decrease in the market value of...

Plant community impact on productivity: trait diversity or key(stone) species effects?

Philipp Brun, Cyrille Violle, David Mouillot, Nicolas Mouquet, Brian Enquist, François Munoz, Tamara Munkemuller, Annette Ostling, Niklaus Zimmermann & Wilfried Thuiller
Outside controlled experimental plots, the impact of community attributes on primary productivity has rarely been compared to that of individual species. Here, we identified plant species of high importance for productivity (key species) in >29,000 diverse grassland communities in the European Alps, and compared their effects with those of community-level measures of functional composition (weighted means, variances, skewness, and kurtosis). After accounting for the environment, the five most important key species jointly explained more deviance...

EcoPhyloMapper: an R package for integrating geographic ranges, phylogeny, and morphology

Pascal Title, Donald Swiderski & Miriam Zelditch
1. Spatial patterns of species richness, phylogenetic and morphological diversity are key to answering many questions in ecology and evolution. Across spatial scales, geographic and environmental features, as well as evolutionary history and phenotypic traits, are thought to play roles in shaping both local species communities and regional assemblages. By examining these geographic patterns, it is possible to infer how different axes of biodiversity influence one another, and how their interaction with abiotic factors has...

Little Appleton Pasteuria epidemic dataset

Meghan Duffy, Camden Gowler, Haley Essington, Bruce O'Brien, Clara Shaw, Rebecca Bilich & Patrick Clay
Virulence, the degree to which a pathogen harms its host, is an important but poorly understood aspect of host-pathogen interactions. However it is not a static trait, instead depending on ecological context and potentially evolving over short periods of time (e.g., during the course of an epidemic). At the start of an epidemic, when susceptible hosts are plentiful, pathogens may evolve increased virulence, maximizing their intrinsic growth rate. However, if host density declines during an...

Registration Year

  • 2022

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  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Duke University
  • University of Washington
  • Arizona State University
  • Yale University
  • University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (US)
  • Washington University in St. Louis
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (US)
  • University of Oklahoma