117 Works

Data from: Phylogenetic inference of reciprocal effects between geographic range evolution and diversification

Emma E. Goldberg, Lesley T. Lancaster & Richard H. Ree
Geographic characters---traits relating to the spatial distribution of a species---may both affect and be affected by processes associated with lineage birth and death. This is potentially confounding to comparative analyses of species distributions because current models do not allow reciprocal interactions between the evolution of traits and the growth of phylogenetic trees. Here we introduce a likelihood-based approach to estimating region-dependent rates of speciation, extinction, and range evolution from a phylogeny, using a new model...

Data from: The spatial structure of phylogenetic and functional diversity in the United States and Canada: an example using the sedge family (Cyperaceae)

Daniel Spalink, Jocelyn Pender, Marcial Escudero, Andrew L. Hipp, Eric H. Roalson, Julian R. Starr, Marcia J. Waterway, Lynn Bohs & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Systematically quantifying diversity across landscapes is necessary to understand how clade history and ecological heterogeneity contribute to the origin, distribution, and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we chart the spatial structure of diversity among all species in the sedge family (Cyperaceae) throughout the USA and Canada. We first identify areas of remarkable species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional trait diversity, and highlight regions of conservation priority. We then test predictions about the spatial structure of this...

Data from: Local endemism and within-island diversification of shrews illustrate the importance of speciation in building Sundaland mammal diversity

Terrence C. Demos, Anang S. Achmadi, Thomas C. Giarla, Heru Handika, , Kevin C. Rowe & Jacob A. Esselstyn
Island systems are important models for evolutionary biology because they provide convenient, discrete biogeographic units of study. Continental islands with a history of intermittent dry land connections confound the discrete definitions of islands and have led zoologists to predict (1) little differentiation of terrestrial organisms among continental shelf islands and (2) extinction, rather than speciation, to be the main cause of differences in community composition among islands. However, few continental island systems have been subjected...

Data from: Microevolutionary processes impact macroevolutionary patterns

Jingchun Li, Jen-Pen Huang, Jeet Sukumaran & L Lacey Knowles
Background: Macroevolutionary modeling of species diversification plays important roles in inferring large-scale biodiversity patterns. It allows estimation of speciation and extinction rates and statistically testing their relationships with different ecological factors. However, macroevolutionary patterns are ultimately generated by microevolutionary processes acting at population levels, especially when speciation and extinction are considered protracted instead of point events. Neglecting the connection between micro- and macroevolution may hinder our ability to fully understand the underlying mechanisms that drive...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales: Jungermanniopsida), including two reinstated and five new species

Matt A. M. Renner, Nicolas Devos, Jairo Patiño, Elizabeth A. Brown, Andrew Orme, Michael Elgy, Trevor Wilson, Lindsey J. Gray, Matt J. Von Konrat, Lindsey Gray, Matt Renner, Elizabeth Brown & Matt Von Konrat
Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph....

Data from: Analysis of inbreeding depression in mixed-mating plants provides evidence for selective interference and stable mixed mating

Alice A Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Susan Kalisz, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G Eckert, Carol Goodwillie, Mark O. Johnston, David A Moeller, Richard H Ree, Risa D Sargent & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Hermaphroditic individuals can produce both selfed and outcrossed progeny, termed mixed mating. General theory predicts that mixed-mating populations should evolve quickly toward high rates of selfing, driven by rapid purging of genetic load and loss of inbreeding depression (ID), but the substantial number of mixed-mating species observed in nature calls this prediction into question. Greater average ID reported for selfing than for outcrossing populations is consistent with purging and suggests that mixed-mating taxa in evolutionary...

Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priors

Rachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Multiple lines of evidence indicate ongoing allopatric and parapatric diversification in an Afromontane sunbird (Cinnyris reichenowi)

Jacob C. Cooper, J. Dylan Maddox, Kellie McKague & John M. Bates
Africa’s montane ecosystems are noteworthy not only for their isolation, but for their morphologically similar bird populations that inhabit geographically disparate localities. Many species possess range disjunctions in excess of 2,000 km and appear to represent populations that have been isolated since at least the last Ice Age, including the Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris reichenowi). Recent work on other Afromontane birds has demonstrated substantial phylogeographic structure can exist in phenotypically similar populations, with cryptic species...

Data from: Checkerboard score-area relationships reveal spatial scales of plant community structure

Gordon G. McNickle, Eric G. Lamb, Mike Lavender, , Brandon S. Schamp, Steven D. Siciliano, Richard Condit, Stephen P. Hubbell, Jennifer L. Baltzer & James F Cahill
Identifying the spatial scale at which particular mechanisms influence plant community assembly is crucial to understanding the mechanisms structuring communities. It has long been recognized that many elements of community structure are sensitive to area; however the majority of studies examining patterns of community structure use a single relatively small sampling area. As different assembly mechanisms likely cause patterns at different scales we investigate how plant species co-occurrence patterns change with sampling unit scale. We...

Data from: Defaunation increases the spatial clustering of lowland Western Amazonian tree communities

Robert Bagchi, Varun Swamy, Jean-Paul Latorre Farfan, John Terborgh, César I. A. Vela, Nigel C. A. Pitman & Washington Galiano Sanchez
1.Declines of large vertebrates in tropical forests may reduce dispersal of tree species that rely on them, and the resulting undispersed seedlings might suffer increased distance- and density- dependent mortality. Consequently, extirpation of large vertebrates may alter the composition and spatial structure of plant communities and impair ecosystem functions like carbon storage. 2.We analysed spatial patterns of tree recruitment within six forest plots along a defaunation gradient in western Amazonia. We divided recruits into two...

Data from: The cranial morphology, phylogenetic position and biogeography of the upper Permian dicynodont Compsodon helmoedi van Hoepen (Therapsida, Anomodontia)

Kenneth D. Angielczyk & Christian F. Kammerer
Compsodon helmoedi is an obscure dicynodont originally described based on a single specimen from the upper Permian of the Karoo Basin. The discovery of three new specimens of Compsodon from the Luangwa Basin of Zambia and two additional specimens from South African museum collections facilitates a reassessment of its cranial morphology and phylogenetic position. Compsodon is diagnosed by an autapomorphic secondary palate morphology: medial depression at anterior end of premaxillary secondary palate; medial anterior palatal...

Data from: Nocturnality in Synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years

Kenneth D. Angielczyk & Lars Schmitz
Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal...

Data from: New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies

F. Keith Barker, Kevin J. Burns, John Klicka, Scott M. Lanyon & Irby J. Lovette
Understanding the biogeographic origins and temporal sequencing of groups within a region or of lineages within an ecosystem can yield important insights into evolutionary dynamics and ecological processes. Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr generated comprehensive—if limited—inferences about the origins of the New World avifaunas, including the importance of pre-Isthmian dispersal between North and South America. Since then, methodological advances have improved our ability to address many of the same questions, but the phylogenies upon which...

Data from: Complete genome sequences provide a case study for the evaluation of gene-tree thinking

Rebecca B. Dikow & William Leo Smith
Complete genome sequences from a genus of Gammaproteobacteria, Shewanella, are used to generate a genome-wide exploration of the gene-tree species-tree dichotomy. A number of datasets were constructed and analyses were attempted. Single genes were chosen from 243 regions of collinear gene homology (128 of these 243 chosen genes are from the core Shewanella genome and 162 of 243 have the complete taxon sampling) from a previous study (Dikow, 2011) and subjected to phylogenetic analysis both...

Fossil-informed models reveal a Boreotropical origin and divergent evolutionary trajectories in the walnut family (Juglandaceae)

Qiuyue Zhang, Richard Ree, Nicolas Salamin, Yaowu Xing & Daniele Silvestro
Temperate woody plants in the Northern Hemisphere have long been known to exhibit high species richness in East Asia and North America and significantly lower diversity in Europe, but the causes of this pattern remain debated. Here, we quantify the roles of dispersal, niche evolution, and extinction in shaping the geographic diversity of the temperate woody plant family Juglandaceae (walnuts and their relatives). Integrating evidence from molecular, morphological, fossil, and (paleo)environmental data, we find strong...

Data from: Montane regions shape patterns of diversification in small mammals and reptiles from Madagascar’s moist evergreen forest

Kathryn Everson, Sharon Jansa, Steven Goodman & Link Olson
Aim Madagascar is renowned for its exceptional species diversity and endemism. The island’s mountainous regions are thought to have played a role in lineage and species diversification, but this has yet to be explored across taxonomic groups and a temporal context has not yet been identified. We tested whether montane regions have promoted population divergence in Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna and, if so, whether these divergence events were contemporaneous. Location Moist evergreen forests of Madagascar. Taxa...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Speciation and gene flow in two sympatric small mammals from Madagascar, Microgale fotsifotsy and M. soricoides (Mammalia: Tenrecidae)

Kathryn M Everson, Link E Olson & Steven M Goodman
Madagascar’s shrew tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae: Microgale, Nesogale) form an excellent system for studying speciation. Most species are endemic to the island’s eastern moist evergreen forest, a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity and a high rate of in situ diversification. We set out to understand the speciation dynamics in a clade of recently described taxa: Microgale fotsifotsy and M. soricoides, which have nearly identical distributions in the moist evergreen forest, and M. nasoloi, which...

Shedding light: a phylotranscriptomic perspective illuminates the origin of photosymbiosis in marine bivalves

Jingchun Li, Sarah Lemer, Lisa Kirkendale, Rudiger Bieler, Colleen Cavanaugh & Gonzalo Giribet
Background: Photosymbiotic associations between metazoan hosts and photosynthetic dinoflagellates are crucial to the trophic and structural integrity of many marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Although extensive efforts have been devoted to study the short-term ecological interactions between coral hosts and their symbionts, long-term evolutionary dynamics of photosymbiosis in many marine animals are not well understood. Within Bivalvia, the second largest class of mollusks, obligate photosymbiosis is found in two marine lineages: the giant clams (subfamily...

Data from: Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae)

Charlene McCord, Mark W. Westneat & Charlene L. McCord
The robust skull and highly subdivided adductor mandibulae muscles of triggerfishes provide an excellent system within which to analyze the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. We surveyed the anatomical diversity of balistid jaws using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses and a phylomorphospace approach to quantifying morphological transformation through evolution. We hypothesized that metrics of interspecific cranial shape would reveal patterns of phylogenetic diversification that are congruent with functional and ecological transformation. Morphological landmarks outlining skull and...

Data from: Defensive traits exhibit an evolutionary trade-off and drive diversification in ants

Benjamin D. Blanchard & Corrie S. Moreau
Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off. In particular, the use...

Data from: Early and dynamic colonization of Central America drives speciation in Neotropical army ants

Max E. Winston, Daniel J. C. Kronauer & Corrie S. Moreau
The emergence of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the most important events in recent geological history, yet its timing and role in fundamental evolutionary processes remain controversial. While the formation of the isthmus was complete around 3 million years ago (Ma), recent studies have suggested prior intercontinental biotic exchange. In particular, the possibility of early intermittent land bridges facilitating colonization constitutes a potential mechanism for speciation and colonization before full closure of the...

Data from: Serological evidence of lyssaviruses among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean islands

Julien Mélade, Stewart McCulloch, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Magali Turpin, Hervé Pascalis, Steven M. Goodman, Wanda Markotter & Koussay Dellagi
We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II,...

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  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Chicago
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  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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  • Cornell University
  • University of Montana