13 Works

Data from: Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae)

Charlene McCord, Mark W. Westneat & Charlene L. McCord
The robust skull and highly subdivided adductor mandibulae muscles of triggerfishes provide an excellent system within which to analyze the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. We surveyed the anatomical diversity of balistid jaws using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses and a phylomorphospace approach to quantifying morphological transformation through evolution. We hypothesized that metrics of interspecific cranial shape would reveal patterns of phylogenetic diversification that are congruent with functional and ecological transformation. Morphological landmarks outlining skull and...

Data from: A quantitative genetic approach to assess the evolutionary potential of a coastal marine fish to ocean acidification

Alex J. Malvezzi, Christopher S. Murray, Kevin A. Feldheim, Joseph D. DiBattista, Dany Garant, Christopher J. Gobler, Demian D. Chapman & Hannes Baumann
Assessing the potential of marine organisms to adapt genetically to increasing oceanic CO2 levels requires proxies such as heritability of fitness-related traits under ocean acidification (OA). We applied a quantitative genetic method to derive the first heritability estimate of survival under elevated CO2 conditions in a metazoan. Specifically, we reared offspring, selected from a wild coastal fish population (Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia), at high CO2 conditions (~2,300 μatm) from fertilization to 15 days post hatch,...

Data from: Energetic benefits and adaptations in mammalian limbs: scale effects and selective pressures

Brandon M. Kilbourne & Louwrens C. Hoffman
Differences in limb size and shape are fundamental to mammalian morphological diversity; however, their relevance to locomotor costs has long been subject to debate. In particular, it remains unknown if scale effects in whole limb morphology could partially underlie decreasing mass-specific locomotor costs with increasing limb length. Whole fore- and hindlimb inertial properties reflecting limb size and shape – moment of inertia (MOI), mass, mass distribution, and natural frequency – were regressed against limb length...

Data from: Genetic diversity of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, in the northwest Atlantic and southern Africa

Shannon J. O'Leary, Kevin A. Feldheim, Andrew T. Fields, Lisa J. Natanson, Sabine Wintner, Nigel Hussey, Mahmood S. Shivji & Demian D. Chapman
The white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, is both one of the largest apex predators in the world and among the most heavily protected marine fish. Population genetic diversity is in part shaped by recent demographic history and can thus provide information complementary to more traditional population assessments, which are difficult to obtain for white sharks and have at times been controversial. Here, we use the mitochondrial control region and 14 nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci to assess white...

Data from: Facultative parthenogenesis in a critically endangered wild vertebrate

Andrew T. Fields, Kevin A. Feldheim, Gregg R. Poulakis & Demian D. Chapman
Facultative parthenogenesis — the ability of sexually reproducing species to sometimes produce offspring asexually — is known from a wide range of ordinarily sexually reproducing vertebrates in captivity, including some birds, reptiles and sharks 1, 2 and 3. Despite this, free-living parthenogens have never been observed in any of these taxa in the wild, although two free-living snakes were recently discovered each gestating a single parthenogen — one copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and one cottonmouth (Agkistrodon...

Data from: Population structure and dispersal of the coral excavating sponge Cliona delitrix

Andia Chaves-Fonnegra, Kevin Feldheim, Jesse Secord, Jose V. Lopez & Kevin A. Feldheim
Some excavating sponges of the genus Cliona compete with live reef corals, often killing and bioeroding entire colonies. Important aspects affecting distribution of these species, such as dispersal capability and population structure, remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine levels of genetic connectivity and dispersal of Cliona delitrix across the Greater Caribbean (Caribbean Sea, Bahamas and Florida), to understand current patterns and possible future trends in their distribution and effects...

Data from: Inferring speciation history in the Andes with reduced-representation sequence data: an example in the bay-backed antpittas (Aves; Grallariidae; Grallaria hypoleuca s. l.)

Benjamin M. Winger, Peter A. Hosner, Gustavo A. Bravo, Andrés M. Cuervo, Natalia Aristizábal, Luis E. Cueto & John M. Bates
In the Andes, humid-forest organisms frequently exhibit pronounced genetic structure and geographic variation in phenotype, often coincident with physical barriers to dispersal. However, phylogenetic relationships of clades have often been difficult to resolve due to short internodes. Consequently, even in taxa with well-defined genetic structure, the temporal and geographic sequences of dispersal and vicariance events that led to this differentiation have remained opaque, hindering efforts to test the association between diversification and earth history and...

Data from: Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae

Steven D. Leavitt, Ekaphan Kraichak, Matthew P. Nelsen, Susanne Altermann, Pradeep K. Divakar, David Alors, Theodore L. Esslinger, Ana Crespo, H. Thorsten Lumbsch & Thorsten Lumbsch
Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions...

Data from: Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

Garima Singh, Francesco Dal Grande, Pradeep K. Divakar, Jürgen Otte, Steven D. Leavitt, Katarzyna Szczepanska, Ana Crespo, Víctor J. Rico, André Aptroot, Marcela Eugenia Da Silva Cáceres, H. Thorsten Lumbsch & Imke Schmitt
Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the...

Data from: Exceptional avian herbivores: multiple transitions toward herbivory in the bird order Anseriformes and its correlation with body mass

Aaron M. Olsen
Herbivory is rare among birds and is usually thought to have evolved predominately among large, flightless birds due to energetic constraints or an association with increased body mass. Nearly all members of the bird order Anseriformes, which includes ducks, geese, and swans, are flighted and many are predominately herbivorous. However, it is unknown whether herbivory represents a derived state for the order and how many times a predominately herbivorous diet may have evolved. Compiling data...

Data from: Phylogeny and biogeography of the American live oaks (Quercus subsection Virentes): a genomic and population genetics approach

Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Deren A. R. Eaton, Andrew A. L. Hipp, Anne Beulke & Paul S. Manos
The nature and timing of evolution of niche differentiation among closely related species remains an important question in ecology and evolution. The American live oak clade, Virentes, which spans the unglaciated temperate and tropical regions of North America and Mesoamerica, provides an instructive system in which to examine speciation and niche evolution. We generated a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Virentes using RADseq data to estimate divergence times and used nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast sequences and an intron...

Data from: Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

Cody E. Hinchliff, Stephen A. Smith, James F. Allman, J. Gordon Burleigh, Ruchi Chaudhary, Lyndon M. Coghill, Keith A. Crandall, Jiabin Deng, Bryan T. Drew, Romina Gazis, Karl Gude, David S. Hibbett, Laura A. Katz, , Emily Jane McTavish, Peter E. Midford, Christopher L. Owen, Richard H. Ree, Jonathan A. Rees, Douglas E. Soltis, Tiffani Williams & Karen Ann Cranston
Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Chicago
  • University of Florida
  • Stony Brook University
  • University of Kansas
  • Stanford University
  • Duke University
  • Nova Southeastern University
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst