40 Works

Data from: Palaeobiogeography of the north pacific toothed mysticetes (Cetacea, Aetiocetidae): a key to Oligocene cetacean distributional patterns

Atzcalli Ehécatl Hernández Cisneros & Jorge Velez Juarbe
Biogeographical distributional patterns of cetaceans reflect dispersal events and colonization of the oceans from their ancestral area in the ancient Sea of Tethys ~53 Ma. Likewise, they shows several vicariance events throughout the evolutionary history of this group. However, our understanding of how these processes took place and what biogeographical scenarios occurred among the different groups of cetaceans through time, is limited. Consequently, this work focuses on explaining the distributional patterns of the well-known North...

Data from: Nasal compartmentalization in Kogiidae (Cetacea, Physeteroidea): Insights from a new late Miocene dwarf sperm whale from the Pisco Formation

Aldo Benites-Palomino, Jorge Velez-Juarbe, Alberto Collareta, Diana Ochoa, Ali Altamirano, Matthieu Carré, Manuel J. Laime, Mario Urbina & Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi
Facial compartmentalization in the skull of extant pygmy whales (Kogiidae) is a unique feature among cetaceans that allows the housing of a wide array of organs responsible for echolocation. Recent fossil findings depict a remarkable disparity of the facial bone organization in Miocene kogiids, but the significance of such a rearrangement for the evolution of the clade has been barely explored. Here we describe Kogia danomurai sp. nov., a late Miocene (ca. 5.8 Ma) taxon...

Histological dataset for: Osteohistological analyses reveal diverse strategies of theropod dinosaur body-size macroevolution

Thomas Cullen, Juan Canale, Sebastián Apesteguía, Nathan Smith, Dongyu Hu & Peter Makovicky
The independent evolution of gigantism among dinosaurs has been a topic of longstanding interest, but it remains unclear if gigantic theropods, the largest bipeds in the fossil record, all achieved massive sizes in the same manner, or through different strategies. We perform multi-element histological analyses on a phylogenetically broad dataset sampled from eight theropod families, with a focus on gigantic tyrannosaurids and carcharodontosaurids, to reconstruct the growth strategies of these lineages and test if particular...

Data from: Preservation-induced morphological change in salamanders and failed DNA extraction from a decades-old museum specimen: implications for Plethodon ainsworthi

Todd Pierson, Troy Kieran, Adam Clause & Nikole Castleberry
Natural history collections are important data repositories, but different chemical treatments of specimens can influence morphological measurements and DNA extraction, complicating taxonomic and conservation decisions dependent upon these data. One such example is the Bay Springs Salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi), the only United States amphibian categorized as Extinct by the IUCN. Recent research has proposed that P. ainsworthi is an invalid taxon, arguing that the 55-year-old type specimens’ morphological distinctiveness from syntopic P. mississippi is a...

Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina

Simon A.F. Darroch, Imran A. Rahman, Brandt Gibson, Rachel A. Racicot, Marc Laflamme & Simon A. F. Darroch
Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyze water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject...

Coexistence within an endangered predator–prey community in California vernal pools

Arianne F. Messerman, Adam G. Clause, Shantel V. L. Catania, H. Bradley Shaffer & Christopher A. Searcy
1. Globally endangered ecosystems, like ephemeral wetlands, are often critical habitat for multiple interacting imperiled species. To conserve this biodiversity, managers must consider both species-specific resource requirements and mechanisms for endangered species coexistence under variable habitat conditions. 2. We examined communities native to California playa pools, ephemeral wetlands that have declined by >90% from their historic extent. Specifically, we describe the diet of a federally Threatened amphibian (Ambystoma californiense), and characterize interactions between this amphibian...

Speciation rates are positively correlated with the rate of plumage color evolution in hummingbirds

Diego F. Beltrán, Allison J. Shultz & Juan Luis Parra
A fascinating pattern in nature is the uneven distribution of biodiversity among clades, some with low species richness and phenotypic variation in contrast to others with remarkable species richness and phenotypic diversity. In animals, communication signals are crucial for intra- and interspecific interactions, and are likely an important factor in speciation. However, evidence for the association between the evolution of such signals and speciation is mixed. In hummingbirds, plumage coloration is an important communication signal,...

Data from: Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones

James P. Dines, Erik Otárola-Castillo, Peter Ralph, Jesse Alas, Timothy Daley, Andrew D. Smith & Matthew D. Dean
Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis which seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here we create a novel morphometric pipeline...

Data from: Revision of the New World species of the millipede-parasitic genus Myriophora Brown (Diptera: Phoridae)

John M. Hash & Brian V. Brown
The New World species of the millipede-parasitic genus Myriophora Brown are revised. Sixty-five species based on the female sex are treated, mostly from the Neotropical Region. Of these, fifty-seven are new to science: Myriophora alexandrae sp. nov., Myriophora alienipennis sp. nov., Myriophora angustifascia sp. nov., Myriophora annetteae sp. nov., Myriophora annulata sp. nov., Myriophora bicuspidis sp. nov., Myriophora bilsae sp. nov., Myriophora bimaculata sp. nov., Myriophora borealis sp. nov., Myriophora brevitarsus sp. nov., Myriophora browni...

Data from: A tradeoff between precopulatory and postcopulatory trait investment in male cetaceans

James P. Dines, Sarah L. Mesnick, Katherine Ralls, Laura J. May Collado, Ingi Agnarsson, Matthew D. Dean & Laura May-Collado
Mating with multiple partners is common across species, and understanding how individual males secure fertilization in the face of competition remains a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Game theory stipulates that males have a fixed budget for reproduction that can lead to a trade-off between investment in precopulatory traits like body size, armaments, and ornaments, and postcopulatory traits such as testis size and spermatogenic efficiency. Recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that if males...

Data from: Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds

Yoshan Moodley, Juan F. Masello, Gopi K. Munimanda, Theresa L. Cole, Marco R. Thali, Rachael Alderman, Richard J. Cuthbert, Manuel Marin, Melanie Massaro, Joan Navarro, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Cristián G. Suazo, Yves Cherel, Henri Weimerskirch, Petra Quillfeldt & Luciano Calderon
Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in...

Potential for powered flight neared by most close avialan relatives but few crossed its thresholds

Rui Pei, Michael Pittman, Pablo A. Goloboff, T. Alexander Dececchi, Michael B. Habib, Thomas G. Kaye, Hans C.E. Larsson, Mark A. Norell, Stephen L. Brusatte & Xing Xu
This dataset is the Supplementary Materials of the Pei, Pittman et al. (2020) study 'Potential for powered flight neared by most close avialan relatives but few crossed its thresholds' in Current Biology (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.105). In this study, a revised phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs was used to reconstruct their potential for powered flight. It found that powered flight potential evolved at least three times (once in birds and twice in dromaeosaurids) and that many ancestors of...

Data from: Sixteen in one: white-belted Megaselia Rondani (Diptera: Phoridae) from the New World challenge species concepts

Brian Brown
We review the species of Megaselia similar to M. sulphurizona Borgmeier. A close examination of M. sulphurizona indicates that its current concept includes at least 16 species, 15 of which- M. albizona, M. borealizona, M. colombizona, M. cryptizona, M. danizona, M. guanizona, M. marizona, M. nivizona, M. oklizona, M. paulizona, M. reductizona, M. solizona, M. tropizona, M. wendizona, and M. winnizona are described as new, based primarily on molecular data. The identity of the holotype...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part B

Zachary Gold, Adam R. Wall, Emily E. Curd, Ryan P. Kelly, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma, Paul H. Barber & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis Fugate, 1993 has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under federal laws and...

Data from: Quantifying the dark data in museum fossil collections as palaeontology undergoes a second digital revolution

Charles R. Marshall, Seth Finnegan, Erica C. Clites, Patricia A. Holroyd, Nicole Bonuso, Crystal Cortez, Edward Davis, Gregory P. Dietl, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Ron C. Eng, Christine Garcia, Kathryn Estes-Smargiassi, Austin Hendy, Kathy A. Hollis, Holly Little, Elizabeth A. Nesbitt, Peter Roopnarine, Leslie Skibinski, Jann Vendetti & Lisa D. White
Large-scale analysis of the fossil record requires aggregation of palaeontological data from individual fossil localities. Prior to computers these synoptic datasets were compiled by hand, a laborious undertaking that took years of effort and forced palaeontologists to make difficult choices about what types of data to tabulate. The advent of desktop computers ushered in palaeontology’s first digital revolution – online literature-based databases, such as the Paleobiology Database (PBDB). However, the published literature represents only a...

Identification of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) species using wing vein landmarking

Brian Brown & Maria Wong
A semi-automated identification system using wing venation is described for the large, taxonomically challenging genus Megaselia Rondani (Diptera: Phoridae). Wing photographs make two-dimensional images that can be landmarked and analyzed to produce transformed (standardized) x-y coordinates, and are well-suited for a semi-automated approach. We landmarked wing photographs of individuals of 108 specimens of Megaselia from the ZADBI (Zurqui All Diptera Biodiversity Inventory) project, as well as 284 specimens of Megaselia from the Los Angeles based...

Data from: Flight reconstruction of two European enantiornithines (Aves, Pygostylia) and the achievement of bounding flight in Early Cretaceous birds

Francisco J. Serrano, Luis M. Chiappe, Paul Palmqvist, Borja Figueirido, Jesús Marugán-Lobón & José L. Sanz
Birds today follow different aerial strategies to deal with the high costs of flapping flight. Intermittent flight, through either flap-gliding or bounding, is commonly used among small birds as a strategy to optimize aerial efficiency. The broad morphological disparity of the different lineages of Mesozoic birds suggests that a range of aerial strategies could have evolved early in avian evolution. Based on biomechanics and aerodynamic theory, this study reconstructs the flying properties of two small...

Data from: Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach

Benjamin Adams, Stefan Schnitzer & Stephen Yanoviak
Understanding how habitat structure and resource availability affect local species distributions is a key goal of community ecology. Where habitats occur as a mosaic, variation in connectivity among patches influences both local species richness and composition, and connectivity is a key conservation concern in fragmented landscapes. Similarly, availability of limiting resources frequently determines species co-existence or exclusion. For primarily cursorial arthropods like ants, gaps between neighboring trees are a significant barrier to movement through the...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP markers breathe new life into phylogeography and species delimitation for the problematic short-necked turtles (Chelidae: Emydura) of eastern Australia

Arthur Georges, Bernd Gruber, Greg B. Pauly, Duanne White, Mark Adams, Matthew J. Young, Andzrej Kilian, Xiuwen Zhang, H. Bradley Shaffer, Peter J. Unmack & Andrzej Kilian
Understanding the evolutionary history of diversifying lineages and the delineation of evolutionarily significant units and species remain major challenges for evolutionary biology. Low cost representational sampling of the genome for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows great potential at the temporal scales that are typically the focus of species delimitation and phylogeography. We apply these markers to a case study of a freshwater turtle, Emydura macquarii, whose systematics has so far defied resolution, to bring to...

Cave-adapted evolution in the North American Amblyopsid fishes inferred using phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics

Pamela Hart, Matthew Niemiller, Edward Burress, Jonathan Armbruster, William Ludt & Prosanta Chakrabarty
Cave adaptation has evolved repeatedly across the Tree of Life, famously leading to pigmentation and eye degeneration and loss, yet its macroevolutionary implications remain poorly understood. We use the North American amblyopsid fishes, a family spanning a wide degree of cave adaptation, to examine the impact of cave specialization on the modes and tempo of evolution. We reconstruct evolutionary relationships using ultraconserved element loci, estimate the ancestral histories of eye-state, and examine the impact of...

Delayed adaptive radiation among New Zealand stream fishes: joint estimation of divergence time and trait evolution in a newly delineated island species flock

Christine Thacker, James Shelley, William McCraney, Peter Unmack & Matthew McGee
Adaptive radiations are generally thought to occur soon after a lineage invades a region offering high levels of ecological opportunity. However, few adaptive radiations beyond a handful of exceptional examples are known, so a comprehensive understanding of their dynamics is still lacking. Here, we present a novel case of an island species flock of freshwater fishes with a radically different tempo of adaptive history than that found in many popular evolutionary model systems. Using a...

Disentangling lousy relationships: Comparative phylogenomics of two sucking louse lineages parasitizing chipmunks

Kayce Bell, Julie M. Allen, Kevin P. Johnson, John R. Demboski & Joseph A. Cook
The evolution of obligate parasites is often interpreted in light of their hosts’ evolutionary history. An expanded approach is to examine the histories of multiple lineages of parasites that inhabit similar environments on a particular host lineage. Western North American chipmunks (genus Tamias) have a broad distribution, a history of divergence with gene flow, and host two species of sucking lice (Anoplura), Hoplopleura arboricola and Neohaematopinus pacificus. From total genomic sequencing, we obtained sequences of...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Data from: Identification of the notothenioid sister lineage illuminates the biogeographic history of an Antarctic adaptive radiation

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg, Richard C. Harrington, Claudio Oliveira, Theodore W. Pietsch, Christine E. Thacker, Takashi P. Satoh, Eri Katayama, Peter C. Wainwright, Joseph T. Eastman & Jeremy M. Beaulieu
Background: Antarctic notothenioids are an impressive adaptive radiation. While they share recent common ancestry with several species-depauperate lineages that exhibit a relictual distribution in areas peripheral to the Southern Ocean, an understanding of their evolutionary origins and biogeographic history is limited as the sister lineage of notothenioids remains unidentified. The phylogenetic placement of notothenioids among major lineages of perciform fishes, which include sculpins, rockfishes, sticklebacks, eelpouts, scorpionfishes, perches, groupers and soapfishes, remains unresolved. We investigate...

Data from: Reinforcement and a cline in mating behavior evolve in response to secondary contact and hybridization in shield-back katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

Jeffrey A. Cole
In a dispersal-limited species that has evolved reproductive character displacement at a contact zone, a cline in mating behavior may result if gene flow diffuses alleles out of the contact zone into allopatric populations. Prior work has found such a clinal pattern in the shield-back katydid Aglaothorax morsei, in which the male calling songs in a sympatric population have a displaced, short interpulse interval that increases in length with increasing distance from the contact zone....

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