9 Works

Coexistence within an endangered predator–prey community in California vernal pools

Arianne F. Messerman, Adam G. Clause, Shantel V. L. Catania, H. Bradley Shaffer & Christopher A. Searcy
1. Globally endangered ecosystems, like ephemeral wetlands, are often critical habitat for multiple interacting imperiled species. To conserve this biodiversity, managers must consider both species-specific resource requirements and mechanisms for endangered species coexistence under variable habitat conditions. 2. We examined communities native to California playa pools, ephemeral wetlands that have declined by >90% from their historic extent. Specifically, we describe the diet of a federally Threatened amphibian (Ambystoma californiense), and characterize interactions between this amphibian...

Speciation rates are positively correlated with the rate of plumage color evolution in hummingbirds

Diego F. Beltrán, Allison J. Shultz & Juan Luis Parra
A fascinating pattern in nature is the uneven distribution of biodiversity among clades, some with low species richness and phenotypic variation in contrast to others with remarkable species richness and phenotypic diversity. In animals, communication signals are crucial for intra- and interspecific interactions, and are likely an important factor in speciation. However, evidence for the association between the evolution of such signals and speciation is mixed. In hummingbirds, plumage coloration is an important communication signal,...

Computed tomography reveals hip dysplasia in the extinct Pleistocene saber-tooth cat Smilodon

Mairin Balisi, Abhinav Sharma, Carrie Howard, Christopher Shaw, Robert Klapper & Emily Lindsey
Reconstructing the behavior of extinct species is challenging, particularly for those with no living analogues. However, damage preserved as paleopathologies on bone can record how an animal moved in life, potentially reflecting behavioral patterns. Here, we assess hypothesized etiologies of pathology in a pelvis and associated right femur of a Smilodon fatalis saber-toothed cat, one of the best-studied species from the Pleistocene-age Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, California, USA, using visualization by computed tomography (CT)....

Delayed adaptive radiation among New Zealand stream fishes: joint estimation of divergence time and trait evolution in a newly delineated island species flock

Christine Thacker, James Shelley, William McCraney, Peter Unmack & Matthew McGee
Adaptive radiations are generally thought to occur soon after a lineage invades a region offering high levels of ecological opportunity. However, few adaptive radiations beyond a handful of exceptional examples are known, so a comprehensive understanding of their dynamics is still lacking. Here, we present a novel case of an island species flock of freshwater fishes with a radically different tempo of adaptive history than that found in many popular evolutionary model systems. Using a...

Cave-adapted evolution in the North American Amblyopsid fishes inferred using phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics

Pamela Hart, Matthew Niemiller, Edward Burress, Jonathan Armbruster, William Ludt & Prosanta Chakrabarty
Cave adaptation has evolved repeatedly across the Tree of Life, famously leading to pigmentation and eye degeneration and loss, yet its macroevolutionary implications remain poorly understood. We use the North American amblyopsid fishes, a family spanning a wide degree of cave adaptation, to examine the impact of cave specialization on the modes and tempo of evolution. We reconstruct evolutionary relationships using ultraconserved element loci, estimate the ancestral histories of eye-state, and examine the impact of...

Supplementary information for: A biased fossil record can preserve reliable phylogenetic signal

C. Henrik Woolley, Jeffrey Thompson, Yun-Hsin Wu, David Bottjer & Nathan Smith
Abstract.­­––The fossil record is notoriously imperfect and biased in representation, hindering our ability to place fossil specimens into an evolutionary context. For groups with fossil records mostly consisting of disarticulated parts (e.g., vertebrates, echinoderms, plants), the limited morphological information preserved sparks concerns about whether fossils retain reliable evidence of phylogenetic relationships, and lends uncertainty to analyses of diversification, paleobiogeography, and biostratigraphy in Earth history. To address whether a fragmentary past can be trusted, we need...

Data from: Sixteen in one: white-belted Megaselia Rondani (Diptera: Phoridae) from the New World challenge species concepts

Brian Brown
We review the species of Megaselia similar to M. sulphurizona Borgmeier. A close examination of M. sulphurizona indicates that its current concept includes at least 16 species, 15 of which- M. albizona, M. borealizona, M. colombizona, M. cryptizona, M. danizona, M. guanizona, M. marizona, M. nivizona, M. oklizona, M. paulizona, M. reductizona, M. solizona, M. tropizona, M. wendizona, and M. winnizona are described as new, based primarily on molecular data. The identity of the holotype...

Comparing ultraconserved elements and exons for phylogenomic analyses of Middle American cichlids: When data agree to disagree

Fernando Alda, William B. Ludt, Diego J. Elías, Caleb D. McMahan & Prosanta Chakrabarty
Choosing among types of genomic markers to be used in a phylogenomic study can have a major influence on the cost, design, and results of a study. Yet few attempts have been made to compare categories of next-generation sequence markers limiting our ability to compare the suitability of these different genomic fragment types. Here we explore properties of different genomic markers to find if they vary in the accuracy of component phylogenetic trees and to...

Disentangling lousy relationships: Comparative phylogenomics of two sucking louse lineages parasitizing chipmunks

Kayce Bell, Julie M. Allen, Kevin P. Johnson, John R. Demboski & Joseph A. Cook
The evolution of obligate parasites is often interpreted in light of their hosts’ evolutionary history. An expanded approach is to examine the histories of multiple lineages of parasites that inhabit similar environments on a particular host lineage. Western North American chipmunks (genus Tamias) have a broad distribution, a history of divergence with gene flow, and host two species of sucking lice (Anoplura), Hoplopleura arboricola and Neohaematopinus pacificus. From total genomic sequencing, we obtained sequences of...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
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  • University of California Los Angeles
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  • Louisiana State University
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  • Denver Museum of Nature and Science
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  • Field Museum of Natural History
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  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
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  • University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
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  • University of Nevada Reno
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