142 Works

Toolkit: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage. Version 1.0.

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The Waste Flow Diagram toolkit is an excel-based model allowing users to perform a rapid assessment of municipal solid waste flows within a city or municipality. The tool maps these waste flows using Sankey diagrams and quantifies the plastic waste that is emitted from the solid waste management system and its eventual fate in the environment. The toolkit is specifically designed to integrate with SDG 11.6.1 by informing on the sub-indicators, and can be operated...

User Manual: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage. Version 1.0

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The Waste Flow Diagram user manual provides an explanation of the Waste Flow Diagram toolkit and in-depth guidance on how to apply it. This includes information on data collection issues, how to estimate plastic leakages, how to run scenarios, and how to visualise the waste flows.

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: Species interactions mediate thermal evolution

Michelle Tseng, Joey R. Bernhardt & Alexander E. Chila
Understanding whether populations and communities can evolve fast enough to keep up with ongoing climate change is one of the most pressing issues in biology today. A growing number of studies have documented rapid evolutionary responses to warming, suggesting that populations may be able to persist despite temperature increases. The challenge now is to better understand how species interactions, which are ubiquitous in nature, mediate these population responses to warming. Here we use laboratory natural...

Data from: Spatially cascading effect of perturbations in experimental meta-ecosystems

Eric Harvey, Isabelle Gounand, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy & Florian Altermatt
Ecosystems are linked to neighbouring ecosystems not only by dispersal, but also by the movement of subsidy. Such subsidy couplings between ecosystems have important landscape-scale implications because perturbations in one ecosystem may affect community structure and functioning in neighbouring ecosystems via increased/decreased subsidies. Here, we combine a general theoretical approach based on harvesting theory and a two-patch protist meta-ecosystem experiment to test the effect of regional perturbations on local community dynamics. We first characterized the...

Data from: Differential resource consumption in leaf litter mixtures by native and non-native amphipods

Chelsea J. Little & Florian Altermatt
Leaf litter processing is an essential ecosystem function in freshwater systems, since much of the carbon and nutrients moving through freshwater food webs come from the surrounding terrestrial ecosystems. Thus, it is important to understand how the species performing this function differ, especially because many native species are being replaced by non-native species in aquatic ecosystems. We used a field experiment to examine leaf consumption rates of two common shredding macroinvertebrates (the native Gammarus fossarum...

Data from: A further cost for the sicker sex? Evidence for male-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation

Jessica F. Stephenson, Cormac Kinsella, Joanne Cable & Cock Van Oosterhout
Males are typically the sicker sex. Data from multiple taxa indicate that they are more likely to be infected with parasites, and are less “tolerant,” or less able to mitigate the fitness costs of a given infection, than females. One cost of infection for many animals is an increased probability of being captured by a predator. A clear, hitherto untested, prediction is therefore that this parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is more pronounced among males than...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of immune tissues reveals habitat-specific gene expression between lake and river sticklebacks

Yun Huang, Frederic Chain, Mahesh Panchal, Christophe Eizaguirre, Martin Kalbe, Tobias Lenz, Irene Samonte, Monika Stoll, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Thorsten B. Reusch, Manfred Milinski & Philine Feulner
The observation of habitat-specific phenotypes suggests the action of natural selection. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has repeatedly colonized and adapted to diverse freshwater habitats across the northern hemisphere since the last glaciation, while giving rise to recurring phenotypes associated with specific habitats. Parapatric lake and river populations of sticklebacks harbour distinct parasite communities, a factor proposed to contribute to adaptive differentiation between these ecotypes. However, little is known about the transcriptional response to the...

Data from: Species turnover and invasion of dominant freshwater invertebrates alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship

Chelsea J. Little & Florian Altermatt
Freshwater ecosystems rely on allochthonous resources. Integration of these subsidies depends on diversity of both terrestrial resources and aquatic shredder and decomposer communities, but the diversity effects on leaf litter breakdown and decomposition are less clear in aquatic than terrestrial ecosystems. We need a better understanding of this relationship because aquatic communities are rapidly changing with species invasions and anthropogenic impacts. Here, we experimentally disentangled the effects of leaf and shredder richness on leaf litter...

Data from: A web platform for landuse, climate, demography, hydrology and beach erosion in the Black Sea catchment

Anthony Lehmann, Yaniss Guigoz, Nicolas Ray, Emanuele Mancuso, Karim C. Abbaspour, Elham Rouholahnejad Freund, Karin Allenbach, Andrea De Bono, Marc Fasel, Ana Gago-Silva, Roger Bär, Pierre Lacroix & Grégory Giuliani
The Black Sea catchment (BSC) is facing important demographic, climatic and landuse changes that may increase pollution, vulnerability and scarcity of water resources, as well as beach erosion through sea level rise. Limited access to reliable time-series monitoring data from environmental, statistical, and socio-economical sources is a major barrier to policy development and decision-making. To address these issues, a web-based platform was developed to enable discovery and access to key environmental information for the region....

Data from: Comparing direct and indirect selfing rate estimates: when are population-structure estimates reliable?

Anja Buerkli, Natalie Sieber, Katri Seppälä & Jukka Jokela
The rate of self-fertilization (that is, selfing) is a key evolutionary parameter in hermaphroditic species, yet obtaining accurate estimates of selfing rates in natural populations can be technically challenging. Most published estimates are derived from population-level heterozygote deficiency (that is, FIS) or identity disequilibria (for example, the software RMES (robust multilocus estimate of selfing)). These indirect methods can be applied to population genetic survey data, whereas direct methods using progeny arrays require much larger data...

Data from: Evidence of neutral and adaptive genetic divergence between European trout populations sampled along altitudinal gradients

Irene Keller, Andreas Taverna & Ole Seehausen
Species with a wide geographical distribution are often composed of distinct subgroups which may be adapted to their local environment. European trout (Salmo trutta species complex) provide an example of such a complex consisting of several genetically and ecologically distinct forms. However, trout populations are strongly influenced by human activities, and it is unclear to what extent neutral and adaptive genetic differences have persisted. We sampled 30 Swiss trout populations from heterogeneous environments along replicated...

Data from: Food makes you a target: disentangling genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects determining susceptibility to infection

Otto Seppälä, Anssi Karvonen, Maarit Haataja, Marja Kuosa & Jukka Jokela
Genetics, physiology and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design and long- and short-term food deprivation treatments to test the role of family-level genetic variation, body condition, physiological state and foraging behavior on the susceptibility...

Data from: Wide variation in ploidy level and genome size in a New Zealand freshwater snail with coexisting sexual and asexual lineages

Maurine Neiman, Dorota Paczesniak, Deanna M Soper, Austin T Baldwin & Gery Hehman
Natural animal populations are rarely screened for ploidy-level variation at a scale that allows detection of potentially important aberrations of common ploidy patterns. This type of screening can be especially important for the many mixed sexual/asexual systems where sexuals are presumed to be dioecious diploids and asexuals are assumed to be triploid and all-female. For example, elevation of ploidy level above triploidy can be a source of genetic variation and raises the possibility of gene...

Data from: Population genetic dynamics of an invasion reconstructed from the sediment egg bank

Markus Möst, Sarah Oexle, Silvia Markova, Dalia Aidukaite, Livia Baumgartner, Hans-Bernd Stich, Martin Wessels, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg & Piet Spaak
Biological invasions are a global issue with far-reaching consequences for single species, communities and whole ecosystems. Our understanding of modes and mechanisms of biological invasions requires knowledge of the genetic processes associated with successful invasions. In many instances, this information is particularly difficult to obtain as the initial phases of the invasion process often pass unnoticed and we rely on inferences from contemporary population genetic data. Here, we combined historic information with the genetic analysis...

Data from: Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Sereina Gut & Florian Altermatt
Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. While it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of...

Data from: Co-evolutionary dynamics between public good producers and cheats in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Rolf Kümmerli, Lorenzo A. Santorelli, Elisa Granato, Zoé Dumas, Akos Dobay, Ashleigh S. Griffin & Stuart A. West
The production of beneficial public goods is common in the microbial world, and so is cheating – the exploitation of public goods by non-producing mutants. Here, we examine co-evolutionary dynamics between cooperators and cheats and ask whether cooperators can evolve strategies to reduce the burden of exploitation, and whether cheats in turn can improve their exploitation abilities. We evolved cooperators of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, producing the shareable iron-scavenging siderophore pyoverdine, together with cheats, defective...

Data from: Divergent parasite infections in sympatric cichlid species in Lake Victoria

Anssi Karvonen, Catherine E. Wagner, Oliver M. Selz & Ole Seehausen
Parasitism has been proposed as a factor in host speciation, as an agent affecting coexistence of host species in species rich communities, and as a driver of post-speciation diversification. Young adaptive radiations of closely related host species of varying ecological and genomic differentiation provide interesting opportunities to explore interactions between patterns of parasitism, divergence and coexistence of sympatric host species. Here, we explored patterns in ectoparasitism in a community of 16 fully sympatric cichlid species...

Data from: Persistence, impacts and environmental drivers of covert infections in invertebrate hosts

Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Chris Williams & Beth Okamura
Background: Persistent covert infections of the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, in primary invertebrate hosts (the freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana) have been proposed to represent a reservoir for proliferative kidney disease in secondary fish hosts. However, we have limited understanding of how covert infections persist and vary in bryozoan populations over time and space and how they may impact these populations. In addition, previous studies have likely underestimated covert infection prevalence. To improve our understanding of the...

Data from: A taxonomic revision of the whitefish radiation of lakes Brienz and Thun, Switzerland, with descriptions of four new species (Teleostei: Coregonidae)

Oliver Martin Selz, Ole Seehausen, Pascal Vonlanthen & Carmela Dönz
The alpha taxonomy of the endemic whitefish of lakes Brienz and Thun, Switzerland, is revised. We evaluate the status of seven known species: Coregonus steinmanni sp. nov., Coregonus profundus sp. nov. and Coregonus acrinasus sp. nov. are endemic to Lake Thun; Coregonus brienzii sp. nov. is endemic to Lake Brienz; and C. alpinus, C. albellus, and C. fatioi from lakes Brienz and Thun are redescribed. One of these species, C. alpinus, is revised, since the...

Rediscovery of a presumed extinct species, Salvelinus profundus, after re-oligotrophication

Carmela Doenz & Ole Seehausen
Lake Constance (47° 38’ N, 9° 22’ E) is a deep (max. depth 251m) and large (surface area 536 km2) postglacial lake in Central Europe. Originally, it harboured two charr species – Salvelinus umbla and S. profundus. The first is a medium-sized, colorful, winter spawning charr, which is widespread across Central European lakes, the second a small, pale, summer spawning, deepwater charr, which is endemic to Lake Constance (Schillinger 1901, Kottelat and Freyhof 2007). S....

Data from: Parasite resistance predicts fitness better than fecundity in a natural population of the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum

Dorota Paczesniak, Kirsten Klappert, Kirstin Kopp, Maurine Neiman, Katri Seppälä, Curtis M. Lively & Jukka Jokela
The cost of males should give asexual females an advantage when in competition with sexual females. In addition, high-fecundity asexual genotypes should have an advantage over low-fecundity clones, leading to reduction in clonal diversity over time. To evaluate fitness components in a natural population, we measured the annual reproductive rate of individual sexual and asexual female Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail, in field enclosures that excluded competitors and predators. We used allozyme genotyping...

Data for: Interactive effects of foundation species on ecosystem functioning and stability in response to disturbance

Anita Narwani
A major challenge in ecology is to understand determinants of ecosystem functioning and stability in the face of disturbance. Some important species can strongly shape community structure and ecosystem functioning, but their impacts and interactions on ecosystem-level responses to disturbance are less well known. Shallow ponds provide a model system in which to study the effects of such species because some taxa mitigate transitions between alternate ecosystem states caused by eutrophication. We performed pond experiments...

Data from: Ecological opportunity shapes a large Arctic charr species radiation

Carmela Doenz, Andrin Kraehenbuehl, Jonas Walker, Ole Seehausen & Jakob Brodersen
Ecological opportunity is considered a crucial factor for adaptive radiation. Here, we combine genetic, morphological and ecological data to assess species and ecomorphological diversity of Artic charr in six lakes of a catchment in southernmost Greenland, harbouring only charr and stickleback. Because the diversity of habitats and resources increases with lake size, we predict a positive association between lake size and the extent of ecomorphological diversity. The largest lake of the catchment harbours the largest...

Data from: Stream microbial communities and ecosystem functioning show complex responses to multiple stressors in wastewater

Francis J. Burdon, Yaohui Bai, Marta Reyes, Manu Tamminen, Phillip Staudacher, Simon Mangold, Heinz Singer, Katja Räsänen, Adriano Joss, Scott D. Tiegs, Jukka Jokela, Rik I. L. Eggen & Christian Stamm
Multiple anthropogenic drivers are changing ecosystems globally, with a disproportionate and intensifying impact on freshwater habitats. A major impact of urbanisation are inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Initially designed to greatly reduce nutrient loads, WWTPs increasingly release a multitude of micropollutants (i.e., synthetic chemicals) and organisms (including antibiotic resistant bacteria) to receiving environments. This pollution may have pervasive impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Viewed through multiple lenses of macroecological and ecotoxicological theory, we...

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