23 Works

Toolkit: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage. Version 1.0.

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The Waste Flow Diagram toolkit is an excel-based model allowing users to perform a rapid assessment of municipal solid waste flows within a city or municipality. The tool maps these waste flows using Sankey diagrams and quantifies the plastic waste that is emitted from the solid waste management system and its eventual fate in the environment. The toolkit is specifically designed to integrate with SDG 11.6.1 by informing on the sub-indicators, and can be operated...

User Manual: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage. Version 1.0

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The Waste Flow Diagram user manual provides an explanation of the Waste Flow Diagram toolkit and in-depth guidance on how to apply it. This includes information on data collection issues, how to estimate plastic leakages, how to run scenarios, and how to visualise the waste flows.

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data from: Rediscovery of a presumed extinct species, Salvelinus profundus, after re-oligotrophication

Carmela Doenz & Ole Seehausen
Lake Constance (47° 38’ N, 9° 22’ E) is a deep (max. depth 251m) and large (surface area 536 km2) postglacial lake in Central Europe. Originally, it harboured two charr species – Salvelinus umbla and S. profundus. The first is a medium-sized, colorful, winter spawning charr, which is widespread across Central European lakes, the second a small, pale, summer spawning, deepwater charr, which is endemic to Lake Constance (Schillinger 1901, Kottelat and Freyhof 2007). S....

Data from: The propagation of admixture-derived adaptive radiation potential

Kotaro Kagawa & Ole Seehausen
Adaptive radiations frequently show remarkable repeatability where single lineages undergo multiple independent episodes of adaptive radiation in distant places and long separate timepoints. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic variation generated through hybridization between distantly related lineages can promote adaptive radiation. This mechanism, however, requires rare coincidence in space and time between the hybridization event and opening of ecological opportunity, because hybridization generates large genetic variation only in the site where it occurred and the elevated...

Morphology and locomotor performance of cane toads, Rhinella marina

Richard Shine, Cameron Hudson, Marta Vidal-Garcia & Trevor Murray
As is common in biological invasions, the rate at which cane toads (Rhinella marina) have spread across tropical Australia has accelerated through time. Individuals at the invasion-front travel further than range-core conspecifics, and exhibit distinctive morphologies that may facilitate rapid dispersal. However, the links between these morphological changes and locomotor performance have not been clearly documented. We used raceway trials and high-speed videography to document locomotor traits (e.g. hop distances, heights, velocities, and angles of...

Data from: A de novo chromosome-level genome assembly of Coregonus sp. “Balchen”: one representative of the Swiss Alpine whitefish radiation

Philine Feulner, Rishi De-Kayne & Stefan Zoller
Salmonids are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their incredible diversity of life-history strategies and the speed at which many salmonid species have diversified. In Switzerland alone, over 30 species of Alpine whitefish from the subfamily Coregoninae have evolved since the last glacial maximum, with species exhibiting a diverse range of morphological and behavioural phenotypes. This, combined with the whole genome duplication which occurred in the ancestor of all salmonids, makes the Alpine...

Data from: Parasitoids as drivers of symbiont diversity in an insect host

Nina Hafer-Hahmann & Christoph Vorburger
Immune systems have repeatedly diversified in response to parasite diversity. Many animals have outsourced part of their immune defence to defensive symbionts, which should be affected by similar evolutionary pressures as the host’s own immune system. Protective symbionts provide efficient and specific protection and respond to changing selection pressure by parasites. Here, we use the aphid Aphis fabae, its protective symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum to test whether parasite diversity can maintain...

Data from: Submerged macrophytes affect the temporal variability of aquatic ecosystems

Moritz Lürig, Rebecca Best, Vasilis Dakos & Blake Matthews
1. Submerged macrophytes are important foundation species that can strongly influence the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, but only little is known about the temporal variation and the timescales of these effects (i.e. from hourly, daily, to monthly). 2. Here, we conducted an outdoor experiment in replicated mesocosms (1000 L) where we manipulated the presence and absence of macrophytes to investigate the temporal variability of their ecosystem effects. We measured several parameters (chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin,...

Prior adaptation of parasitoids improves biological control of symbiont-protected pests

Christoph Vorburger & Silvan Rossbacher
There is increasing demand for sustainable pest management to reduce harmful effects of pesticides on the environment and human health. For pest aphids, biological control with parasitoid wasps provides a welcome alternative, particularly in greenhouses. However, aphids are frequently infected with the heritable bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, which increases resistance to parasitoids and thereby hampers biological control. Using the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and its main parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum, we tested whether prior adaptation...

Data from: Rapid generation of ecologically relevant behavioural novelty in experimental cichlid hybrids

Anna Fiona Feller, Oliver M. Selz, Matthew D. McGee, Joana I. Meier, Salome Mwaiko & Ole Seehausen
The East African cichlid radiations are characterised by repeated and rapid diversification into many distinct species with different ecological specialisations and by a history of hybridization events between non-sister species. Such hybridization might provide important fuel for adaptive radiation. Interspecific hybrids can have extreme trait values or novel trait combinations and such transgressive phenotypes may allow some hybrids to explore ecological niches neither of the parental species could tap into. Here, we investigate the potential...

Data from: Phosphorus limitation does not drive loss of bony lateral plates in freshwater stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Sophie L. Archambeault, Daniel J. Durston, Alex Wan, Rana El-Sabaawi, Blake Matthews & Catherine L. Peichel
Connecting the selective forces that drive the evolution of phenotypes to their underlying genotypes is key to understanding adaptation, but such connections are rarely tested experimentally. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are a powerful model for such tests because genotypes that underlie putatively adaptive traits have been identified. For example, a regulatory mutation in the Ectodysplasin (Eda) gene causes a reduction in the number of bony armor plates, which occurs rapidly and repeatedly when marine sticklebacks...

Data from: Effects of an experimental increase in flow intermittency on an alpine stream

Andre Siebers, Amael Paillex, Benjamin Misteli & Christopher Robinson
Flow intermittency occurs naturally in alpine streams. However, changing rainfall patterns and glacier retreat are predicted to increase the occurrence of flow intermittency in alpine catchments, with largely unknown effects on ecosystem structure and function. We conducted a flow manipulation experiment within a headwater stream of Val Roseg, a glacierized alpine catchment, to determine the effects of increased flow intermittency on aquatic macroinvertebrates, periphyton, benthic organic matter, and trophic structure. Compared to an adjacent reference...

Enhanced recruitment of larger predators in the presence of large prey

Kunio Takatsu & Osamu Kishida
Most carnivores undergo diet shift from smaller to larger prey items during ontogeny. The trophic relationship between a growing carnivore and larger prey is representative of a size-structured predator-prey interaction. The strength of this interaction is, in part, determined by the recruitment of individuals from smaller predatory size classes into larger predatory size classes. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate how larger prey alter the recruitment of smaller predator size classes into larger predator size...

Morphology of parotoid glands in cane toads

Richard Shine, Gregory Brown, Ryann Blennerhassett & Cameron Hudson
If optimal investment in anti-predator defences depends on predation risk, invading new regions (and thus, encountering different predators) may favour shifts in that investment. Cane toads offer an ideal system to test this prediction: expensive anti-predator toxins are stored mainly in parotoid glands whose dimensions are easy to measure, and toad invasions have changed the suites of predators they encounter. Although plasticity may influence parotoid morphology, comparisons between parents and progeny revealed that gland dimensions...

Maladaptive migration behaviour in hybrids links to predator-mediated ecological selection

Varpu Pärssinen, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Ben Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson & Anders Nilsson
1. Different migratory species have evolved distinct migratory characteristics that improve fitness in their particular ecological niches. However, when such species hybridize, migratory traits from parental species can combine maladaptively and cause hybrids to fall between parental fitness peaks, with potential consequences for hybrid viability and species integrity. 2. Here, we take advantage of a natural cross-breeding incident to study migratory behaviour in naturally occurring hybrids as well as in their parental species and explore...

Data from: Does rapid glacial recession affect feeding habits of alpine stream insects?

Mirela Sertić Perić, Jens M. Nielsen, Carsten J. Schubert & Christopher T. Robinson
1. Glacial retreat, accompanied by shifts in riparian vegetation and glacier meltwater inputs, alters the energy supply and trophic structure of alpine stream food webs. Our goal in this study was to enhance understanding of dietary niches of macroinvertebrates inhabiting different alpine streams with contrasting glacial and non-glacial (groundwater, precipitation, snowmelt) water inputs in conjunction with seasonal and habitat-specific variation in basal resource availability. 2. We measured a range of stream physico-chemical attributes as well...

On-line Training Package: Part1/2: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage

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Part 1 of 2 - the “Introduction to the Waste Flow Diagram” video explains the rationale toolkit, as well as providing guidance on how the tool simply visualises solid waste management systems and waste flows. In addition, the video further advises on how the toolkit quantifies plastic waste leakages, what the data requirement are and explains the unique link between the Waste Flow Diagram and the Sustainable Development Goal 11.6.1 - Proportion of urban solid...

On-line Training Package: Part2/2: Waste Flow Diagram (WFD): A rapid assessment tool for mapping waste flows and quantifying plastic leakage.

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Part 2 of 2 – This video entitled “Applying the Waste Flow Diagram” provides a technical explanation behind two of the critical methods within the Waste Flow Diagram toolkit – quantifying plastic leakage, and determining the fate of this plastic leakage in the environment. This is illustrated using the example of a dumpsite.

Data from: Stream microbial communities and ecosystem functioning show complex responses to multiple stressors in wastewater

Francis J. Burdon, Yaohui Bai, Marta Reyes, Manu Tamminen, Phillip Staudacher, Simon Mangold, Heinz Singer, Katja Räsänen, Adriano Joss, Scott D. Tiegs, Jukka Jokela, Rik I. L. Eggen & Christian Stamm
Multiple anthropogenic drivers are changing ecosystems globally, with a disproportionate and intensifying impact on freshwater habitats. A major impact of urbanisation are inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Initially designed to greatly reduce nutrient loads, WWTPs increasingly release a multitude of micropollutants (i.e., synthetic chemicals) and organisms (including antibiotic resistant bacteria) to receiving environments. This pollution may have pervasive impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Viewed through multiple lenses of macroecological and ecotoxicological theory, we...

Multiple phenotypes conferred by a single insect symbiont are independent

Ailsa McLean, Jan Hrček, Benjamin Parker, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Heidi Kaech, Chantal Paine & Charles Godfray
Many microbial symbionts have multiple phenotypic consequences for their animal hosts. However, the ways in which different symbiont-mediated phenotypes combine to affect fitness are not well understood. We investigated whether there are correlations between different symbiont-mediated phenotypes. We used the symbiont Spiroplasma, a striking example of a bacterial symbiont conferring diverse phenotypes on insect hosts. We took 11 strains of Spiroplasma infecting pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and assessed their ability to provide protection against the...

Validation of an eDNA-based method for the detection of wildlife pathogens in water

Natalie Sieber, Hanna Hartikainen & Christoph Vorburger
Monitoring the occurrence and density of parasites and pathogens can identify high infection-risk areas and facilitates disease control and eradication measures. Environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques are increasingly used for pathogen detection due to their relative ease of application. Since many factors affect the reliability and efficacy of eDNA-based detection, rigorous validation and assessment of method limitations is a crucial first step. We evaluated an eDNA detection method using in-situ filtration of large volume water samples,...

Data from: The evolution of competitive ability for essential resources

Joey R. Bernhardt, Pavel Kratina, Aaron Pereira, Manu Tamminen, Mridul K. Thomas & Anita Narwani
Competition for limiting resources is among the most fundamental ecological interactions and has long been considered a key driver of species coexistence and biodiversity. Species' minimum resource requirements, their R*s, are key traits that link individual physiological demands to the outcome of competition. However, a major question remains unanswered - to what extent are species’ competitive traits able to evolve in response to resource limitation? To address this knowledge gap, we performed an evolution experiment...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Model


  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit
  • University of Leeds
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • Macquarie University
  • Queen Mary University of London
  • University of Bern
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • Rollins College
  • University of Washington