185 Works

Data from: Visible persistence of single-transient random dot patterns: spatial parameters affect the duration of fading percepts

Maximilian Bruchmann, Kathrin Thaler & Dirk Vorberg
Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk...

Data from: Mechanistic model of evolutionary rate variation en route to a nonphotosynthetic lifestyle in plants

Susann Wicke, Kai F. Müller, Claude W. DePamphilis, Dietmar Quandt, Sidonie Bellot & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Because novel environmental conditions alter the selection pressure on genes or entire subgenomes, adaptive and nonadaptive changes will leave a measurable signature in the genomes, shaping their molecular evolution. We present herein a model of the trajectory of plastid genome evolution under progressively relaxed functional constraints during the transition from autotrophy to a nonphotosynthetic parasitic lifestyle. We show that relaxed purifying selection in all plastid genes is linked to obligate parasitism, characterized by the parasite’s...

Data and code for: Replay of innate vocal patterns during sleep in suboscines

Juan Francisco Döppler, Manon Peltier, Ana Amador, Franz Goller & Gabriel Mindlin
Activation of forebrain circuitry during sleep has been variably characterized as ‘pre- or replay’ and has been linked to memory consolidation. The evolutionary origins of this mechanism, however, are unknown. Sleep activation of the sensori-motor pathways of learned birdsong is a particularly useful model system because the muscles controlling the vocal organ are activated, revealing syringeal activity patterns for direct comparison with those of day-time vocal activity. Here we show that suboscine birds, which develop...

Data from: Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruitflies

Claudia Fricke & Tracey Chapman
Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male’s overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting datasets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male’s reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is...

Data from: Adaptive shaping of the behavioural and neuroendocrine phenotype during adolescence

Tobias D. Zimmermann, Sylvia Kaiser, Michael B. Hennessy & Norbert Sachser
Environmental conditions during early life can adaptively shape the phenotype for the prevailing environment. Recently, it has been suggested that adolescence represents an additional temporal window for adaptive developmental plasticity, though supporting evidence is scarce. Previous work has shown that male guinea pigs living in large mixed-sex colonies develop a low-aggressive phenotype as part of a queuing strategy that is adaptive for integrating into large unfamiliar colonies. By contrast, males living in pairs during adolescence...

Data from: An integrated model of phenotypic trait changes and site-specific sequence evolution

Eli Levy Karin, Susann Wicke, Tal Pupko & Itay Mayrose
Recent years have seen a constant rise in the availability of trait data, including morphological features, ecological preferences, and life history characteristics. These phenotypic data provide means to associate genomic regions with phenotypic attributes, thus allowing the identification of phenotypic traits associated with the rate of genome and sequence evolution. However, inference methodologies that analyze sequence and phenotypic data in a unified statistical framework are still scarce. Here, we present TraitRateProp, a probabilistic method that...

Data from: The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

Guido W. Grimm, Benjamin Bomfleur & Stephen McLoughlin
The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This...

Data from: Resting-state gamma-band power alterations in schizophrenia reveal E/I-balance abnormalities across illness-stages

Tineke Grent-'T-Jong, Joachim Gross, Jozien Goense, Michael Wibral, Ruchika Gajwani, Andrew I. Gumley, Stephen M. Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Dagmar Koethe, F. Markus Leweke, Wolf Singer & Peter J. Uhlhaas
We examined alterations in E/I-balance in schizophrenia (ScZ) through measurements of resting-state gamma-band activity in participants meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria (n = 88), 21 first episode (FEP) patients and 34 chronic ScZ-patients. Furthermore, MRS-data were obtained in CHR-participants and matched controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) resting-state activity was examined at source level and MEG-data were correlated with neuropsychological scores and clinical symptoms. CHR-participants were characterized by increased 64–90 Hz power. In contrast, FEP- and ScZ-patients showed...

Data from: A multi-faceted approach testing the effects of previous bacterial exposure on resistance and tolerance

Megan A. M. Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz & Sophie A. O. Armitage
1. Hosts can alter their strategy towards pathogens during their lifetime, i.e., they can show phenotypic plasticity in immunity or life history. Immune priming is one such example, where a previous encounter with a pathogen confers enhanced protection upon secondary challenge, resulting in reduced pathogen load (i.e. resistance) and improved host survival. However, an initial encounter might also enhance tolerance, particularly to less virulent opportunistic pathogens that establish persistent infections. In this scenario, individuals are...

Data from: Haemoglobin-mediated response to hyper-thermal stress in the keystone species Daphnia magna

Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Bettina Zeis & Luisa Orsini
Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms. A central...

Data from: Growth and survival of the superorganism: ant colony macronutrient intake and investment

Chris Smith & Yeisson Gutierrez
In this study, we used two common ant species (Lasius niger and L. neoniger) to assay how they translate variation in the diet (both in composition and frequency) into growth. We measured colony development for over 8 months and measured several phenotypic traits of the worker caste, and examined whether forager preference corresponded with diet quality. Optimal colony growth was a balance between survival and growth, and each of these were maximized with different nutrient...

Data from: Crop identity and memory effects on aboveground arthropods in a long-term crop rotation experiment

Michael Meyer, David Ott, Philipp Götze, Heinz-Josef Koch & Christoph Scherber
Agricultural landscapes are globally dominated by monocultures under intensive management. This is one of the main reasons for biodiversity loss and insect population decline in many regions all over the world. Agroecosystem biodiversity in these areas can be enhanced by cropping system diversification, such as crop rotations. Yet, long-term studies on effects of crop rotations on aboveground agrobiodiversity are lacking. We set up a 10-year long-term crop-rotation experiment in Central Germany and monitored the temporal...

Mehr Frauen im neuen Bundestag : Eine Analyse aus der Geschlechterperspektive

Lea Rabe
Der Frauenanteil im neu gewählten 20. Bundestag ist wieder leicht gestiegen. 34,7 % der Abgeordneten sind weiblich – unter ihnen auch erstmalig zwei offen lebende trans Frauen. Der Anstieg lässt sich vor allem auf die Stimmenzuwächse bei den GRÜNEN zurückführen. Dennoch sind Frauen, verglichen mit der Gesamtbevölkerung, zahlenmäßig unterrepräsentiert. Das liegt an den Nominierungsverfahren und einer maskulinisierten Parteikultur, die Interessentinnen nach wie vor abschreckt und vor Vereinbarkeitsprobleme stellt. Die Analyse des Wahlergebnisses zeigt: Parteiinterne Wahllistenquotierungen...

Megathrust shear force limits mountain height at convergent plate boundaries

Armin Dielforder , Ralf Hetzel & Onno Oncken
The shear force along convergent plate boundary faults (megathrusts) determines the height of mountain ranges that can be mechanically sustained. Whether the true height of mountain ranges corresponds to this tectonically supported elevation is, however, debated. In particular, climate-dependent erosional processes are often assumed to exert a major control on mountain height, although this assumption has remained difficult to validate. To address this issue, we first constrained the shear force along active megathrusts from their...

Beschreiben im Biologieunterricht

Cana Bayrak

Reproductive ecology of Drosophila obscura: A cold adapted species

Berta Canal, Aileen Seipelt & Claudia Fricke
The study of insect reproductive ecology is essential to determine species distributions and fate under changing environments. Species adapted to harsh environments are good examples to investigate the reproductive mechanisms that allow them to cope with the challenging conditions. We here focus on studying for the first time the reproductive ecology of a cold-adapted D. obscura strain collected in Finland (subarctic climate region). We tested several reproductive traits such as fertility and fecundity to observe...

Too Much Information? A Longitudinal Analysis of Information Overload and Avoidance of Referendum Information Prior to Voting Day

Julia Metag & Gwendolin Gurr
Previous research has mostly ignored that citizens could experience information overload from a single issue extensively covered in the news. Especially when it comes to issues upon which citizens decide directly in a referendum, overload and avoidance would be problematic from a democracy theory perspective. This study investigates overload and avoidance at the issue level based on a three-wave panel survey on a referendum in Switzerland and finds weak information overload at the aggregate level....

Interest in insect die-off and intention for action using Google trends

Esther Felgentreff, Sascha Buchholz & Tanja Straka
1. The publication of “More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas” by Hallmann et al. in October 2017 gained vast media coverage in Germany. The insect crisis as conservation topic has received little attention among the public before, but since media influences people’s awareness, we investigated i) whether the study publication induced increased awareness among the German public for insect die-off, and ii) whether it contributed...

Additional file 4 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 4. Figure S4: Estimated cumulative incidence functions of successful liberation from RRT (a) and death without prior liberation from RRT (b) separated by pre-RRT penKid group and randomization group.

Additional file 3 of Proenkephalin A 119–159 predicts early and successful liberation from renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a post hoc analysis of the ELAIN trial

Thilo von Groote, Felix Albert, Melanie Meersch, Raphael Koch, Christian Porschen, Oliver Hartmann, Deborah Bergmann, Peter Pickkers & Alexander Zarbock
Additional file 3. Figure S3: Estimated cumulative cause-specific hazard of successful liberation from RRT (a) and death without prior liberation from RRT (b) with log-transformed pointwise 95% confidence intervals, starting at the landmark on day 3 and including all patients still receiving RRT on the third day.

A correlation map of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns between paired human brain and buccal samples

Yasmine Sommerer, Olena Ohlei, Valerija Dobricic, Derek H. Oakley, Tanja Wesse, Sanaz Sedghpour Sabet, Ilja Demuth, Andre Franke, Bradley T. Hyman, Christina M. Lill & Lars Bertram
Abstract Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) assessing the link between DNA methylation (DNAm) and phenotypes related to structural brain measures, cognitive function, and neurodegenerative diseases are becoming increasingly more popular. Due to the inaccessibility of brain tissue in humans, several studies use peripheral tissues such as blood, buccal swabs, and saliva as surrogates. To aid the functional interpretation of EWAS findings in such settings, there is a need to assess the correlation of DNAm variability across...

Additional file 1 of A correlation map of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns between paired human brain and buccal samples

Yasmine Sommerer, Olena Ohlei, Valerija Dobricic, Derek H. Oakley, Tanja Wesse, Sanaz Sedghpour Sabet, Ilja Demuth, Andre Franke, Bradley T. Hyman, Christina M. Lill & Lars Bertram
Additional file 1. Supplementary Tables.

Cladribine treatment improves cortical network functionality in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Christina B. Schroeter, Leoni Rolfes, K. S. Sophie Gothan, Joel Gruchot, Alexander M. Herrmann, Stefanie Bock, Luca Fazio, Antonia Henes, Venu Narayanan, Steffen Pfeuffer, Christopher Nelke, Saskia Räuber, Niklas Huntemann, Eduardo Duarte-Silva, Vera Dobelmann, Petra Hundehege, Heinz Wiendl, Katharina Raba, Patrick Küry, David Kremer, Tobias Ruck, Thomas Müntefering, Thomas Budde, Manuela Cerina & Sven G. Meuth
Abstract Background Cladribine is a synthetic purine analogue that interferes with DNA synthesis and repair next to disrupting cellular proliferation in actively dividing lymphocytes. The compound is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cladribine can cross the blood–brain barrier, suggesting a potential effect on central nervous system (CNS) resident cells. Here, we explored compartment-specific immunosuppressive as well as potential direct neuroprotective effects of oral cladribine treatment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. Methods...

Cladribine treatment improves cortical network functionality in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Christina B. Schroeter, Leoni Rolfes, K. S. Sophie Gothan, Joel Gruchot, Alexander M. Herrmann, Stefanie Bock, Luca Fazio, Antonia Henes, Venu Narayanan, Steffen Pfeuffer, Christopher Nelke, Saskia Räuber, Niklas Huntemann, Eduardo Duarte-Silva, Vera Dobelmann, Petra Hundehege, Heinz Wiendl, Katharina Raba, Patrick Küry, David Kremer, Tobias Ruck, Thomas Müntefering, Thomas Budde, Manuela Cerina & Sven G. Meuth
Abstract Background Cladribine is a synthetic purine analogue that interferes with DNA synthesis and repair next to disrupting cellular proliferation in actively dividing lymphocytes. The compound is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cladribine can cross the blood–brain barrier, suggesting a potential effect on central nervous system (CNS) resident cells. Here, we explored compartment-specific immunosuppressive as well as potential direct neuroprotective effects of oral cladribine treatment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. Methods...

Additional file 1 of Cladribine treatment improves cortical network functionality in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Christina B. Schroeter, Leoni Rolfes, K. S. Sophie Gothan, Joel Gruchot, Alexander M. Herrmann, Stefanie Bock, Luca Fazio, Antonia Henes, Venu Narayanan, Steffen Pfeuffer, Christopher Nelke, Saskia Räuber, Niklas Huntemann, Eduardo Duarte-Silva, Vera Dobelmann, Petra Hundehege, Heinz Wiendl, Katharina Raba, Patrick Küry, David Kremer, Tobias Ruck, Thomas Müntefering, Thomas Budde, Manuela Cerina & Sven G. Meuth
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Experimental scheme. Active MOG EAE was induced as previously described by immunization (day 0) of C57BL/6J mice with MOG35–55 peptide, followed by pertussis toxin (PTX) injections (day 0 and day 2) (15). Mice were divided into two experimental groups: Group 1 received cladribine via oral gavage (10 mg/kg from day 5 to day 9), while group 2 received only the vehicle for the same period of time. On day 10...

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