90 Works

Mehr Frauen im neuen Bundestag : Eine Analyse aus der Geschlechterperspektive

Lea Rabe
Der Frauenanteil im neu gewählten 20. Bundestag ist wieder leicht gestiegen. 34,7 % der Abgeordneten sind weiblich – unter ihnen auch erstmalig zwei offen lebende trans Frauen. Der Anstieg lässt sich vor allem auf die Stimmenzuwächse bei den GRÜNEN zurückführen. Dennoch sind Frauen, verglichen mit der Gesamtbevölkerung, zahlenmäßig unterrepräsentiert. Das liegt an den Nominierungsverfahren und einer maskulinisierten Parteikultur, die Interessentinnen nach wie vor abschreckt und vor Vereinbarkeitsprobleme stellt. Die Analyse des Wahlergebnisses zeigt: Parteiinterne Wahllistenquotierungen...

Data from: Mechanistic model of evolutionary rate variation en route to a nonphotosynthetic lifestyle in plants

Susann Wicke, Kai F. Müller, Claude W. DePamphilis, Dietmar Quandt, Sidonie Bellot & Gerald M. Schneeweiss
Because novel environmental conditions alter the selection pressure on genes or entire subgenomes, adaptive and nonadaptive changes will leave a measurable signature in the genomes, shaping their molecular evolution. We present herein a model of the trajectory of plastid genome evolution under progressively relaxed functional constraints during the transition from autotrophy to a nonphotosynthetic parasitic lifestyle. We show that relaxed purifying selection in all plastid genes is linked to obligate parasitism, characterized by the parasite’s...

Data from: Variation in the post-mating fitness landscape in fruitflies

Claudia Fricke & Tracey Chapman
Sperm competition is pervasive and fundamental to determining a male’s overall fitness. Sperm traits and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are key factors. However, studies of sperm competition may often exclude females that fail to remate during a defined period. Hence, the resulting datasets contain fewer data from the potentially fittest males that have most success in preventing female remating. It is also important to consider a male’s reproductive success before entering sperm competition, which is...

Data from: The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

Guido W. Grimm, Benjamin Bomfleur & Stephen McLoughlin
The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This...

Data from: Adaptive shaping of the behavioural and neuroendocrine phenotype during adolescence

Tobias D. Zimmermann, Sylvia Kaiser, Michael B. Hennessy & Norbert Sachser
Environmental conditions during early life can adaptively shape the phenotype for the prevailing environment. Recently, it has been suggested that adolescence represents an additional temporal window for adaptive developmental plasticity, though supporting evidence is scarce. Previous work has shown that male guinea pigs living in large mixed-sex colonies develop a low-aggressive phenotype as part of a queuing strategy that is adaptive for integrating into large unfamiliar colonies. By contrast, males living in pairs during adolescence...

Data from: Visible persistence of single-transient random dot patterns: spatial parameters affect the duration of fading percepts

Maximilian Bruchmann, Kathrin Thaler & Dirk Vorberg
Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk...

Data from: Resting-state gamma-band power alterations in schizophrenia reveal E/I-balance abnormalities across illness-stages

Tineke Grent-'T-Jong, Joachim Gross, Jozien Goense, Michael Wibral, Ruchika Gajwani, Andrew I. Gumley, Stephen M. Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Dagmar Koethe, F. Markus Leweke, Wolf Singer & Peter J. Uhlhaas
We examined alterations in E/I-balance in schizophrenia (ScZ) through measurements of resting-state gamma-band activity in participants meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria (n = 88), 21 first episode (FEP) patients and 34 chronic ScZ-patients. Furthermore, MRS-data were obtained in CHR-participants and matched controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) resting-state activity was examined at source level and MEG-data were correlated with neuropsychological scores and clinical symptoms. CHR-participants were characterized by increased 64–90 Hz power. In contrast, FEP- and ScZ-patients showed...

Data from: An integrated model of phenotypic trait changes and site-specific sequence evolution

Eli Levy Karin, Susann Wicke, Tal Pupko & Itay Mayrose
Recent years have seen a constant rise in the availability of trait data, including morphological features, ecological preferences, and life history characteristics. These phenotypic data provide means to associate genomic regions with phenotypic attributes, thus allowing the identification of phenotypic traits associated with the rate of genome and sequence evolution. However, inference methodologies that analyze sequence and phenotypic data in a unified statistical framework are still scarce. Here, we present TraitRateProp, a probabilistic method that...

Data from: Crop identity and memory effects on aboveground arthropods in a long-term crop rotation experiment

Michael Meyer, David Ott, Philipp Götze, Heinz-Josef Koch & Christoph Scherber
Agricultural landscapes are globally dominated by monocultures under intensive management. This is one of the main reasons for biodiversity loss and insect population decline in many regions all over the world. Agroecosystem biodiversity in these areas can be enhanced by cropping system diversification, such as crop rotations. Yet, long-term studies on effects of crop rotations on aboveground agrobiodiversity are lacking. We set up a 10-year long-term crop-rotation experiment in Central Germany and monitored the temporal...

Data from: Haemoglobin-mediated response to hyper-thermal stress in the keystone species Daphnia magna

Maria Cuenca Cambronero, Bettina Zeis & Luisa Orsini
Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms. A central...

Data from: A multi-faceted approach testing the effects of previous bacterial exposure on resistance and tolerance

Megan A. M. Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz & Sophie A. O. Armitage
1. Hosts can alter their strategy towards pathogens during their lifetime, i.e., they can show phenotypic plasticity in immunity or life history. Immune priming is one such example, where a previous encounter with a pathogen confers enhanced protection upon secondary challenge, resulting in reduced pathogen load (i.e. resistance) and improved host survival. However, an initial encounter might also enhance tolerance, particularly to less virulent opportunistic pathogens that establish persistent infections. In this scenario, individuals are...

Data from: Growth and survival of the superorganism: ant colony macronutrient intake and investment

Chris Smith & Yeisson Gutierrez
In this study, we used two common ant species (Lasius niger and L. neoniger) to assay how they translate variation in the diet (both in composition and frequency) into growth. We measured colony development for over 8 months and measured several phenotypic traits of the worker caste, and examined whether forager preference corresponded with diet quality. Optimal colony growth was a balance between survival and growth, and each of these were maximized with different nutrient...

Data and code for: Replay of innate vocal patterns during sleep in suboscines

Juan Francisco Döppler, Manon Peltier, Ana Amador, Franz Goller & Gabriel Mindlin
Activation of forebrain circuitry during sleep has been variably characterized as ‘pre- or replay’ and has been linked to memory consolidation. The evolutionary origins of this mechanism, however, are unknown. Sleep activation of the sensori-motor pathways of learned birdsong is a particularly useful model system because the muscles controlling the vocal organ are activated, revealing syringeal activity patterns for direct comparison with those of day-time vocal activity. Here we show that suboscine birds, which develop...

Genotypes and their interaction effects on reproduction and mating-induced immune activation in Drosophila melanogaster

Claudia Fricke, Sergio Ávila-Calero & Sophie Armitage
Mating causes considerable alterations in female physiology and behaviour, and immune gene expression, partly due to proteins transferred from males to females during copulation. The magnitude of these phenotypic changes could be driven by the genotypes of males and females, as well as their interaction. To test this, we carried out a series of genotype by genotype (G × G) experiments using Drosophila melanogaster populations from two distant geographical locations. We expected lines to have...

Data from: Adapted dandelions trade dispersal for germination upon root herbivore attack

Zoe Bont, Marc Pfander, Christelle Robert, Meret Huber, Erik Poelman, Ciska Raaijmakers & Matthias Erb
A plant’s offspring may escape unfavourable local conditions through seed dispersal. Whether plants use this strategy to escape insect herbivores is not well understood. Here, we explore how different dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) populations, including diploid outcrossers and triploid apomicts, modify seed dispersal in response to root herbivore attack by their main root-feeding natural enemy, the larvae of the common cockchafer Melolontha melolontha. In a manipulative field experiment, root herbivore attack increased seed dispersal potential...

Data from: Heritable variation in root secondary metabolites is associated with recent climate

Zoe Bont, Tobias Züst, Carla Arce, Meret Huber & Matthias Erb
1. Plants can adapt to changing environments by adjusting the production and maintenance of diverse sets of bioactive secondary metabolites. To date, the impact of climatic conditions relative to other factors such as soil abiotic factors and herbivore pressure on the evolution of plant secondary metabolites is poorly understood, especially for plant roots. 2. We explored associations between root latex secondary metabolites in 63 Taraxacum officinale populations across Switzerland and climatic conditions, soil abiotic parameters,...

Rapid adaptive evolution to drought in a subset of plant traits in a large-scale climate change experiment

Johannes Metz, Christian Lampei, Laura Bäumler, Hervé Bocherens, Hannes Dittberner, Lorenz Henneberg, Juliette De Meaux & Katja Tielbörger
Rapid evolution of traits and of plasticity may enable adaptation to climate change, yet solid experimental evidence under natural conditions is scarce. Here, we imposed rainfall manipulations (+30%, control, -30%) for ten years on entire natural plant communities in two Eastern Mediterranean sites. Additional sites along a natural rainfall gradient and selection analyses in a greenhouse assessed whether potential responses were adaptive. In both sites, our annual target species Biscutella didyma consistently evolved earlier phenology...

Pollinator community predicts trait-matching between oil-producing flowers and a guild of oil-collecting bees

Hilke Hollens-Kuhr, Timotheüs Van Der Niet, Ruth Cozien & Michael Kuhlmann
The impact of pollinator community diversity on trait-matching in plant-pollinator interactions is poorly studied, even though many mutualisms involve multiple interaction partners. We studied ten communities in which one to three species of oil-collecting Rediviva bee pollinate the long-spurred, oil-producing flowers of Diascia ‘floribunda’ to examine how pollinator diversity affects covariation of functional traits across sites and trait-matching within sites. Floral spur-length was significantly correlated with weighted grand mean foreleg length of the local bee...

ddRAD-derived genotypes of Centaurea jacea and Betonica officinalis populations from the White Carpathians

Johannes Höfner, Theresa Klein-Raufhake, Christian Lampei, Ondrej Mudrak, Anna Bucharova & Walter Durka
Ecological restoration and plant re-introductions aim to create plant populations that are genetically similar to natural populations to preserve the regional gene pool, yet genetically diverse to allow adaptation to a changing environment. For this purpose, seeds for restoration are increasingly sourced from multiple populations in the target region. However, it has only rarely been tested whether using regional seed indeed leads to genetically diverse restored populations which are genetically similar to natural populations. We...

Data from: Does functional soil microbial diversity contribute to explain within-site plant β-diversity in an alpine grassland and a dehesa meadow in Spain?

Yoseph N. Araya, Maik Bartelheimer, Cipriano J. Valle, Rosa M. Crujeiras & Gonzalo García-Baquero
Questions Once effects of hydrological and chemical soil properties have been accounted for, does soil microbial diversity contribute to explain change in plant community structure (i.e. within-site β-diversity)? If so, at what spatial scale does microbial diversity operate? Location La Mina in Moscosa Farm, Salamanca, western Spain (dehesa community) and Laguna Larga in the Urbión Peaks, Soria, central-northern Spain (alpine grassland). Methods The abundance of vascular plant species, soil Gram-negative microbial functional types and soil...

Data from: Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora)

Thorsten Reusch, Sören Bolte, Maximiliane Sparwel, Anthony Moss & Jamileh Javidpour
Marine invasions take place at an increasing rate. When occurring in blooms, zooplanktivorous comb jellies of the genus Mnemiopsis are able to cause pelagic regime shifts in coastal areas, and may cause the collapse of commercially important fish populations. Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions. Our preliminary data set included 4 sites within the putative source region (US...

Data from: Phylogeographic differentiation versus transcriptomic adaptation to warm temperatures in Zostera marina, a globally important seagrass

Alexander Jueterbock, Susanne U. Franssen, Nina Bergmann, Jenny Gu, James A. Coyer, Thorsten B. H. Reusch, Erich Bornberg-Bauer & Jeanine L. Olsen
Populations distributed across a broad thermal cline are instrumental in addressing adaptation to increasing temperatures under global warming. Using a space-for-time substitution design, we tested for parallel adaptation to warm temperatures along two independent thermal clines in Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. A North–South pair of populations was sampled along the European and North American coasts and exposed to a simulated heatwave in a common-garden mesocosm. Transcriptomic responses...

Data from: Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates

Victor C. Mason, Gang Li, Patrick Minx, Jurgen Schmitz, Gennady Churakov, Liliya Doronina, Amanda D. Melin, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Norman T-L. Lim, Mark S. Springer, Richard K. Wilson, Wesley C. Warren, Kristofer M. Helgen & William J. Murphy
Colugos are one of the most poorly studied mammals despite their centrality to resolving supraordinal primate relationships. Two described species of these gliding mammals are the sole living members of the order Dermoptera, distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We generated a draft genome sequence for a Sunda colugo and a Philippine colugo reference alignment, and used these to identify colugo-specific genetic changes that were enriched in sensory and musculo-skeletal related genes that likely underlie their nocturnal...

Data from: Different effects of paternal trans-generational immune priming on survival and immunity in step and genetic offspring

Hendrik Eggert, Joachim Kurtz & Maike F. Diddens-De Buhr
Paternal trans-generational immune priming, whereby fathers provide immune protection to offspring, has been demonstrated in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum exposed to the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. It is currently unclear how such protection is transferred, as in contrast to mothers, fathers do not directly provide offspring with a large amount of substances. In addition to sperm, male flour beetles transfer seminal fluids in a spermatophore to females during copulation. Depending on whether paternal...

Data from: Genotype and diet affect resistance, survival, and fecundity but not fecundity tolerance

M. A. M. Kutzer, J. Kurtz & S. A. O. Armitage
Insects are exposed to a variety of potential pathogens in their environment, many of which can severely impact fitness and health. Consequently, hosts have evolved resistance and tolerance strategies to suppress or cope with infections. Hosts utilizing resistance improve fitness by clearing or reducing pathogen loads, and hosts utilizing tolerance reduce harmful fitness effects per pathogen load. To understand variation in, and selective pressures on, resistance and tolerance, we asked to what degree they are...

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