28 Works

Data from: Temporal structure of human gaze dynamics is invariant during free viewing

Colleen A. Marlow, Indre V. Viskontas, Alisa Matlin, Cooper Boydston, Adam Boxer & Richard P. Taylor
We investigate the dynamic structure of human gaze and present an experimental study of the frequency components of the change in gaze position over time during free viewing of computer-generated fractal images. We show that changes in gaze position are scale-invariant in time with statistical properties that are characteristic of a random walk process. We quantify and track changes in the temporal structure using a well-defined scaling parameter called the Hurst exponent, H. We find...

Data from: Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automation

Oscar Beijbom, Peter J. Edmunds, Chris Roelfsema, Jennifer Smith, David I. Kline, Benjamin Neal, Matthew J. Dunlap, Vincent Moriarty, Tung-Yung Fan, Chih-Jui Tan, Stephen Chan, Tali Treibitz, Anthony Gamst, B. Greg Mitchell, David Kriegman & Benjamin P. Neal
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and...

Data from: Socially selected ornaments and fitness: signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank

Elizabeth Alison Tibbetts, Taylor Forrest, Cassondra Vernier, Judy Jinn & Andrew Madagame
Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially-selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests,...

Data from: Geographically contrasting biodiversity reductions in a widespread New Zealand seabird

Nicolas J. Rawlence, Martyn Kennedy, Christian N. K. Anderson, Stefan Prost, Charlotte E. Till, Ian Smith, R. Paul Scofield, Alan J. D. Tennyson, Jill Hamel, Chris Lalas, Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith, Jonathan M. Waters & Ian W. G. Smith
Unravelling prehistoric anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity represents a key challenge for biologists and archaeologists. New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two distinct phylogeographic lineages, currently restricted to the country's south and southeast. However, fossil and archaeological remains suggest a far more widespread distribution at the time of Polynesian settlement ca. 1280 AD, encompassing much of coastal South Island. We used modern and ancient DNA, radiocarbon dating, and Bayesian modelling, to assess the...

Data from: Elevating perceived predation risk modifies the relationship between parental effort and song complexity in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

Melissa L. Grunst, John T. Rotenberry & Andrea S. Grunst
Adult-directed predation risk elevates costs of parental care, and may modify relationships between sexually selected ornaments and parental effort by accentuating the tradeoff between survival and parental investment. We assessed multiple hypotheses regarding the relationship between maternal effort, paternal effort, and the sexually selected trait of male song complexity in the song sparrow Melospiza melodia. Further, we explored whether experimentally elevating perceived adult-directed predation risk near nests affected these relationships. We quantified two dimensions of...

Data from: Forest disturbance accelerates thermophilization of understory plant communities

Jens T. Stevens, Hugh D. Safford, Susan Harrison & Andrew M. Latimer
1. Climate change is likely to shift plant communities towards species from warmer regions, a process termed “thermophilization.” In forests, canopy disturbances such as fire may hasten this process by increasing temperature and moisture stress in the understory, yet little is known about the mechanisms that might drive such shifts, or the consequences of these processes for plant diversity. 2. We sampled understory vegetation across a gradient of disturbance severity from a large-scale natural experiment...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species

Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh & Robert K. Wayne
The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a...

Data from: Signal architecture: temporal variability and individual consistency of multiple sexually selected signals

Alexis S. Chaine & Bruce E. Lyon
1. Multiple signals should be favoured when the benefit of additional signals outweigh their costs. Despite increased attention on multiple-signalling systems, few studies have focused on signal architecture to understand the potential information content of multiple signals. 2. To understand the patterns of signal plasticity and consistency over the lifetime of individuals we conducted a longitudinal study of multiple signals known to be under sexual selection in male lark buntings, Calamospiza melanocorys. 3. Within years,...

Data from: Selection for territory acquisition is modulated by social network structure in a wild songbird

Damien R. Farine & Ben C. Sheldon
The social environment may be a key mediator of selection that operates on animals. In many cases, individuals may experience selection not only as a function of their phenotype, but also as a function of the interaction between their phenotype and the phenotypes of the conspecifics they associate with. For example, when animals settle after dispersal, individuals may benefit from arriving early, but, in many cases, these benefits will be affected by the arrival times...

Data from: Small-scale restoration in intensive agricultural landscapes supports more specialized and less mobile pollinator species

Claire Kremen & Leithen K. M'Gonigle
1. Agriculture now constitutes 40–50% of terrestrial land use globally. By enhancing habitat suitability and connectivity, restoration within agricultural landscapes could have a major influence on biodiversity conservation. However, habitat management within intensive agricultural landscapes may primarily boost abundances of common, highly mobile generalists, rather than vulnerable or endangered species. We studied pollinator community response to small-scale habitat restoration in the intensively farmed Central Valley of California to determine whether restoration could also promote more...

Data from: Heritability and genetic correlations of personality traits in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)

Matthew B. Petelle, Julien G. A. Martin & Daniel T. Blumstein
Describing and quantifying animal personality is now an integral part of behavioural studies because individually distinctive behaviours have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Yet, to fully understand how personality traits may respond to selection, one must understand the underlying heritability and genetic correlations between traits. Previous studies have reported a moderate degree of heritability of personality traits but few of these studies have either been conducted in the wild or estimated the genetic correlations between personality...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies

Patrick Venail, Kevin Gross, Todd H. Oakley, Anita Narwani, Eric Allan, Pedro Flombaum, Forest Isbell, Jasmin Joshi, Peter B. Reich, David Tilman, Jasper Van Ruijven & Bradley J. Cardinale
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function...

Data from: Seascape drivers of Macrocystis pyrifera population genetic structure in the northeast Pacific

Mattias L. Johansson, Filipe Alberto, Daniel C. Reed, Peter T. Raimondi, Nelson C. Coelho, Mary A. Young, Patrick T. Drake, Christopher A. Edwards, Kyle Cavanaugh, Jorge Assis, Lydia B. Ladah, Tom W. Bell, James A. Coyer, David A. Siegel & Ester A. Serrão
At small spatial and temporal scales, genetic differentiation is largely controlled by constraints on gene flow, while genetic diversity across a species' distribution is shaped on longer temporal and spatial scales. We assess the hypothesis that oceanographic transport and other seascape features explain different scales of genetic structure of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We followed a hierarchical approach to perform a microsatellite-based analysis of genetic differentiation in Macrocystis across its distribution in the northeast Pacific....

Data from: Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savannah

Robert M. Pringle, Duncan M. Kimuyu, Ryan L. Sensenig, Todd M. Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Kari E. Veblen & Truman P. Young
1. Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. 2. We factorially...

Data from: The scale-of-choice effect and how estimates of assortative mating in the wild can be biased due to heterogeneous samples

Emilio Rolan-Alvarez, Antonio Carvajal-Rodriguez, Alicia De Coo, Beatriz Cortés, Daniel Estévez-Barcia, Mar Ferreira, Rubén González & Adriana D. Briscoe
The mode in which sexual organisms choose mates is a key evolutionary process, as it can have a profound impact on fitness and speciation. One way to study mate choice in the wild is by measuring trait correlation between mates. Positive assortative mating is inferred when individuals of a mating pair display traits that are more similar than those expected under random mating while negative assortative mating is the opposite. A recent review of 1134...

Data from: Negligible nuclear introgression despite complete mitochondrial capture between two species of chipmunks

Jeffrey M. Good, Dan Vanderpool, Sara Maria Keeble, Ke Bi & Sara Keeble
The idea that species boundaries can be semipermeable to gene flow is now widely accepted but the evolutionary importance of introgressive hybridization remains unclear. Here we examine the genomic contribution of gene flow between two hybridizing chipmunk species, Tamias ruficaudus and Tamias amoenus. Previous studies have shown that ancient hybridization has resulted in complete fixation of introgressed T. ruficaudus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in some populations of T. amoenus, but the extent of nuclear introgression is...

Data from: Do high-impact invaders have the strongest negative effects on abundant and functionally similar resident species?

Erica J. Case, Susan Harrison & Howard V. Cornell
1.Although invasive plants may outcompete and cause local-scale extirpations of resident species, it is widely observed that they cause few extinctions at larger spatial scales. 2.One possible explanation is that highly successful invaders tend to be functionally similar to, and therefore compete most strongly with, resident species that are also relatively successful and widespread. High abundance may then protect these functionally similar residents from complete extinction over large areas despite their stronger competition with the...

Data from: Queen killing is linked to high worker-worker relatedness in a social wasp

Kevin J. Loope
Social insect colonies are pinnacles of evolved altruism, but also contain dramatic conflict among relatives [1, 2]. In many species, a colony’s workers compete with the queen and each other over the production of males. Interspecific comparisons demonstrate the importance of within-colony relatedness in determining the outcome of this conflict [3, 4], but facultative responses to within-colony relatedness are rarely reported [5-7]. Here, I report facultative matricide (worker killing of a colony’s queen) in the...

Data from: Elucidating steroid alkaloid biosynthesis in Veratrum californicum: production of verazine in Sf9 cells

Megan M. Augustin, Dan R. Ruzicka, Ashutosh K. Shukla, Courtney M. Starks, Mark O'Neil-Johnson, Michael R. McKain, Bradley S. Evans, Matthew D. Barrett, Ann Smithson, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Michael K. Deyholos, Patrick P. Edger, J. Chris Pires, James H. Leebens-Mack, Dave A. Mann, Toni M. Kutchan & Matt D. Barrett
Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the...

Data from: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation

Erica A. Newman, Lars Eisen, Rebecca J. Eisen, Natalia Fedorova, Jeomhee M. Hasty, Charles Vaughn & Robert S. Lane
Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized...

Data from: Seed source impacts germination and early establishment of dominant grasses in prairie restorations

M. Kate Gallagher & Stuart Wagenius
Land managers choose seed from a variety of provenances for restoration projects. By selecting seed of the local ecotype, managers can increase establishment in the short term and prevent the disruption of local adaptations and genetic swamping in the long term. However, local seed may be disadvantageous if populations are inbred or maladapted to managed restoration environments. Seed selection may be further confounded by propagation methods. Three dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula and...

Data from: Basking sharks and oceanographic fronts: quantifying associations in the north-east Atlantic

Peter I. Miller, Kylie L. Scales, Simon N. Ingram, Emily J. Southall & David W. Sims
1. Understanding the mechanisms that link oceanographic processes and marine vertebrate space use is critical to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning, and for effective management of populations of conservation concern. 2. The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus has been observed in association with oceanographic fronts – physical interfaces at the transitions between water masses – exploiting foraging opportunities resulting from zooplankton aggregation. However, the scale, significance and variability of these associations have not previously been...

Data from: Linking transcriptional responses to organismal tolerance reveals mechanisms of thermal sensitivity in a mesothermal endangered fish

Lisa M. Komoroske, Richard E. Connon, Kenneth M. Jeffries, Nann A. Fangue & Ken M. Jeffries
Forecasting species' responses to climate change requires understanding the underlying mechanisms governing environmental stress tolerance, including acclimation capacity and acute stress responses. Current knowledge of these physiological processes in aquatic ectotherms is largely drawn from eurythermal or extreme stenothermal species. Yet many species of conservation concern exhibit tolerance windows and acclimation capacities in between these extremes. We linked transcriptome profiles to organismal tolerance in a mesothermal endangered fish, the delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), to quantify...

Data from: Phylogenetic placement of the unusual jumping spider Depreissia Lessert, and a new synapomorphy uniting Hisponinae and Salticinae (Araneae, Salticidae)

Wayne P. Maddison, David R. Maddison, Junxia Zhang & Tamás Szűts
The relationships of the unusual salticid spider Depreissia from central Africa and Borneo have been difficult to resolve, obscured by its highly modified ant-like body. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene 28S strongly supports its placement outside the major clade Salticinae and within the clade of cocalodines, spartaeines and lapsiines, with weaker support for a relationship with the cocalodines in particular. Excluding the genus from the Salticinae is supported also by the presence of a median...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of California System
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Georgia
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Western Sydney University