42 Works

Data from: A Bayesian approach for detecting the impact of mass-extinction events on molecular phylogenies when rates of lineage diversification may vary

Michael R. May, Sebastian Hoehna & Brian R. Moore
The paleontological record chronicles numerous episodes of mass extinction that severely culled the Tree of Life. Biologists have long sought to assess the extent to which these events may have impacted particular groups. We present a novel method for detecting the impact of mass-extinction events on molecular phylogenies, even in the presence of tree-wide diversification-rate variation and in the absence of additional information from the fossil record. Our approach is based on an episodic stochastic-branching...

Data from: Calling in sick: impacts of fever on intra-urban human mobility

T. Alex Perkins, Valerie A. Paz-Soldan, Steven T. Stoddard, Amy C. Morrison, Brett M. Forshey, Kanya C. Long, Eric S. Halsey, Tadeusz J. Kochel, John P. Elder, Uriel Kitron, Thomas W. Scott & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
Pathogens inflict a wide variety of disease manifestations on their hosts, yet the impacts of disease on the behaviour of infected hosts are rarely studied empirically and are seldom accounted for in mathematical models of transmission dynamics. We explored the potential impacts of one of the most common disease manifestations, fever, on a key determinant of pathogen transmission, host mobility, in residents of the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We did so by comparing two...

Data from: Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: implications for Batesian mimicry

Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Christian L. Cox & Daniel L. Rabosky
Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2,175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing...

Data from: Comparing the responses of bryophytes and short-statured vascular plants to climate shifts and eutrophication

Risto Virtanen, Anu Eskelinen & Susan Harrison
Few experimental studies have tested how abundance and diversity of grassland bryophytes respond to global environmental changes such as climate shifts and eutrophication. Because bryophytes in grasslands are low-statured, and because plant height is a key functional trait governing plant responses to resource gradients, their responses to these factors could resemble those of better-studied small vascular plants. Alternatively, traits unique to bryophytes could lead to qualitatively different responses than those of small vascular plants. In...

Data from: Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite

Kelsey M. Yule, Jennifer A. H. Koop, Nicolas M. Alexandre, Lauren R. Johnston & Noah K. Whiteman
Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across...

Data from: Spatiotemporal patterns of duck nest density and predation risk: a multi-scale analysis of 18 years and more than 10 000 nests

Kevin Ringelman, John M. Eadie, Joshua T. Ackerman, Andy Sih, Daniel L. Loughman, Gregory S. Yarris, Shaun L. Oldenburger, M. Robert McLandress, Kevin M. Ringelman & Andrew Sih
Many avian species are behaviorally-plastic in selecting nest sites, and may shift to new locations or habitats following an unsuccessful breeding attempt. If there is predictable spatial variation in predation risk, the process of many individuals using prior experience to adaptively change nest sites may scale up to create shifting patterns of nest density at a population level. We used 18 years of waterfowl nesting data to assess whether there were areas of consistently high...

Data from: Honey bee inhibitory signaling is tuned to threat severity and can act as a colony alarm signal

Ken Tan, Shihao Dong, Xinyu Li, Xiwen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianjun Li & James C. Nieh
Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that like A....

Data from: An evaluation of transcriptome-based exon capture for frog phylogenomics across multiple scales of divergence (Class: Amphibia, Order: Anura)

Daniel M. Portik, Lydia L. Smith & Ke Bi
Custom sequence capture experiments are becoming an efficient approach for gathering large sets of orthologous markers in nonmodel organisms. Transcriptome-based exon capture utilizes transcript sequences to design capture probes, typically using a reference genome to identify intron–exon boundaries to exclude shorter exons (<200 bp). Here, we test directly using transcript sequences for probe design, which are often composed of multiple exons of varying lengths. Using 1260 orthologous transcripts, we conducted sequence captures across multiple phylogenetic...

Data from: Elevation and latitude interact to drive life-history variation in precocial birds: a comparative analysis using Galliformes

Priya Balasubramaniam & John T. Rotenberry
Elevational gradients provide a powerful laboratory for understanding the environmental and ecological drivers of geographic variation in avian life-history strategies. Environmental variation across elevational gradients is hypothesized to select for a trade-off of reduced fecundity (lower clutch size and/or fewer broods) for higher offspring quality (larger eggs and/or increased parental care) in higher elevation species and populations. In birds, a focus on altricial species from north temperate latitudes has prevented an evaluation of the generality...

Data from: The evolution of reproductive diversity in Afrobatrachia: a phylogenetic comparative analysis of an extensive radiation of African frogs

Daniel M. Portik & David C. Blackburn
The reproductive modes of anurans (frogs and toads) are the most diverse of terrestrial vertebrates, and a major challenge is identifying selective factors that promote the evolution or retention of reproductive modes across clades. Terrestrialized anuran breeding strategies have evolved repeatedly from the plesiomorphic fully aquatic reproductive mode, a process thought to occur through intermediate reproductive stages. Several selective forces have been proposed for the evolution of terrestrialized reproductive traits, but factors such as water...

Data from: Genomic evidence for ecological divergence against a background of population homogeneity in the marine snail Chlorostoma funebralis

Lani U. Gleason & Ronald S. Burton
The balance between natural selection, gene flow and genetic drift is difficult to resolve in marine invertebrates with extensive dispersal and fluctuating population sizes. The intertidal snail Chlorostoma funebralis has planktonic larvae and previous work using mtDNA polymorphism reported no genetic population structure. Nevertheless, recent studies have documented differences in thermal tolerance and transcriptomic responses to heat stress between northern and southern California, USA, populations. To gain insight into the dynamics influencing adaptive divergence, we...

Data from: Competing for seed dispersal: evidence for the role of avian seed hoarders in mediating apparent predation among oaks

Mario B. Pesendorfer & Walter D. Koenig
In communities of large-seeded tree species, generalist seed hoarders often link the temporally variable dynamics of various species in ways that can result in indirect ecological interactions. A special case of such interactions is ‘apparent predation’ – when variation in seed production of one tree species changes the outcome of the interaction between seed hoarders and another tree species from seed dispersal mutualism to predation. We investigated how two species of avian hoarders responded to...

Data from: Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a large tapeworm affects community assembly

Daniel P. Benesh & Martin Kalbe
Non-random species associations occur in naturally-sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross-immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour, and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks....

Data from: Agricultural practices for food safety threaten pest control services for fresh produce

Daniel S. Karp, Rebekah Moses, Sasha Gennet, Matthew S. Jones, Shimat Joseph, Leithen K. M'Gonigle, Lauren C. Ponisio, William E. Snyder & Claire Kremen
Over the past decade, several foodborne disease outbreaks provoked widespread reforms to the fresh produce industry. Subsequent concerns about wildlife vectors and contaminated manures created pressure on growers to discontinue use of manure-based composts and remove nearby semi-natural vegetation. Despite widespread adoption, impacts of these practices on ecosystem services such as pest control have not been assessed. We used a landscape-scale field experiment to quantify associations between compost applications, semi-natural vegetation, pest control services and...

Data from: Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization

Nicolas Deguines, Romain Julliard, Mathieu De Flores & Colin Fontaine
Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions...

Data from: Human–wildlife conflict, benefit sharing and the survival of lions in pastoralist community-based conservancies

Sara Blackburn, J. Grant C. Hopcraft, Joseph O. Ogutu, Jason Matthiopoulos & Laurence Frank
Like many wildlife populations across Africa, recent analyses indicate that African lions are declining rapidly outside of small fenced areas. Community conservancies – privately protected areas that engage community members in conservation – may potentially maintain wildlife populations in unfenced pastoralist regions, but their effectiveness in conserving large carnivores has been largely unknown until now. We identify drivers of lion survival in community conservancies within the Masai Mara ecosystem, Kenya, applying mark–recapture analyses to continuous...

Data from: Estimating resource preferences of a native bumblebee: the effects of availability and use-availability models on preference estimatess

Alexandra N. Harmon-Threatt, Perry De Valpine & Claire Kremen
Identifying resource preference is considered essential for developing targeted conservation plans but, for many species, questions remain about the best way to estimate preference. Resource preferences for bees are particularly difficult to determine as the resources they collect, nectar and pollen, are challenging to estimate availability and collection. Resources are traditionally measured at the flower or inflorescence level, but these measures of availability do not correspond to the resources actually used by bees. Additionally, it...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    42

Affiliations

  • University of California System
    42
  • University of California, Berkeley
    7
  • San Diego State University
    4
  • University of California, Riverside
    4
  • University of California, Davis
    4
  • University of Florida
    3
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • The University of Texas at Arlington
    2
  • University of Lausanne
    2
  • Australian National University
    2