21 Works

Data from: Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney

Andrzej A. Romaniuk, Alexandra N. Shepherd, David V. Clarke, Alison J. Sheridan, Sheena Fraser, László Bartosiewicz & Jeremy S. Herman
Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have...

Data from: Two species of Southeast Asian cats in the genus Catopuma with diverging histories: an island endemic forest specialist and a widespread habitat generalist

Riddhi P. Patel, Daniel W. Förster, Andrew C. Kitchener, Mark D. Rayan, Shariff W. Mahamed, Laura Werner, Dorina Lenz, Hans Pfestorf, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Viktoriia Radchuk, Jörns Fickel & Andreas Wilting
Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and...

Data from: Novel track morphotypes from new tracksites indicate increased Middle Jurassic dinosaur diversity on the Isle of Skye Scotland

Paige E. DePolo, Stephen L. Brusatte, Thomas J. Challands, Davide Foffa, Mark Wilkinson, Neil D. L. Clark, Jon Hoad, Paulo Pereira, Dugald A. Ross & Thomas J. Wade
Dinosaur fossils from the Middle Jurassic are rare globally, but the Isle of Skye (Scotland, UK) preserves a varied dinosaur record of abundant trace fossils and rare body fossils from this time. Here we describe two new tracksites from Rubha nam Brathairean (Brothers’ Point) near where the first dinosaur footprint in Scotland was found in the 1980s. These sites were formed in subaerially exposed mudstones of the Lealt Shale Formation of the Great Estuarine Group...

Digital 3D models and measurements of avian brain cavity, blood vessel and nerve endocasts

S. A. Walsh, A. N. Iwaniuk, M. A. Knoll, E. Bourdon, P. M. Barrett, A. Milner, R. Nudds, R. L. Abel & P. Dello Sterpaio
This dataset comprises cast reconstructions of brain cavity space in 60 extant avian species, derived from X-ray micro computed-tomography scan image stacks. Each reconstruction was made using Materialise Mimics 14.11 to create volumetric models (brain cavity casts) that were then transformed into the polygon mesh stereolithograph (STL) files archived here. Brain cavity cast models are in most cases accompanied by casts of main vascular features (e.g., carotid arteries) and the olfactory nerves (CN I). A...

Data from: An integrative skeletal and paleogenomic analysis of stature variation suggests relatively reduced health for early European farmers

Stephanie Marciniak, Christina Bergey, Ana Maria Silva, Agata Hałuszko, Mirosław Furmanek, Barbara Veselka, Petr Velemínský, Giuseppe Vercellotti, Joachim Wahl, Gunita Zarina, Cristina Longhi, Jan Kolář, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Raúl Flores-Fernández, Ana M. Herrero-Corral, Angela Simalcsik, Werner Müller, Alison Sheridan, Žydrūnė Miliauskienė, Rimantas Jankauskas, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Kitti Köhler, Ágnes Király, Beatriz Gamarra, Olivia Cheronet … & George H. Perry
Human culture, biology, and health were shaped dramatically by the onset of agriculture ~12,000 years before present (BP). This shift is hypothesized to have resulted in increased individual fitness and population growth as evidenced by archaeological and population genomic data alongside a decline in physiological health as inferred from skeletal remains. Here, we consider osteological and ancient DNA data from the same prehistoric individuals to study human stature variation as a proxy for health across...

Phenotypic plasticity determines differences between the skulls of tigers from mainland Asia

David Cooper, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi, David Macdonald, Olga Nanova, Viktor Yudin, Andrew Dugmore & Andrew Kitchener
Tiger subspecific taxonomy is controversial because of morphological and genetic variation found between now fragmented populations, yet the extent to which phenotypic plasticity or genetic variation affects phenotypes of putative tiger subspecies has not been explicitly addressed. In order to assess the role of phenotypic plasticity in determining skull variation, we compared skull morphology amongst continental tigers from zoos and the wild. In turn, we examine continental tiger skulls from across their wild range, to...

Data from: The genetic legacy of the 19th century decline of the British polecat: evidence for extensive introgression from feral ferrets

Mafalda Costa, Carlos Fernandes, Johnny D. S. Birks, Andrew C. Kitchener, Margarida Santos-Reis & Mike W. Bruford
In the 19th century, the British polecat suffered a demographic contraction, as a consequence of direct persecution, reaching its lowest population in the years that preceded the First World War. The polecat is now recovering and expanding throughout Britain, but introgressive hybridization with feral ferrets has been reported, which could be masking the true range of the polecat and introducing domestic genes into the species. We used a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region...

Data from: Finite element modelling vs. classic beam theory: comparing methods for stress estimation in a morphologically diverse sample of vertebrate long bones

Charlotte A. Brassey, Lee Margetts, Andrew C. Kitchener, Philip J. Withers, Phillip L. Manning & William I. Sellers
Classic beam theory is frequently employed in biomechanics to model the stress behaviour of vertebrate long bones, particularly when creating intraspecific scaling models. Although methodologically straightforward, classic beam theory requires complex irregular bones to be approximated as slender beams, and the errors associated with simplifying complex organic structures to such an extent are unknown. Alternative approaches, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA), whilst much more time-consuming to perform, require no such assumptions. This paper compares...

Data from: Genetic structure in Orkney island mice: isolation promotes morphological diversification

Pascale Chevret, Lionel Hautier, Guila Ganem, Jeremy Herman, Sylvie Agret, Jean-Christophe Auffray & Sabrina Renaud
Following human occupation, the house mouse has colonized numerous islands, exposing the species to a wide variety of environments. Such a colonization process, involving successive founder events and bottlenecks, may either promote random evolution or facilitate adaptation, making the relative importance of adaptive and stochastic processes in insular evolution difficult to assess. Here, we jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variation in the house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from the Orkney archipelago. Genetic analyses, based on...

Secondary exposure to second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in European polecats (Mustela putorius) in Great Britain 2013 to 2016

K.A. Sainsbury, R.A. McDonald, R.F. Shore, M.G. Pereira, D. Sleep, H. Schofield, E. Croose, A.C. Kitchener & G. Hantke
Data comprise measurements of carcass condition (age, sex, length, mass and fat score), age (from stable isotope analysis of whiskers and Cementum aging of teeth) and rodenticide concentrations (bromadiolone, difenacoum, brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone) in liver tissues for 68 polecats found dead in Great Britain between 2013 and 2016. All carcasses were stored frozen until necropsy examination at the National Museum of Scotland (with support from The Negaunee Foundation). Liver samples were frozen and transferred...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: The dentary of Wareolestes rex (Megazostrodontidae): a new specimen from Scotland and implications for morganucodontan tooth replacement

Elsa Panciroli, Roger B. J. Benson & Stig Walsh
The Middle Jurassic morganucodontan, Wareolestes rex, was previously known from only four isolated molars from Kirtlington, England. There has been debate over the position of the holotype tooth as an upper or lower molar. We describe a new Wareolestes specimen from the Kilmaluag Formation of Scotland: a partial left dentary with two erupted molars, one unerupted molar and three unerupted premolars. Empty alveoli for a canine, p1 and p3 are also present. Through detailed comparison...

Women in shunga: Questions of Objectification and Equality

Louise Boyd
The objectification of women in art and pornography is often seen as harmful. However, Martha Nussbaum’s articulation of seven types of objectification shows how it can be benign or positive depending on the context. This paper utilizes Nussbaum’s ideas to examine the objectification of women depicted in shunga, sexually explicit art created in 17th-19th century Japan, and how it differs from European art of the same period. It also explores related issues of equality, sexuality,...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Data from: Assessing metabolic constraints on the maximum body size of actinopterygians: locomotion energetics of Leedsichthys problematicus (Actinopterygii, Pachycormiformes)

Humberto G. Ferrón, Borja Holgado, Jeff J. Liston, Carlos Martínez Pérez & Hector Botella
Maximum sizes attained by living actinopterygians are much smaller than those reached by chondrichthyans. Several factors, including the high metabolic requirements of bony fishes, have been proposed as possible body-size constraints but no empirical approaches exist. Remarkably, fossil evidence has rarely been considered despite some extinct actinopterygians reaching sizes comparable to those of the largest living sharks. Here, we have assessed the locomotion energetics of Leedsichthys problematicus, an extinct gigantic suspension-feeder and the largest actinopterygian...

Data from: Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant, and space

Tommi Nyman, Sanna A. Leppänen, Gergely Várkonyi, Mark R. Shaw, Reijo Koivisto, Trond Elling Barstad, Veli Vikberg & Heikki Roininen
Studies on the determinants of plant–herbivore and herbivore–parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls...

Data from: Distinguishing the victim from the threat: SNP‐based methods reveal the extent of introgressive hybridization between wildcats and domestic cats in Scotland and inform future in situ and ex situ management options for species restoration

Helen V. Senn, Muhammad Ghazali, Jennifer Kaden, David Barcaly, Ben Harrower, Ruairidh D. Campbell, David W. MacDonald, Andrew C. Kitchener & David Barclay
The degree of introgressive hybridisation between the Scottish wildcat and domestic cat has long been suspected to be advanced. Here we use a 35-SNP-marker test, designed to assess hybridisation between wildcat and domestic cat populations in Scotland, to assess a database of 265 wild-living and captive cat samples, and test the assumptions of the test using 3097 SNP markers generated independently in a subset of the data using ddRAD. We discovered that despite increased genetic...

Glacial cycles drive rapid divergence of cryptic field vole species

Nicholas Fletcher, Pelayo Acevedo, Jeremy S. Herman, Joana Pauperio, Paulo Alves & Jeremy Searle
Understanding the factors that contribute to the generation of reproductively isolated forms is a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Cryptic species are an especially interesting challenge to study in this context since they lack obvious morphological differentiation that provides clues to adaptive divergence that may drive reproductive isolation. Geographical isolation in refugial areas during glacial cycling is known to be important for generating genetically divergent populations, but its role in the origination of new species...

On the use of genome-wide data to model and date the time of anthropogenic hybridisation: an example from the Scottish wildcat

Jo Howard-McCombe, Daniel Ward, Andrew Kitchener, Dan Lawson, Helen Senn & Mark Beaumont
While hybridisation has long been recognised as an important natural phenomenon in evolution, the conservation of taxa subject to introgressive hybridisation from domesticated forms is a subject of intense debate. Hybridisation of Scottish wildcats and domestic cats is a good example in this regard. We develop a modelling framework to determine the timescale of introgression using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). Applying the model to ddRAD-seq data from 129 individuals, genotyped at 6,546 loci, we show...

Data from: Postcrania of Borealestes (Mammaliformes: Docodonta) and the emergence of ecomorphological diversity in early mammals

Elsa Panciroli, Roger Benson, Vincent Fernandez, Matthew Humpage, Alberto Martin-Serra, Stig Walsh, Zhe-Xi Luo & Nick Fraser
The Middle Jurassic witnessed the early diversification of mammal groups, including the stem-mammalian clade, Docodonta. Recent discoveries in China indicate docodontans exhibited ecomorphological diversity akin to small-bodied mammals living >100 million years later, in the Cenozoic. Our understanding of the emergence of this ecological diversity is hindered by a lack of Middle Jurassic fossil material from other parts of the world. The two partial postcranial skeletons of Borealestes described here come from the Kilmaluag Formation,...

Larval parasitism in a specialist herbivore is explained by phenological synchrony and host plant availability

Constanti Stefanescu, Pau Colom, José Miguel Barea-Azcón, David Horsfield, Benjamin Komac, Adrià Miralles, Mark R. Shaw, Andreu Ubach & David Gutiérrez
Parasitism is a key factor in the population dynamics of many herbivorous insects, although its impact on host populations varies widely, for instance, along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Understanding the sources of geographical variation in host-parasitoid interactions is crucial for reliably predicting the future success of the interacting species under a context of global change. Here, we examine larval parasitism in the butterfly Aglais urticae in south-west Europe, where it is a mountain specialist. Larval...

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