396 Works

Data from: Androgens predict parasitism in female meerkats: a new perspective on a classic trade-off

Kendra N. Smyth, Lydia K. Greene, Tim Clutton-Brock & Christine M. Drea
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that androgens in males can be a ‘double-edged sword’, actively promoting reproductive success, while also negatively impacting health. Because there can be both substantial androgen concentrations in females and significant androgenic variation among them, particularly in species portraying female social dominance over males or intense female–female competition, androgens might also play a role in mediating female health and fitness. We examined this hypothesis in the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively...

Data from: Expression and function of ATP-dependent potassium channels in zebrafish islet β-cells

Christopher H. Emfinger, Alecia Welscher, Zihan Yan, Yixi Wang, Hannah Conway, Jennifer B. Moss, Larry G. Moss, Maria S. Remedi & Colin G. Nichols
ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) are critical nutrient sensors in many mammalian tissues. In the pancreas, KATP channels are essential for coupling glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. While orthologous genes for many components of metabolism–secretion coupling in mammals are present in lower vertebrates, their expression, functionality and ultimate impact on body glucose homeostasis are unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that zebrafish islet β-cells express functional KATP channels of similar subunit composition, structure and metabolic...

Data from: Chronotype variation drives night-time sentinel-like behaviour in hunter–gatherers

David Samson, Alyssa Crittenden, Ibrahim Mabulla, Audax Mabulla, Charles Nunn, Charles L. Nunn, David R. Samson, Audax Z. P. Mabulla, Ibrahim A. Mabulla & Alyssa N. Crittenden
Sleep is essential for survival, yet it also represents a time of extreme vulnerability to predation, hostile conspecifics, and environmental dangers. To reduce the risks of sleeping, the sentinel hypothesis proposes that group-living animals share the task of vigilance during sleep, with some individuals sleeping while others are awake. To investigate sentinel-like behaviour in sleeping humans, we investigated activity patterns at night among Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Using actigraphy, we discovered that all subjects were...

Data from: Vertebrate community composition and diversity declines along a defaunation gradient radiating from rural villages in Gabon

Sally E. Koerner, John R. Poulsen, Emily Blanchard, Joseph Okouyi, Connie J. Clark & Emily J. Blanchard
Anthropocene defaunation is the global phenomenon of human-induced animal biodiversity loss. Understanding the patterns and process of defaunation is critical to predict outcomes for wildlife populations and cascading consequences for ecosystem function and human welfare. We investigated a defaunation gradient in northeastern Gabon by establishing 24 transects at varying distances (2–30 km) to rural villages and surveying the abundance and composition of vertebrate communities. Distance from village was positively correlated with observations of hunting (shotgun...

Data from: Muscle–spring dynamics in time-limited, elastic movements

Michael V. Rosario, Gregory P. Sutton, Sheila N. Patek, Gregory S. Sawicki, S. N. Patek, M. V. Rosario, G. P. Sutton & G. S. Sawicki
Muscle contractions that load in-series springs with slow speed over a long duration do maximal work and store the most elastic energy. However, time constraints, such as those experienced during escape and predation behaviours, may prevent animals from achieving maximal force capacity from their muscles during spring-loading. Here, we ask whether animals that have limited time for elastic energy storage operate with springs that are tuned to submaximal force production. To answer this question, we...

Data from: Testing the optimal defense hypothesis in nature: variation for glucosinolate profiles within plants

Rose A. Keith & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Plants employ highly variable chemical defenses against a broad community of herbivores, which vary in their susceptibilities to specific compounds. Variation in chemical defenses within the plant has been found in many species; the ecological and evolutionary influences on this variation, however, are less well-understood. One central theory describing the allocation of defenses in the plant is the Optimal Defense Hypothesis (ODH), which predicts that defenses will be concentrated in tissues that are of high...

Data from: Automated assembly of a reference taxonomy for phylogenetic data synthesis

Jonathan A. Rees, Karen Ann Cranston, Jonathan Rees & Karen Cranston
Taxonomy and nomenclature data are critical for any project that synthesizes biodiversity data, as most biodiversity data sets use taxonomic names to identify taxa. Open Tree of Life is one such project, synthesizing sets of published phylogenetic trees into comprehensive summary trees. No single published taxonomy met the taxonomic and nomenclatural needs of the project. Here we describe a system for reproducibly combining several source taxonomies into a synthetic taxonomy, and we discuss the challenges...

Data from: Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current

Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Kelly M. Newton, John Calambokidis, Julia A. Burrows, Jeremy A. Goldbogen, James T. Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A. Croll & Kelly M. Zilliacus
1. Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify. 2. We investigated...

Data from: Quantifying how short-term environmental variation leads to long-term demographic responses to climate change

Robert K. Shriver
1. Climate change is expected to alter not only year-to-year variation in climate but also aspects of within-year variation, such as the length of the intervals between rainfall events and the duration of heat waves. Yet we still have a poor understanding of how intra-annual climate variability and individual weather events alter key vital rates (e.g. individual growth, reproduction and survival) that in part determine population dynamics. 2. Traditionally, ecologists have accounted for this variability...

Data from: Functional preservation and variation in the cone opsin genes of nocturnal tarsiers

Gillian L. Moritz, Perry S. Ong, George H. Perry & Nathaniel J. Dominy
The short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsin gene OPN1SW is pseudogenized in some nocturnal primates and retained in others, enabling dichromatic colour vision. Debate on the functional significance of this variation has focused on dark conditions, yet many nocturnal species initiate activity under dim (mesopic) light levels that can support colour vision. Tarsiers are nocturnal, twilight-active primates and exemplary visual predators; they also express different colour vision phenotypes, raising the possibility of discrete adaptations to mesopic conditions....

Data from: Continental-level population differentiation and environmental adaptation in the mushroom Suillus brevipes

Sara Branco, Ke Bi, Hui-Ling Liao, Pierre Gladieux, Helene Badouin, Chris E. Ellison, Nhu H. Nguyen, Rytas Vilgalys, Kabir G. Peay, John W. Taylor, Thomas D. Bruns & Christopher E. Ellison
Recent advancements in sequencing technology allowed researchers to better address the patterns and mechanisms involved in microbial environmental adaptation at large spatial scales. Here we investigated the genomic basis of adaptation to climate at the continental scale in Suillus brevipes, an ectomycorrhizal fungus symbiotically associated with the roots of pine trees. We used genomic data from 55 individuals in seven locations across North America to perform genome scans to detect signatures of positive selection and...

Primer catálogo de los árboles de la amazonía de Mardre De Dios, Perú

Abel Monteagudo Mendoza, Rodolfo Vásquez Martínez, Oliver L. Phillips, Timothy R. Baker, Hugo Dueñas Linares, Georgia C. Pickavance, Percy Núñez Vargas, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, John P. Janovec, John W. Terborgh, Miles R. Silman, Luis Valenzuela Gamarra, Robin B. Foster, Nadir Carolina Pallqui Camacho, William Farfán Ríos, Víctor Chama Moscoso, Sufer Báez Quispe, Isau Huamantupa Chuquimaco, Patricia Álvarez Loayza, Nigel Pitman & Lucero Alfaro Curitumay
La Amazonía abarca un área de aproximada de 6.8 millones km² situada en la parte norte de América del Sur (Eva et al., 2005). Los bosques húmedos cubren casi el 80% de la Amazonía (5.5 millones de km²) y el restante 20%, está cubierto por bosques secos (1%), bosques inundados (3%), herbazales y matorrales (5%), vegetación escasa (1%), así como por agricultura y áreas urbanas (10%). La región Madre de Dios, ha revelado altos niveles...

Data from: Statistical structure of locomotion and its modulation by odors

Liangyu Tao, Siddhi Ozarkar, Jeffrey M. Beck, Vikas Bhandawat & Jeffrey M Beck
Most behaviors such as making tea are not stereotypical but have an obvious structure. However, analytical methods to objectively extract structure from non-stereotyped behaviors are immature. In this study, we analyze the locomotion of fruit flies and show that this non-stereotyped behavior is well-described by a Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model (HHMM). HHMM shows that a fly's locomotion can be decomposed into a few locomotor features, and odors modulate locomotion by altering the time a fly...

Data from: Intestinal Serum Amyloid A suppresses systemic neutrophil activation and bactericidal activity in response to microbiota colonization

Caitlin Murdoch, Scott Espenschied, Molly Matty, Olaf Mueller, David Tobin & John Rawls
The intestinal microbiota influences the development and function of myeloid lineages such as neutrophils, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unresolved. Using gnotobiotic zebrafish, we identified the immune effector Serum amyloid A (Saa) as one of the most highly induced transcripts in digestive tissues following microbiota colonization. Saa is a conserved secreted protein produced in the intestine and liver with described effects on neutrophils in vitro, however its in vivo functions remain poorly defined. We...

Data from: Phylogenomic delineation of Physcomitrium (Bryophyta: Funariaceae) based on targeted sequencing of nuclear exons and their flanking regions rejects the retention of Physcomitrella, Physcomitridium and Aphanorrhegma

Rafael Medina, Matthew G. Johnson, Yang Liu, Norman J. Wickett, A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet
Selection on spore dispersal mechanisms in mosses is thought to shape the transformation of the sporophyte. The majority of extant mosses develop a sporangium that dehisces through the loss of an operculum, and regulates spore release through the movement of articulate teeth, the peristome, lining the capsule mouth. Such complexity was acquired by the Mesozoic Era, but was lost in some groups during subsequent diversification events, challenging the resolution of the affinities for taxa with...

Data from: Male-mediated prenatal loss: functions and mechanisms

Matthew Zipple, Eila K. Roberts, Susan C. Alberts & Jacinta C. Beehner
Sexually selected infanticide has been the subject of intense empirical and theoretical study for decades; a related phenomenon, male-mediated prenatal loss, has received much less attention in evolutionary studies. Male-mediated prenatal loss occurs when inseminated or pregnant females terminate reproductive effort following exposure to a non-sire male, either through implantation failure or pregnancy termination. Male-mediated prenatal loss encompasses two sub-phenomena: sexually selected feticide and the Bruce effect. In this review, we lay out a framework...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Genomic signatures of GPCR expansions reveal functional transitions in the evolution of cephalopod signal transduction

Elena A. Ritschard, Robert R. Fitak, Oleg Simakov & Sönke Johnsen
Coleoid cephalopods show unique morphological and neural novelties, such as arms with tactile and chemosensory suckers and a large complex nervous system. The evolution of such cephalopod novelties has been attributed at a genomic level to independent gene family expansions, yet the exact association and the evolutionary timing remain unclear. In the octopus genome, one such expansion occurred in the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) repertoire, a superfamily of proteins that mediate signal transduction. Here we...

Data from: Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank

Jordi Galbany, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many...

Data from: Social and environmental impacts of forest management certification in Indonesia

Daniela A. Miteva, Colby J. Loucks & Subhrendu K. Pattanayak
In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the...

Data from: Host associated bacterial community succession during amphibian development

Tiffany L. Prest, Abigail K. Kimball, Jordan G. Kueneman & Valerie J. Mckenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas);...

Data from: Improving rational use of ACTs through diagnosis-dependent subsidies: evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in western Kenya

Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Diana Menya, Jeremiah Laktabai, Alyssa Platt, Indrani Saran, Elisa Maffioli, Joseph Kipkoech, Manoj Mohanan, Elizabeth L. Turner & Wendy Prudhomme O’Meara
Background: More than half of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) consumed globally are dispensed in the retail sector where diagnostic testing is uncommon, leading to overconsumption and poor targeting. In many malaria-endemic countries, ACTs sold over-the-counter are available at heavily subsidized prices, further contributing to their misuse. Inappropriate use of ACTs can have serious implications for the spread of drug resistance and leads to poor outcomes for non-malaria patients treated with incorrect drugs. We evaluated the...

Data from: Deep phenotyping in zebrafish reveals genetic and diet-induced adiposity changes that may inform disease risk

James E.N. Minchin, Catherine M. Scahill, Nicole Staudt, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich & John F. Rawls
The regional distribution of adipose tissues is implicated in a wide range of diseases. For example, proportional increases in visceral adipose tissue increase the risk for insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Zebrafish offer a tractable model system by which to obtain unbiased and quantitative phenotypic information on regional adiposity, and deep phenotyping can explore complex disease-related adiposity traits. To facilitate deep phenotyping of zebrafish adiposity traits, we used pairwise correlations between 67 adiposity traits...

Data from: Extremely fast feeding strikes are powered by elastic recoil in a seahorse relative, the snipefish, Macroramphosus scolopax

Sarah J. Longo, Tyler Goodearly & Peter C. Wainwright
Among over 30,000 species of ray-finned fishes, seahorses and pipefishes have a unique feeding mechanism whereby the elastic recoil of tendons allows them to rotate their long snouts extremely rapidly in order to capture small elusive prey. To understand the evolutionary origins of this feeding mechanism, its phylogenetic distribution among closely related lineages must be assessed. We present evidence for elastic recoil powered feeding in the snipefish (Macroramphosus scolopax) from kinematics, dynamics, and morphology. High-speed...

Data from: Estimation of energetic condition in wild baboons using fecal thyroid hormone determination

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Mya Pugh, Susan C. Alberts & A. Catherine Markham
Understanding how environmental and social factors affect reproduction through variation in energetic condition remains understudied in wild animals, in large part because accurately and repeatedly measuring energetic condition in the wild is a challenge. Thyroid hormones (THs), such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), have a key role in mitigating metabolic responses to energy intake and expenditure, and therefore are considered important biomarkers of an animal's energetic condition. Recent method development has shown that T3...

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