1,290 Works

Data from: The importance of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat: implications for management

Julian A. Tyne, David W. Johnston, Robert Rankin, Neil R. Loneragan & Lars Bejder
Linking key ecological characteristics with animal behaviour is essential for identifying and protecting important habitats that support life functions. Spinner dolphins display a predictable diurnal behavioural pattern where they forage offshore at night and return to sheltered bays during daytime to rest. These bays, which are also subject to considerable use by humans, have long been recognized as key habitats for this species although the extent to which dolphins rely on specific characteristics of these...

Data from: Genetic population structure of U.S. Atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

David T. Gauthier, Corinne A. Audemard, Jeanette E. L. Carlsson, Tanya L. Darden, Michael R. Denson, Kimberly S. Reece & Jens Carlsson
Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated...

Data from: Genetic structure in a dynamic baboon hybrid zone corroborates behavioral observations in a hybrid population

Marie J.E. Charpentier, Michael C. Fontaine, Julien P. Renoult, Thomas Jenkins, Erwan Cherel, Laure Benoit, Nicolas Barthès, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Behavior and genetic structure are intimately related: mating patterns and patterns of movement between groups or populations influence the movement of genetic variation across the landscape and from one generation to the next. In hybrid zones, the behavior of the hybridizing taxa can also have an important impact on the incidence and outcome of hybridization events. Hybridization between yellow baboons and anubis baboons has been well-documented in the Amboseli basin of Kenya, where more anubis-like...

Data from: Quantifying effects of environmental and geographical factors on patterns of genetic differentiation

Cheng-Ruei Lee & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Elucidating the factors influencing genetic differentiation is an important task in biology, and the relative contribution from natural selection and genetic drift has long been debated. In this study, we used a regression-based approach to simultaneously estimate the quantitative contributions of environmental adaptation and isolation by distance on genetic variation in Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Patterns of discrete and continuous genetic differentiation coexist within this species. For the discrete differentiation between two...

Data from: Interploidal hybridization and mating patterns in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex

Mariana Ricca, P. Szövényi, Matthew G Johnson, A Jonathan Shaw & Eva M. Temsch
Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (1) whether...

Data from: Gene duplication and co-evolution of G1/S transcription factors specificity in fungi are essential for optimizing cell fitness

Adi Hendler, Edgar M. Medina, Anastasiya Kishkevich, Mehtap Abu-Qarn, Steffi Klier, Nicolas E. Buchler, Robertus A. M. De Bruin & Amir Aharoni
Transcriptional regulatory networks play a central role in optimizing cell survival. How DNA binding domains and cis-regulatory DNA binding sequences have co-evolved to allow the expansion of transcriptional networks and how this contributes to cellular fitness remains unclear. Here we experimentally explore how the complex G1/S transcriptional network evolved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining different chimeric transcription factor (TF) complexes. Over 300 G1/S genes are regulated by either one of the two...

Data from: Chimpanzees breed with genetically dissimilar mates

Kara K. Walker, Rebecca S. Rudicell, Yingying Li, Beatrice H. Hahn, Emily Wroblewski & Anne E. Pusey
Inbreeding adversely affects fitness, whereas heterozygosity often augments it. Therefore, mechanisms to avoid inbreeding and increase genetic distance between mates should be advantageous in species where adult relatives reside together. Here we investigate mate choice for genetic dissimilarity in chimpanzees, a species in which many females avoid inbreeding through dispersal, but where promiscuous mating and sexual coercion can limit choice when related adults reside together. We take advantage of incomplete female dispersal in Gombe National...

Data from: The large X-effect on secondary sexual characters and the genetics of variation in sex comb tooth number in Drosophila subobscura

Briana E. Mittleman, Brenda Manzano-Winkler, Julianne B. Hall, Katharine L. Korunes & Mohamed A. F. Noor
Genetic studies of secondary sexual traits provide insights into whether and how selection drove their divergence among populations, and these studies often focus on the fraction of variation attributable to genes on the X-chromosome. However, such studies may sometimes misinterpret the amount of variation attributable to the X-chromosome if using only simple reciprocal F1 crosses, or they may presume sexual selection has affected the observed phenotypic variation. We examined the genetics of a secondary sexual...

Data from: Life-history QTLs and natural selection on flowering time in Boechera stricta, a perennial relative of Arabidopsis

Jill Theresa Anderson, Cheng-Ruei Lee & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Plants must precisely time flowering to capitalize on favorable conditions. Although we know a great deal about the genetic basis of flowering phenology in model species under controlled conditions, the genetic architecture of this ecologically-important trait is poorly understood in non-model organisms. Here, we evaluated the transition from vegetative growth to flowering in Boechera stricta, a perennial relative of Arabidopsis thaliana. We examined flowering time QTLs using 7,920 recombinant inbred individuals, across seven lab and...

Data from: Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved egg signatures with elevated information content

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens, Edwin S. Iversen & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Hosts of brood-parasitic birds must distinguish their own eggs from parasitic mimics, or pay the cost of mistakenly raising a foreign chick. Egg discrimination is easier when different host females of the same species each lay visually distinctive eggs (egg ‘signatures’), which helps to foil mimicry by parasites. Here, we ask whether brood parasitism is associated with lower levels of correlation between different egg traits in hosts, making individual host signatures more distinctive and informative....

Data from: Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Nilesh B. Patel, Jenny Tung & Maamun Jeneby
Nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behaviour that probably serves both social and health-related functions. While the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. In this study, we examined whether grooming behaviour reduced tick load (number of ticks) and haemoprotozoan infection status in...

Data from: The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multi-level society.

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Susan C. Alberts & Thore J. Bergman
Multilevel societies with fission–fusion dynamics—arguably the most complex animal societies—are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well...

Data from: Classification tree methods provide a multifactorial approach to predicting insular body size evolution in rodents

Paul A. P. Durst & V. Louise Roth
Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain size changes in insular mammals, but no single variable suffices to explain the diversity of responses, particularly within Rodentia. Here in a dataset on insular rodents we observe strong consistency in the direction of size change within islands and within species, but (outside of Heteromyidae) little consistency at broader taxonomic scales. Using traits of islands and of species in a classification-tree analysis we find the most important factor...

Data from: Divergent population structure and climate associations of a chromosomal inversion polymorphism across the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Elen Oneal, David B. Lowry, Kevin M. Wright, Zhirui Zhu & John H. Willis
Chromosomal rearrangement polymorphisms are common and increasingly found to be associated with adaptive ecological divergence and speciation. Rearrangements, such as inversions, reduce recombination in heterozygous individuals and thus can protect favorable allelic combinations at linked loci, facilitating their spread in the presence of gene flow. Recently, we identified a chromosomal inversion polymorphism that contributes to ecological adaptation and reproductive isolation between annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus. Here we evaluate the...

Heterogeneous genetic structure in eastern North American peatmosses (Sphagnum)

Aaron M. Duffy, Mariana Ricca, Sean Robinson, Blanka Aguero, Matthew G. Johnson, Hans K. Stenoien, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Kristian Hassel & A. Jonathan Shaw
Bryophytes generally have broad geographic ranges that suggest high dispersal ability. The aim of this study was to test hypotheses about dispersal limitation, as indicated by isolation by distance (IBD), in four spore producing species of the moss genus Sphagnum (S. carolinianum, S. missouricum, S. macrophyllum, S. pylaesii), and to assess whether plants in the southern United States harbor high levels of unique alleles and/or other indicators of exceptional genetic diversity. IBD was detected in...

Data from: Dynamic body acceleration as a proxy to predict the cost of locomotion in bottlenose dolphins

Austin Allen, Andrew Read, K. Alex Shorter, Joaquin Gabaldon, Ashley Blawas, Julie Rocho-Levine & Andreas Fahlman
Estimates of the energetic costs of locomotion (COL) at different activity levels are necessary to answer fundamental eco-physiological questions and to understand the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance to marine mammals. We combined estimates of energetic costs derived from breath-by-breath respirometry with measurements of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) from biologging tags to validate ODBA as a proxy for COL in trained common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR); mean individual RMR...

Data and code from: Correlates of individual participation in boundary patrols by male chimpanzees

Anthony Massaro, Ian Gilby, Nisarg Desai, Alexander Weiss, Joseph Feldblum, Anne Pusey & Michael Wilson
Group territory defense poses a collective action problem: individuals can free-ride, benefiting without paying the costs. Individual heterogeneity has been proposed to solve such problems, as individuals high in reproductive success, rank, fighting ability, or motivation may benefit from defending territories even if others free-ride. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed 30 years of data from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Kasekela community, Gombe National Park, Tanzania (1978-2007). We examined the extent to which individual...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Social bonds, social status and survival in wild baboons: a tale of two sexes

Fernando Campos, Francisco Villavicencio, Elizabeth Archie, Fernando Colchero & Susan Alberts
People who are more socially integrated or have higher socio-economic status live longer. Recent studies in nonhuman primates show striking convergences with this human pattern: female primates with more social partners, stronger social bonds or higher dominance rank all lead longer lives. However, it remains unclear whether social environments also predict survival in male nonhuman primates, as it does in men. This gap persists because, in most primates, males disperse among social groups, resulting in...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Sex, Race, and Risk of Dementia after Traumatic Brain Injury among Older Veterans

Erica Kornblith, Carrie Peltz, Feng Xia, Brenda Plassman, Tatjana Novakovic-Apopain & Kristine Yaffe
Objective: To investigate whether sex and race differences exist in dementia risk associated with TBI among older Veterans. Materials and Methods: Using Fine-Gray regression models, we investigated incident dementia risk with TBI exposure by sex and race. Results: After excluding baseline prevalent dementia, the final sample (all Veterans 55+ diagnosed with TBI during the 2001-2015 study period and a random sample of all Veterans receiving Veterans Health Administration care) included nearly one million Veterans (4.3%...

Canalization of seasonal phenology in the presence of developmental variation: seed dormancy cycling in an annual weed

Kathleen Donohue & Brianne Edwards
Variation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants-seed dormancy-we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature...

Data from: A data-driven geospatial workflow to map species distributions for conservation assessments

Ruben Dario Palacio, Pablo Jose Negret, Jorge Veláquez-Tibatá & Andrew P Jacobson
We developed a geospatial workflow that refines the distribution of a species from its extent of occurrence (EOO) to area of habitat (AOH) within the species range map. The range maps are produced with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation procedure using presence and absence points derived from primary biodiversity data (GBIF and eBird hotspots respectively). Here we provide sample data to run the geospatial workflow for nine forest species across Mexico and Central America.

Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth

Suzanne Cox, Jonas Rubenson, Stephen Piazza, Matthew Salzano, Kavya Katugam & Adam DeBoef
Elastic energy storage and release can enhance performance that would otherwise be limited by the force-velocity constraints of muscle. While functional influence of a biological spring depends on tuning between components of an elastic system (the muscle, spring, driven mass, and lever system), we do not know whether elastic systems systematically adapt to functional demand. To test whether altering work and power generation during maturation alters the morphology of an elastic system, we prevented growing...

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

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