53 Works

Data from: Parasite infection alters nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem scale

John Mischler, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Valerie J. McKenzie & Alan R. Townsend
Despite growing evidence that parasites often alter nutrient flows through their hosts and can comprise a substantial amount of biomass in many systems, whether endemic parasites influence ecosystem nutrient cycling, and which nutrient pathways may be important, remains conjectural. A framework to evaluate how endemic parasites alter nutrient cycling across varied ecosystems requires an understanding of: (1) parasite effects on host nutrient excretion, (2) ecosystem nutrient limitation, (3) effects of parasite abundance, host density, host...

Data from: The genetic architecture of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry within the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Kathleen G. Ferris, Laryssa L. Barnett, Benjamin K. Blackman & John H. Willis
The genetic architecture of local adaptation has been of central interest to evolutionary biologists since the modern synthesis. In addition to classic theory on the effect size of adaptive mutations by Fisher, Kimura and Orr, recent theory addresses the genetic architecture of local adaptation in the face of ongoing gene flow. This theory predicts that with substantial gene flow between populations local adaptation should proceed primarily through mutations of large effect or tightly linked clusters...

Data from: A keystone mutualism underpins resilience of a coastal ecosystem to drought

Christine Angelini, John N. Griffin, Johan Van De Koppel, Leon P. M. Lamers, Alfons J. P. Smolders, Marlous Derksen-Hooijberg, Tjisse Van Der Heide & Brian R. Silliman
Droughts are increasing in severity and frequency, yet the mechanisms that strengthen ecosystem resilience to this stress remain poorly understood. Here, we test whether positive interactions in the form of a mutualism between mussels and dominant cordgrass in salt marshes enhance ecosystem resistance to and recovery from drought. Surveys spanning 250 km of southeastern US coastline reveal spatially dispersed mussel mounds increased cordgrass survival during severe drought by 5- to 25-times. Surveys and mussel addition...

Data from: Remotely sensed data informs red list evaluations and conservation priorities in southeast Asia

Binbin V. Li, Alice C. Hughs, Clinton N. Jenkins, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Stuart L. Pimm & Alice C. Hughes
The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these...

Data from: Conditional fetal and infant killing by male baboons

Matthew N. Zipple, Jackson H. Grady, Jacob B. Gordon, Lydia D. Chow, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...

Data from: Next-generation polyploid phylogenetics: rapid resolution of hybrid polyploid complexes using PacBio single-molecule sequencing

Carl J. Rothfels, Kathleen M. Pryer & Fay-Wei Li
Difficulties in generating nuclear data for polyploids have impeded phylogenetic study of these groups. We describe a high-throughput protocol and an associated bioinformatics pipeline (PURC: “Pipeline for Untangling Reticulate Complexes”) that is able to generate these data quickly and conveniently, and demonstrate its efficacy on accessions from the fern family Cystopteridaceae. We conclude with a demonstration of the downstream utility of these data by inferring a multilabeled species tree for a subset of our accessions....

Data from: The evolution of intrinsic reproductive isolation in the genus Cakile (Brassicaceae)

Charles G. Willis & Kathleen Donohue
In theory, adaptive divergence can increase intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive isolation (RI), either directly via selection on loci associated with RI, or indirectly via linkage of incompatibility loci with loci under selection. To test this hypothesis, we measured RI at five intrinsic post-zygotic reproductive barriers between 18 taxa from the genera Cakile and Erucaria (Brassicaceae). Using a comparative framework, we tested whether the magnitude of RI was associated with genetic distance, geographic distance, ecological divergence, and...

Data from: Blood transcriptomes reveal novel parasitic zoonoses circulating in Madagascar's lemurs

Peter A. Larsen, Corinne E. Hayes, Cathy V. Williams, Randall E. Junge, Josia Razafindramanana, Vanessa Mass, Hajanirina Rakotondrainibe & Anne D. Yoder
Zoonotic diseases are a looming threat to global populations, and nearly 75% of emerging infectious diseases can spread among wildlife, domestic animals and humans. A ‘One World, One Health’ perspective offers us an ideal framework for understanding and potentially mitigating the spread of zoonoses, and the island of Madagascar serves as a natural laboratory for conducting these studies. Rapid habitat degradation and climate change on the island are contributing to more frequent contact among humans,...

Data from: Temporally and spatially partitioned behaviours of spinner dolphins: implications for resilience to human disturbance

Julian A. Tyne, David W. Johnston, Fredrik Christiansen & Lars Bejder
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than...

Data from: Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

Steffen Foerster, Mathias Franz, Carson M. Murray, Ian C. Gilby, Joseph T. Feldblum, Kara K. Walker & Anne E. Pusey
Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically...

Data from: Global and regional priorities for marine biodiversity protection

Clinton N. Jenkins & Kyle S. Van Houtan
The ocean holds much of the planet's biodiversity, yet < 4% of the ocean is within protected areas. On land, the protecting of areas with low biodiversity and under little threat, rather than biodiversity hotspots, is a well-known problem. Prudence suggests that we not repeat this pattern in the ocean. Here we assessed patterns of global marine biodiversity by evaluating the protections of 4352 species for which geographic ranges are known, and mapping priority areas...

Data from: Incomplete control and concessions explain mating skew in male chimpanzees

Joel Bray, Anne E. Pusey & Ian C. Gilby
Sexual selection theory predicts that because male reproductive success in mammals is limited by access to females, males will attempt to defend access to mates and exclude rivals from mating. In mammals, dominance rank is correlated with male reproductive success; however, the highest-ranking (alpha) male rarely monopolizes reproduction completely. To explain why, incomplete control models propose that alpha males simply cannot control other males' access to mates. If true, then dominance rank should be a...

Musical Passage: A Voyage to 1688 Jamaica

Laurent Dubois, Garner David & Mary Caton Lingold

Data from: Relative importance of abiotic, biotic, and disturbance drivers of plant community structure in the sagebrush steppe

Rachel M. Mitchell, Jonathan D. Bakker, John B. Vincent & G. Matt Davies
Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in Washington state, USA, to ask three questions: 1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? 2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups...

Data from: Telemetric tracking of scatterhoarding and seed fate in a Central African forest

Cooper Rosin & John R. Poulsen
In seed predation studies, removal of a seed is only the first step of a dynamic process that may result in dispersal rather than seed death. This process, termed seed fate, has received little attention in African forests, particularly in Central Africa. We experimentally assessed the initial steps of seed fate for two tree species—the large-seeded Pentaclethra macrophylla and the relatively small-seeded Gambeya lacourtiana—in northeastern Gabon. Specifically, we evaluated whether seed size and seed consumer...

Data from: Chimpanzee fathers bias their behaviour towards their offspring

Carson M. Murray, Margaret A. Stanton, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Emily E. Wroblewski & Anne E. Pusey
Promiscuous mating was traditionally thought to curtail paternal investment owing to the potential costs of providing care to unrelated infants. However, mounting evidence suggests that males in some promiscuous species can recognize offspring. In primates, evidence for paternal care exists in promiscuous Cercopithecines, but less is known about these patterns in other taxa. Here, we examine two hypotheses for paternal associations with lactating mothers in eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): paternal effort, whereby males associate...

Data from: Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird

Rindy C. Anderson, William A. Searcy, Susan Peters, Melissa Hughes, Adrienne L. DuBois & Stephen Nowicki
Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and...

Data from: How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems

Els M. Van Der Zee, Christine Angelini, Laura L. Govers, Marjolijn J. A. Christianen, Andrew H. Altieri, Karin J. Van Der Reijden, Brian R. Silliman, Johan Van De Koppel, Matthijs Van Der Geest, Jan A. Van Gils, Henk W. Van Der Veer, Theunis Piersma, Peter C. De Ruiter, Han Olff & Tjisse Van Der Heide
The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and...

Data from: The comparative hydrodynamics of rapid rotation by predatory appendages

Mathew J. McHenry, Philip S. L. Anderson, Sam Van Wassenbergh, David Matthews, Adam Summers & S. N. Patek
Countless aquatic animals rotate appendages through the water, yet fluid forces are typically modeled with translational motion. To elucidate the hydrodynamics of rotation, we analyzed the raptorial appendages of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) using a combination of flume experiments, mathematical modeling and phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that computationally efficient blade-element models offered an accurate first-order approximation of drag, when compared with a more elaborate computational fluid-dynamic model. Taking advantage of this efficiency, we compared the...

Data from: Wood-inhabiting fungi with tight associations with other species have declined as a response to forest management

Nerea Abrego, David Dunson, Panu Halme, Isabel Salcedo & Otso Ovaskainen
Research on mutualistic and antagonistic networks, such as plant–pollinator and host–parasite networks, has shown that species interactions can influence and be influenced by the responses of species to environmental perturbations. Here we examine whether results obtained for directly observable networks generalize to more complex networks in which species interactions cannot be observed directly. As a case study, we consider data on the occurrences of 98 wood-inhabiting fungal species in managed and natural forests. We specifically...

Data from: Natural enemies govern ecosystem resilience in the face of extreme droughts

Qiang He, Brian Silliman, Zezheng Liu, Baoshan Cui & Brian R. Silliman
Severe droughts are on the rise in many regions. But thus far, attempts to predict when drought will cause a major regime shift or when ecosystems are resilient, often using plant drought tolerance models, have been frustrated. Here we show that pressure from natural enemies regulates an ecosystem’s resilience to severe droughts. Field experiments revealed that in protected salt marshes experiencing a severe drought, planting-eating grazers eliminated drought-stressed vegetation that could otherwise survive and recover...

Data from: Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based species delimitation in Madagascar's mouse lemurs

Scott Hotaling, Mary Foley, Nicolette Lawrence, Jose Bocanegra, Marina B. Blanco, Rodin Rasoloarison, Peter M. Kappeler, Meredith A. Barrett, Anne D. Yoder, David W. Weisrock, Mary E. Foley & Nicolette M. Lawrence
Implementation of the coalescent model in a Bayesian framework is an emerging strength in genetically based species delimitation studies. By providing an objective measure of species diagnosis, these methods represent a quantitative enhancement to the analysis of multilocus data, and complement more traditional methods based on phenotypic and ecological characteristics. Recognized as two species 20 years ago, mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus) now comprise more than 20 species, largely diagnosed from mtDNA sequence data. With each...

Data from: Fine with heat, problems with water: microclimate alters water loss in a thermally adapted insular lizard

Anat Belasen, Kinsey Brock, Binbin Li, Dimitra Chremou, Efstratios Valakos, Panayiotis Pafilis, Barry Sinervo & Johannes Foufopoulos
Global change, including habitat isolation and climate change, has both short- and long-term impacts on wildlife populations. For example, genetic drift and inbreeding result in genetic impoverishment in small, isolated populations, while species undergo range shifts or adaptive phenotypic change in response to shifts in environmental temperatures. In this study, we utilize a model system in which Holocene landscape changes have occurred to examine long-term effects of population isolation. To examine how isolation may constrain...

Data from: The quick and the dead: microbial demography at the yeast thermal limit

Colin S. Maxwell & Paul M. Magwene
The niche of microorganisms is determined by where their populations can expand. Populations can fail to grow because of high death or low birth rates, but these are challenging to measure in microorganisms. We developed a novel technique that enables single cell measurement of age-structured birth and death rates in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and used this method to study responses to heat stress in a genetically diverse panel of strains. We find that...

Data from: Ecosystem interactions underlie the spread of avian influenza A viruses with pandemic potential

Justin Bahl, Truc T. Pham, Nichola J. Hill, Islam T. M. Hussein, Eric J. Ma, Bernard C. Easterday, Rebecca A. Halpin, Timothy B. Stockwell, David E. Wentworth, Ghazi Kayali, Scott Krauss, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Robert G. Webster, Richard J. Webby, Michael D. Swartz, Gavin J. D. Smith & Jonathan A. Runstadler
Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic...

Registration Year

  • 2016
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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • Duke University
    53
  • University of California, Berkeley
    4
  • North Carolina State University
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • Arizona State University
    3
  • Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas
    2
  • Stanford University School of Medicine
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2