54 Works

Data from: Computational biomechanical analyses demonstrate similar shell-crushing abilities in modern and ancient arthropods

Russell D. C. Bicknell, Justin A. Ledogar, Stephen Wroe, Benjamin C. Gutzler, Winsor H. Watson, John R. Paterson & Winsor H. Watson
The biology of the extant American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is well documented—including its dietary habits, particularly the ability to crush shell with its gnathobasic walking appendages—but virtually nothing is known about the feeding biomechanics of this iconic arthropod. This species is also considered the archetypal functional analogue for a range of extinct groups that have gnathobasic appendages, including eurypterids, trilobites, and some of the earliest arthropods, especially Sidneyia inexpectans from the middle Cambrian (508...

Data from: SNP-skimming: a fast approach to map loci generating quantitative variation in natural populations

Carrie A. Wessinger, John K. Kelly, Peng Jiang, Mark D. Rausher, Lena C. Hileman & Carolyn A. Wessinger
Genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) is a method to estimate the contribution of segregating genetic loci to trait variation. A major challenge for applying GWAS to non-model species has been generating dense genome-wide markers that satisfy the key requirement that marker data is error-free. Here we present an approach to map loci within natural populations using inexpensive shallow genome sequencing. This 'SNP skimming' approach involves two steps: an initial genome-wide scan to identify putative targets followed...

Data from: Gene flow, divergent selection and resistance to introgression in two species of morning glories (Ipomoea)

Joanna L. Rifkin, Allan S. Castillo, Irene T. Liao & Mark D. Rausher
Gene flow is thought to impede genetic divergence and speciation by homogenizing genomes. Recent theory and research suggests that strong enough divergent selection can overpower gene flow, leading to islands of divergence. However, there are alternative explanations for these patterns. Independent evidence that islands of divergence are due to divergent selection would allow these explanations to be distinguished, but such evidence is scarce. Here we present multiple lines of evidence that islands of divergence in...

Data from: Speciation in sympatry with ongoing secondary gene flow and an olfactory trigger in a radiation of Cameroon cichlids

Jelmer W. Poelstra, Emilie J. Richards & Christopher H. Martin
The process of sympatric speciation in nature remains a fundamental unsolved problem. Cameroon crater lake cichlid radiations were long regarded as one of the most compelling examples; however, recent work showed that their origins were more complex than a single colonization event followed by isolation. Here, we performed a detailed investigation of the speciation history of a radiation of Coptodon cichlids from Lake Ejagham using whole-genome sequencing data. The existence of this radiation is remarkable...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Development and usability testing of an audit and feedback tool for anesthesiologists

Atilio Barbeito & Noa Segall
Background: We describe the creation and evaluation of a personal audit & feedback (A&F) tool for anesthesiologists. Methods: A survey aimed at capturing barriers for personal improvement efforts and feedback preferences was administered to attending anesthesiologists. The results informed the design and implementation of 4 dashboards that display information on individual practice characteristics as well as comparative performance on several quality metrics. The dashboards’ usability was then tested using the human-centered design framework. Results: Anesthesiologists...

Data from: Using phylogenomic data to explore the effects of relaxed clocks and calibration strategies on divergence time estimation: primates as a test case

Mario Dos Reis, Gregg F. Gunnell, Jose Barba-Montoya, Alex Wilkins, Ziheng Yang & Anne D. Yoder
Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the K-Pg boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here we analysed a dataset of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the...

Data from: Chronic exposure of Hawaii Island spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) to human activities

Julian A. Tyne, Fredrik Christiansen, Heather L. Heenehan, David W. Johnston & Lars Bejder
Habitat selection is strongly influenced by spatial variations in habitat quality and predation risk. Repeated exposure of wildlife to anthropogenic activities in important habitats may affect habitat selection, leading to negative biological consequences. We quantified the cumulative human exposure of a small, genetically-isolated and behaviourally-constrained spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) population, off Hawaii Island, and exposure effects on their daytime cumulative activity budget. Dolphins were exposed to human activities within 100m for 82.7% of the daytime,...

Data from: Deep phenotyping in zebrafish reveals genetic and diet-induced adiposity changes that may inform disease risk

James E.N. Minchin, Catherine M. Scahill, Nicole Staudt, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich & John F. Rawls
The regional distribution of adipose tissues is implicated in a wide range of diseases. For example, proportional increases in visceral adipose tissue increase the risk for insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Zebrafish offer a tractable model system by which to obtain unbiased and quantitative phenotypic information on regional adiposity, and deep phenotyping can explore complex disease-related adiposity traits. To facilitate deep phenotyping of zebrafish adiposity traits, we used pairwise correlations between 67 adiposity traits...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Estimation of energetic condition in wild baboons using fecal thyroid hormone determination

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Mya Pugh, Susan C. Alberts & A. Catherine Markham
Understanding how environmental and social factors affect reproduction through variation in energetic condition remains understudied in wild animals, in large part because accurately and repeatedly measuring energetic condition in the wild is a challenge. Thyroid hormones (THs), such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), have a key role in mitigating metabolic responses to energy intake and expenditure, and therefore are considered important biomarkers of an animal's energetic condition. Recent method development has shown that T3...

Data from: Measuring visual search and distraction in immersive virtual reality

Bettina Olk, Alina Dinu, David J. Zielinski & Regis Kopper
An important issue of psychological research is how experiments conducted in the laboratory or theories based on such experiments relate to human performance in daily life. Immersive virtual reality (VR) allows control over stimuli and conditions at increased ecological validity. The goal of the present study was to accomplish a transfer of traditional paradigms that assess attention and distraction to immersive VR. To further increase ecological validity we explored attentional effects with daily objects as...

Data from: Improving rational use of ACTs through diagnosis-dependent subsidies: evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in western Kenya

Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Diana Menya, Jeremiah Laktabai, Alyssa Platt, Indrani Saran, Elisa Maffioli, Joseph Kipkoech, Manoj Mohanan, Elizabeth L. Turner & Wendy Prudhomme O’Meara
Background: More than half of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) consumed globally are dispensed in the retail sector where diagnostic testing is uncommon, leading to overconsumption and poor targeting. In many malaria-endemic countries, ACTs sold over-the-counter are available at heavily subsidized prices, further contributing to their misuse. Inappropriate use of ACTs can have serious implications for the spread of drug resistance and leads to poor outcomes for non-malaria patients treated with incorrect drugs. We evaluated the...

Data from: Extremely fast feeding strikes are powered by elastic recoil in a seahorse relative, the snipefish, Macroramphosus scolopax

Sarah J. Longo, Tyler Goodearly & Peter C. Wainwright
Among over 30,000 species of ray-finned fishes, seahorses and pipefishes have a unique feeding mechanism whereby the elastic recoil of tendons allows them to rotate their long snouts extremely rapidly in order to capture small elusive prey. To understand the evolutionary origins of this feeding mechanism, its phylogenetic distribution among closely related lineages must be assessed. We present evidence for elastic recoil powered feeding in the snipefish (Macroramphosus scolopax) from kinematics, dynamics, and morphology. High-speed...

Data from: Host associated bacterial community succession during amphibian development

Tiffany L. Prest, Abigail K. Kimball, Jordan G. Kueneman & Valerie J. Mckenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas);...

Data from: Responses of aerial insectivorous bats to local and landscape-level features of coffee agroforestry systems in Western Ghats, India

Shasank Ongole, Mahesh Sankaran & Krithi K. Karanth
Shade coffee has shown great promise in providing crucial habitats for biodiversity outside formal protected areas. Insectivorous bats have been understudied in coffee, although they may provide pest control services. We investigated the influence of local and landscape-level features of coffee farms on aerial insectivorous bats in Chikmagalur district in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India. Bats were monitored in 20 farm sites using ultrasound detectors, and the response of bat species richness and activity...

Data from: Major QTL controls adaptation to serpentine soils in Mimulus guttatus

Jessica P. Selby & John H. Willis
Spatially varying selection is a critical driver of adaptive differentiation. Yet, there are few examples where the fitness effects of naturally segregating variants that contribute to local adaptation have been measured in the field. Plant adaptation to harsh soil habitats provides an ideal study system for investigating the genetic basis of local adaptation. The work presented here identifies a major locus underlying adaptation to serpentine soils in Mimulus guttatus and estimates the strength of selection...

Data from: Variations in age- and sex-specific survival rates help explain population trend in a discrete marine mammal population

Mònica Arso Civil, Barbara Cheney, Nicola J. Quick, Valentina Islas-Villanueva, Jeff A. Graves, Vincent M. Janik, Paul M. Thompson & Phillip S. Hammond
1. Understanding the drivers underlying fluctuations in the size of animal populations is central to ecology, conservation biology and wildlife management. Reliable estimates of survival probabilities are key to population viability assessments, and patterns of variation in survival can help inferring the causal factors behind detected changes in population size. 2. We investigated whether variation in age and sex-specific survival probabilities could help explain the increasing trend in population size detected in a small, discrete...

Data from: Leaf hydraulic parameters are more plastic in species that experience a wider range of leaf water potentials

Daniel M. Johnson, Z. Carter Berry, Kathyrn V. Baker, Duncan D. Smith, Katherine A. McCulloh, Jean-Christophe Domec & Kathryn V. Baker
1. Many plant species experience large differences in soil moisture availability within a season, potentially leading to a wide range of leaf water potentials (ΨLEAF). In order to decrease the risk of leaf dehydration, among species, there is a continuum ranging from strict control (isohydry) to little control (anisohydry) of minimum ΨLEAF. 2. In central Texas USA, species are exposed to a range of soil moisture from wet springs to hot, dry summers. There are...

Data from: Local fields in human subthalamic nucleus track the lead-up to impulsive choices

John M. Pearson, Patrick T. Hickey, Shivanand P. Lad, Michael L. Platt & Dennis A. Turner
The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is...

Data from: Differential adaptation to a harsh granite outcrop habitat between sympatric Mimulus species

Kathleen Gray Ferris & John H. Willis
Understanding which environmental variables and traits underlie adaptation to harsh environments is difficult since many traits evolve simultaneously as populations or species diverge. Here we investigate the ecological variables and traits that underlie Mimulus laciniatus’ adaptation to granite outcrops compared to its sympatric, mesic-adapted progenitor M. guttatus. We use fine scale measurements of soil moisture and herbivory to examine differences in selective forces between the species’ habitats, and measure selection on flowering time, flower size,...

Data from: Mesoscale activity facilitates energy gain in a top predator

Briana Abrahms, Kylie L. Scales, Elliott L. Hazen, Steven J. Bograd, Robert S. Schick, Patrick W. Robinson & Daniel P. Costa
How animal movement decisions interact with the distribution of resources to shape individual performance is a key question in ecology. However, links between spatial and behavioural ecology and fitness consequences are poorly understood because the outcomes of individual resource selection decisions, such as energy intake, are rarely measured. In the open ocean, mesoscale features (~10-100 km) such as fronts and eddies can aggregate prey and thereby drive the distribution of foraging vertebrates through bottom-up biophysical...

Data from: Ecological differentiation facilitates fine-scale coexistence of sexual and asexual Boechera

Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Rose A. Keith & Tom Mitchell-Olds
Premise of the study: Ecological differentiation (ED) between sexual and asexual organisms may permit the maintenance of reproductive polymorphism. Several studies of sexual/asexual ED in plants have shown that the geographic ranges of asexuals extend beyond those of sexuals, often in areas of higher latitude or elevation. But very little is known about ED at fine scales, wherein coexistence of sexuals and asexuals may be permitted by differential niche occupation. Methods: We used 149 populations...

Data from: A convolutional neural network for detecting sea turtles in drone imagery

Patrick C. Gray, Abram B. Fleishman, David J. Klein, Matthew W. McKown, Vanessa S. Bézy, Kenneth J. Lohmann & David W. Johnston
1. Marine megafauna are difficult to observe and count because many species travel widely and spend large amounts of time submerged. As such, management programs seeking to conserve these species are often hampered by limited information about population levels. 2. Unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS, aka drones) provide a potentially useful technique for assessing marine animal populations, but a central challenge lies in analyzing the vast amounts of data generated in the images or video acquired...

Data from: Multiple mechanisms confer stability to isolated populations of a rare endemic plant

Reilly R. Dibner, Megan L. Peterson, Allison M. Louthan & Daniel F. Doak
The persistence of small populations remains a puzzle for ecology and conservation. Especially interesting is how naturally small, isolated populations are able to persist in the face of multiple environmental forces that create fluctuating conditions and should, theory predicts, lead to high probabilities of extirpation. We used a combination of long term census data and a five-year demographic study of a naturally rare, endemic plant, Yermo xanthocephalus, to evaluate the importance of several possible mechanisms...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    54

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54

Affiliations

  • Duke University
    54
  • Princeton University
    4
  • University of North Carolina
    4
  • University of British Columbia
    4
  • University of Pennsylvania
    3
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Pretoria
    3
  • Field Museum of Natural History
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of California, Davis
    3